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  1. Pantheism Controversy.Valtteri Viljanen - manuscript
    The second (February 2023) draft for the forthcoming Spinoza Cambridge Lexicon. Please do not quote, but comments are welcome.
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  2. Spinoza and the Kabbalah: From the Gate of Heaven to the ‘Field of Holy Apples’.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Cristina Ciucu (ed.), Early Modern Philosophy & the Kabbalah.
    In the first part of this paper we will consider the likely extent of Spinoza’s exposure to Kabbalistic literature as he was growing up in Amsterdam. In the second part we will closely study several texts in which Spinoza seems to engage with Kabbalistic doctrines. In the third and final part we will study the role of the two crucial doctrines of emanation and pantheism (or panentheism), in Spinoza’s system and in the Kabbalistic literature.
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  3. Gersonides and Spinoza on God’s Knowledge of Universals and Particulars.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Gad Freudenthal, David Wirmer & Ofer Elior (eds.), Gersonides Through the Ages.
  4. “Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Substance” in Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd edition. Cambriddge University Press.
    ‘Substance’ (substantia, zelfstandigheid) is a key term of Spinoza’s philosophy. Like almost all of Spinoza’s philosophical vocabulary, Spinoza did not invent this term, which has a long history that can be traced back at least to Aristotle. Yet, Spinoza radicalized the traditional notion of substance and made a very powerful use of it by demonstrating – or at least attempting to demonstrate -- that there is only one, unique substance -- God (or Nature) -- and that all other things are (...)
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  5. ‘Spinoza’s ‘Atheism’, the Ethics and the TTP.Yitzhak Melamed - forthcoming - In Spinoza: Reason, Religion, Politics: The Relation Between the Ethics and the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.
    The impermanence of human affairs is a major theme in Spinoza’s discussions of political histories, and from our present-day perspective it is both intriguing and ironic to see how this very theme has played out in the evolving fate of Spinoza’s association with atheism. While Spinoza’s contemporaries charged him with atheism in order to impugn his philosophy (and sometimes his character), in our times many lay readers and some scholars portray Spinoza as an atheist in order to commemorate his role (...)
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  6. Spinoza’s Labyrinths: Essays on His Metaphysics.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Spinoza’s recognition of the unpredictable fortunes of individuals, explicable through the interplay between their intrinsic natures and their susceptibility to external causes, informs his account of political success and – what for him is the same thing – political virtue. Thus, a state may thrive because it has a good constitution (an internal feature), or because it was fortunate not to be surrounded by powerful enemies. Normally, however, it is the combination of both luck and internal qualities that determines the (...)
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  7. God.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - forthcoming - In Karolina Hübner & Justin Steinberg (eds.), Cambridge Spinoza Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In his Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Hegel offers the following verdict on Spinoza’s ontology: “According to Spinoza what is, is God, and God alone. Therefore, the allegations of those who accuse Spinoza of atheism are the direct opposite of the truth; with him there is too much God” (Hegel 1995, vol. 3, 281-2). It is not easy to dismiss Hegel’s grand pronouncement, since Spinoza indeed clearly affirms: “whatever is, is in God” (E1p15). Crocodiles, porcupines (and your thoughts about (...)
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  8. Spinoza’s Theophany - The Expression of God’s Nature by Particular Things.Alexander Douglas - 2023 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 11 (2):49-69.
    What does Spinoza mean when he claims, as he does several times in the Ethics, that particular things are expressions of God’s nature or attributes? This article interprets these claims as a version of what is called theophany in the Neoplatonist tradition. Theophany is the process by which particular things come to exist as determinate manifestations of a divine nature that is in itself not determinate. Spinoza’s understanding of theophany diverges significantly from that of the Neoplatonist John Scottus Eriugena, largely (...)
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  9. Spinoza's Ethics: a guide.Michael LeBuffe - 2023 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This guide has an introduction and five chapters, one for each of the parts of Spinoza's Ethics. The Introduction includes background material necessary for productive study of the Ethics: advice for working with Spinoza's geometrical method, a biographical sketch of Spinoza, and accounts of important predecessors: Aristotle, Maimonides, and Descartes. The chapters that follow trace the Ethics in detail, including accounts of most of the elements in Spinoza's book and raising questions for further research. Chapter 1, "One Infinite Substance," covers (...)
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  10. Spinoza’s Concept of God: Modern Interpretations.Mohammad Malla - 2023 - In Olga Chistyakova & Iana Roumbal (eds.), Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Humanities (Philosophy of Being Human as the Core of Interdisciplinary Research) (ICCESSH 2022). Atlantis Press SARL. pp. 3-11.
    Spinoza devoted his philosophical system to clarifying the teachings of God. Spinoza is one of the most interested philosophers in the history of philosophy throughout the centuries. It is worth noting the study of the views of the German philosophers of the Enlightenment in the teachings of Spinoza: Goethe, Schelling, Fischer, Shevchenko, and Feuerbach. It is clear that one of the important issues in the history of philosophy that deserves mention in Spinoza is the doctrine of God, one of the (...)
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  11. Spinoza's Model of God: Pantheism or Panentheism?Michaela Petrufova Joppova - 2023 - Pro-Fil 24 (1):1-12.
    The philosophical God of Spinoza is branded as a pantheistic God so often that, regarding at least Western philosophy and philosophical commentaries, Spinozism seems to be practically synonymous with pantheism. Since the times of German idealism, there have also been attempts at a panentheistic reading, which are still alive to this day. The article analyses both theological models in their core claims to adequately qualify Spinoza’s theological system while considering the established levels of philosophical-theological interpretation. By identifying systemic pantheism and (...)
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  12. Spinoza’s Monism II: A Proposal.Kristin Primus - 2023 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 105 (3):444-469.
    An old question in Spinoza scholarship is how finite, non-eternal things transitively caused by other finite, non-eternal things (i. e., the entities described in propositions like E1p28) are caused by the infinite, eternal substance, given that what follows either directly or indirectly from the divine nature is infinite and eternal (E1p21–23). In “Spinoza’s Monism I,” “Spinoza’s Monism I,” in the previous issue of this journal. I pointed out that most commentators answer this question by invoking entities that are indefinite and (...)
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  13. The Intellectual Love of God in Spinoza.Noa L. Ayalon - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (4):420-437.
    One of the most famous and identifiable of Spinoza’s ideas is his amor Dei intellectualis (the intellectual love of God). It has been argued that this concept is somewhat alien to the main tenets of the Ethics, especially since it is reminiscent of more orthodox religious relations to God, and has a certain mystical (and so, nonrational) quality. In this paper, I will show that it is a consistent development of Spinoza’s interconnected and elaborate theories of knowledge and the affects. (...)
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  14. The Intellectual Love of God in Spinoza.Noa L. Ayalon - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 30 (4):420-437.
    One of the most famous and identifiable of Spinoza’s ideas is his amor Dei intellectualis (the intellectual love of God). It has been argued that this concept is somewhat alien to the main tenets of the Ethics, especially since it is reminiscent of more orthodox religious relations to God, and has a certain mystical (and so, nonrational) quality.In this paper, I will show that it is a consistent development of Spinoza’s interconnected and elaborate theories of knowledge and the affects. Spinoza (...)
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  15. Ética de Spinoza como proyecto onto-gnoseológico.Antonieta García Ruzo - 2022 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 86:101-116.
    El presente trabajo es un intento por repensar el modo en que ha sido interpretada la primera parte de la Ética de Baruch Spinoza por la tradición. Fundamentalmente, busca alejarse de las interpretaciones que llamamos “ontológicas” -que sostienen que las distinciones conceptuales allí postuladas refieren a diferentes ámbitos de lo real-, para defender una lectura que tenga al factor gnoseológico como principio explicativo de tales distinciones. Se intentará mostrar que mediante esta hipótesis de lectura se accede a aquello que nos (...)
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  16. Self-Explanation and Empty-Base Explanation.Yannic Kappes - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 8 (3):436-453.
    This paper explores a novel notion of self-explanation that combines ideas from two sources: the tripartite account of explanation, according to which a proposition can help explain another either in the capacity of a reason why the latter obtains or in the capacity of an explanatory link, and the notion of an empty-base explanation, which generalizes the ideas of explanation by zero-grounding and explanation by status. After having introduced these ideas and the novel notion of self-explanation, I argue that the (...)
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  17. Part V of Spinoza's Ethics: Intuitive knowledge, contentment of mind, and intellectual love of God.Kristin Primus - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (6):e12838.
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 6, June 2022.
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  18. Spinoza on Essence Constitution.Antonio Salgado Borge - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (3):987-999.
    I argue that, against what is commonly believed, Spinoza’s use of the relation of constitution to characterize the relation between attributes and the essence of a substance does not indicate that, for him, there must be a numerical identity between each attribute and the essence constituted by that attribute. To do this, I follow a twofold strategy. First, I contend that the claim that because in Spinoza’s time constitution was understood as a one- to-one relation is mistaken: the main logicians (...)
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  19. Pantheism, Panentheism, and Ecosophy: Getting Back to Spinoza?Luca Valera & Gabriel Vidal - 2022 - Zygon 57 (3):545-563.
    Many authors in the field of Environmental Philosophy have claimed to be inspired by Spinoza's monism, which has traditionally been considered a form of pantheism because nature and God coincide. This idea has deep normative implications, as some environmental ethicists claim that wounding nature is the same as wounding God, which implies a resacralization of nature. In particular, we will focus on Arne Næss's Ecosophy (or Deep Ecology) to offer a current relevant example of the pantheist (or panentheist) worldview. However, (...)
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  20. Being and reason: an essay on Spinoza’s metaphysics: by Martin Lin, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019, pp. 224, £47.49 (hb), ISBN: 0198834152. [REVIEW]Antonio Salgado Borge - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 29 (6):1198-1201.
    To what extent does human reason apply to the mind-independent world according to Spinoza? Does he even believe that human reason applies to that world at all? Being and Reason answers these questi...
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  21. In homage to Descartes and Spinoza: A cosmo‐ontological case for God.Michael Anthony Istvan - 2021 - Philosophical Forum 52 (1):41-64.
    Integrating cosmological and ontological lines of reasoning, I argue that there is a self-necessary being that (a) serves as the sufficient condition for everything, that (b) has the most perfect collection of whatever attributes of perfection there might be, and that (c) is an independent, eternal, unique, simple, indivisible, immutable, all-actual, all-free, all-present, all-powerful, all-knowing, all-good, personal creator of every expression of itself that everything is. My cosmo-ontological case for such a being, an everything-maker with the core features ascribed to (...)
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  22. Spinoza on Causa Sui.Yitzhak Melamed - 2021 - In Blackwell Companion to Spinoza. Blackwell. pp. 116-125.
    The very first line of Spinoza’s magnum opus, the Ethics, states the following surprising definition: By cause of itself I understand that whose essence involves existence, or that whose nature cannot be conceived except as existing [Per causam sui intelligo id, cujus essentia involvit existentiam, sive id, cujus natura non potest concipi, nisi existens]. As we shall shortly see, for many of Spinoza’s contemporaries and predecessors the very notion of causa sui was utterly absurd, akin to a Baron Munchausen attempting (...)
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  23. Spinoza on Causa Sui.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2021 - In A Companion to Spinoza. Chichester, UK: Wiley. pp. 116–125.
    For many of Spinoza's contemporaries and predecessors the very notion of causa sui was utterly absurd, akin to a Baron Munchausen attempting to lift himself above a river by pulling his hair up. This chapter examines Descartes’ engagement with the notion of causa sui, and shows that Spinoza understood the causation of causa sui as efficient, and not formal, causation. Proving the existence of God was the stated aim of Descartes’ Third Meditation. Descartes’ response to Caterus is pretty simple: he (...)
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  24. ‘Except God, no substance can be conceived’: Spinoza on other substances.Ruben Noorloos - 2021 - Analysis 81 (4):656-65.
    This paper argues that Spinoza held substances other than God to be inconceivable. It uses this claim to develop a novel response to the Problem of Other Substances, the problem of explaining why some of Spinoza’s proofs for God’s existence cannot be used to prove the existence of a non-divine substance instead.
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  25. Die Entstehung von Spinozas Urteilstheorie und ihre Implikationen für seine politische Philosophie.Ursula Renz & Oliver Istvan Toth - 2021 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 69 (4):633-645.
    In this paper, we reconstruct the development of Spinoza’s theory of judgment against the backdrop of the development of his political views. In this context we also look at the difference between Descartes’ meta-act theory of judgment, which Spinoza criticises, and his own all-inclusive approach. By “meta-act theory” we understand the claim that content and judgment about the truth of the content are metaphysically really distinct mental items. By an “all-inclusive theory” we understand the claim that judgment and content constitute (...)
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  26. “Spinoza’s Metaphysics of Substance”.Y. Melamed Yitzhak - 2021 - In Don Garrett (ed.), Don Garrett (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. pp. 61-112.
    ‘Substance’ (substantia, zelfstandigheid) is a key term of Spinoza’s philosophy. Like almost all of Spinoza’s philosophical vocabulary, Spinoza did not invent this term, which has a long history that can be traced back at least to Aristotle. Yet, Spinoza radicalized the traditional notion of substance and made a very powerful use of it by demonstrating – or at least attempting to demonstrate -- that there is only one, unique substance -- God (or Nature) -- and that all other things are (...)
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  27. La Metafisica di Spinoza: Sostanza e Pensiero.Yitzhak Melamed - 2020 - Milan: Mimesis Edizioni.
  28. ““Deus sive Vernunft: Schelling’s Transformation of Spinoza’s God”.Yitzhak Melamed - 2020 - In G. Anthony Bruno (ed.), Schelling’s Philosophy: Freedom, Nature, and Systematicity. Oxford University Press. pp. 93-115.
    On 6 January 1795, the twenty-year-old Schelling—still a student at the Tübinger Stift—wrote to his friend and former roommate, Hegel: “Now I am working on an Ethics à la Spinoza. It is designed to establish the highest principles of all philosophy, in which theoretical and practical reason are united”. A month later, he announced in another letter to Hegel: “I have become a Spinozist! Don’t be astonished. You will soon hear how”. At this period in his philosophical development, Schelling had (...)
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  29. Spinoza, le Grand profanateur de la ‘tradition sacrée’ humaniste.” Interview with N. Weill.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2020 - le Monde.
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  30. God-Intoxicated Man: The Philosopher who denied the World.Yitzhak Melamed & Clare Carlisle - 2020 - TLS: The Times Literary Supplement.
  31. Politics, Ontology and Knowledge in Spinoza: Essays by Alexandre Matheron.Gil Morejon, DavidVE Maruzzella, Filippo Del Lucchese & David Maruzzella - 2020 - Edinburgh University Press.
    "Alexandre Matheron is considered one of the most important interpreters of Spinoza's philosophy in the 20th century. These 20 essays, translated into English for the first time, focus on ontology, knowledge, politics and ethics in Spinoza, his predecessors and his contemporaries."--Publisher description.
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  32. Spinoza et le Dieu qui peut toutSpinoza and the Almighty God.Alain Gervais Ndoba - 2020 - Astérion 23.
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  33. Spinoza's theory of intellect – an Averroistic theory?Oliver Istvan Toth - 2020 - In Averroism between the 15th and 17th century. pp. 281-309.
    In this paper, I investigate whether Spinoza theory of intellect can be considered as an Averroistic, Themistian or Alexandrian theory of intellect. I identify key doctrines of these theories that are argumentatively and theoretically independent from Aristotelian hylomorphism and thus can be accepted by someone rejecting hylomorphism. Next, I argue that the textual evidence is inconclusive: depending on the reading of Spinoza's philosophy accepted, Spinoza's theory of intellect can or cannot be considered as an Averroistic theory.
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  34. Spinoza on Action and Immanent Causation.Stephen Zylstra - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (1):29-55.
    I address an apparent conflict between Spinoza’s concepts of immanent causation and acting/doing [agere]. Spinoza apparently holds that an immanent cause undergoes [patitur] whatever it does. Yet according to his stated definition of acting and undergoing in the Ethics, this is impossible; to act is to be an adequate cause, while to undergo is to be merely a partial cause. Spinoza also seems committed to God’s being the adequate cause of all things, and, in a well-known passage, appears to deny (...)
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  35. Krochmal’s Teleological and Ethical Arguments for the Existence of the Deity.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2019 - Judaica Petropolitana 11:87-103.
  36. Spinoza and the problem of other substances.Galen Barry - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (4):481-507.
    ABSTRACTMost of Spinoza’s arguments for God’s existence do not rely on any special feature of God, but instead on merely general features of substance. This raises the following worry: those arguments prove the existence of non-divine substances just as much as they prove God’s existence, and yet there is not enough room in Spinoza’s system for all these substances. I argue that Spinoza attempts to solve this problem by using a principle of plenitude to rule out the existence of other (...)
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  37. Dispassion, God, and nature : Maimonides and Spinoza.Daniel Frank - 2019 - In Samuel Lebens, Dani Rabinowitz & Aaron Segal (eds.), Jewish Philosophy in an Analytic Age. Oxford University Press, Usa.
  38. Being and Reason: An Essay on Spinoza's Metaphysics.Martin Lin - 2019 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Spinoza’s metaphysics, we encounter many puzzling doctrines that appear to entangle metaphysical notions with cognitive, logical, and epistemic ones. According to him, a substance is that which can be conceived through itself and a mode is that which is conceived through another. Thus, metaphysical notions, substance and mode, are defined through a notion that is either cognitive or logical, being conceived through. He defines an attribute as that which an intellect perceives as constituting the essence of a substance. Intellectual (...)
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  39. The "True religion" and the philosophical god of Spinoza.A. Maidansky - 2019 - European Journal of Science and Theology 15 (6):117-128.
    Spinoza‟s notion of „God‟ is examined in the article through prisms of: criticism of religious consciousness in „Theological-Political Treatise‟, theory of affects developed in „Ethics‟, and Spinoza‟s comments on language.
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  40. The Enigma of Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis.Yitzhak Melamed - 2019 - In Noa Naaman-Zaudrer & Noa Naaman (eds.), Freedom, Action and Motivation in Spinoza’s Ethics. Routledge. pp. 222-238.
    The notion of divine love was essential to medieval Christian conceptions of God. Jewish thinkers, though, had a much more ambivalent attitude about this issue. While Maimonides was reluctant to ascribe love, or any other affect, to God, Gersonides and Crescas celebrated God’s love. Though Spinoza is clearly sympathetic to Maimonides’ rejection of divine love as anthropomorphism, he attributes love to God nevertheless, unfolding his notion of amor Dei intellectualis at the conclusion of his Ethics. But is this a legitimate (...)
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  41. Spinoza’s ‘Infinite Modes’ Reconsidered.Kristin Primus - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):1-29.
    My two principal aims in this essay are interconnected. One aim is to provide a new interpretation of the ‘infinite modes’ in Spinoza’s Ethics. I argue that for Spinoza, God, conceived as the one infinite and eternal substance, is not to be understood as causing two kinds of modes, some infinite and eternal and the rest finite and non-eternal. That there cannot be such a bifurcation of divine effects is what I take the ‘infinite mode’ propositions, E1p21–23, to establish; E1p21–23 (...)
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  42. Monism and individuation in Anne Conway as a critique of Spinoza.Nastassja Pugliese - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (4):771-785.
    In chapter IX of the Principles, Anne Conway claims that her metaphysics is diametrically opposed to those of Descartes and Spinoza. Scholars have analyzed her rejection of Cartesianism, but not her critique of Spinoza. This paper proposes that two central points of Conway’s metaphysics can be understood as direct responses to Spinoza: (1) the relation between God, Christ, and the creatures in the tripartite division of being, and (2) the individuation of beings in the lowest species. I will argue that (...)
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  43. François Lamy’s Cartesian Refutation of Spinoza’s Ethics.Jack Stetter - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):7.
    François Lamy, a Benedictine monk and Cartesian philosopher whose extensive relations with Arnauld, Bossuet, Fénélon, and Malebranche put him into contact with the intellectual elite of late-seventeenth-century France, authored the very first detailed and explicit refutation of Spinoza’s Ethics in French, Le nouvel athéisme renversé. Regrettably overlooked in the secondary literature on Spinoza, Lamy is an interesting figure in his own right, and his anti-Spinozist work sheds important light on Cartesian assumptions that inform the earliest phase of Spinoza’s critical reception (...)
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  44. Spinozismus substanzloser Subjektivität. Jacobi und Jean Paul wider Fichtes Ichphilosophie.Gunther Wenz - 2019 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 61 (3):388-413.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie Jahrgang: 61 Heft: 3 Seiten: 388-413.
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  45. Nature and necessity in Spinoza's philosophy.Don Garrett - 2018 - New York City: Oxford University Press.
    Spinoza's guiding commitment to the thesis that nothing exists or occurs outside of the scope of nature and its necessary laws makes him one of the great seventeenth-century exemplars of both philosophical naturalism and explanatory rationalism. Nature and Necessity in Spinoza's Philosophy brings together for the first time eighteen of Don Garrett's articles on Spinoza's philosophy, ranging over the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, ethics, and political philosophy. Taken together, these influential articles provide a comprehensive interpretation of that (...)
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  46. Leibniz and Spinozist Necessitarianism.Ari Maunu - 2018 - Studia Leibnitiana 48 (2):261-267.
    It is sometimes argued that Leibniz’s metaphysical commitments lead to Spinozist Necessitarianism, i.e., the view, in Spinoza’s words, that “Things could not have been produced by God in any way or in any order other than that in which they have been produced”. Leibniz comments on this passage as follows: “This proposition may be true or false, depending on how it is explained”. I suggest in this paper that what Leibniz means by this comment can be fleshed out by making (...)
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  47. Cohen, Spinoza, and the Nature of Pantheism.Yitzhak Melamed - 2018 - Jewish Studies Quarterly:171-180.
    The German text of Cohen’s Spinoza on State & Religion, Judaism & Christianity (Spinoza über Staat und Religion, Judentum und Christentum) first appeared in 1915 in the Jahrbuch für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur. Two years before, in the winter of 1913, Cohen taught a class and a seminar on Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums. This was Cohen’s first semester at the Hochschule, after retiring from more than thirty years of teaching at the University of (...)
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  48. “A Substance Consisting of an Infinity of Attributes”: Spinoza on the Infinity of Attributes.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2018 - In Reed Winegar & Ohad Nachtomy (eds.), Infinity in Early Modern Philosophy. Springer. pp. 63-75.
    Though Spinoza's definition of God at the beginning of the Ethics unequivocally asserts that God has infinitely many attributes, the reader of the Ethics will find only two of these attributes discussed in any detail in Parts Two through Five of the book. Addressing this intriguing gap between the infinity of attributes asserted in E1d6 and the discussion merely of the two attributes of Extension and Thought in the rest of the book, Jonathan Bennett writes: Spinoza seems to imply that (...)
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  49. Parallelism and the Idea of God in Spinoza's System.Sean Winkler - 2018 - Idealistic Studies 48 (2):149-173.
    In this paper, I begin by showing that for Spinoza, it is unclear how the human mind can have a true idea of God. I first provide an explanation of Spinoza’s theory of parallelism of the mind and the body, followed by showing how this doctrine seems to undermine the mind’s ability to have an adequate idea of God. From there, I show that the idea of God presents a problem for Spinoza’s theory of the parallelism of the attributes in (...)
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  50. Parallelism and the Idea of God in Spinoza's System.Sean Winkler - 2018 - Idealistic Studies 48 (2):149-173.
    In this paper, I begin by showing that for Spinoza, it is unclear how the human mind can have a true idea of God. I first provide an explanation of Spinoza’s theory of parallelism of the mind and the body, followed by showing how this doctrine seems to undermine the mind’s ability to have an adequate idea of God. From there, I show that the idea of God presents a problem for Spinoza’s theory of the parallelism of the attributes in (...)
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