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Key works Lloyd Strickland's Leibniz on God and Religion: A Reader (2016) is a useful place to begin reading Leibniz's own work in the philosophy of religion.  This volume includes many short works and selections on topics ranging from the existence of God to the Bible and non-Christian religions. 
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  1. Comments on Daniel Garber's Metaphysics and Theology: The Role of the Monadology in Leibniz's Essais de Théodicée.Jeffrey K. McDonough - manuscript
    In his rich and engaging essay, Professor Garber asks most centrally, “…what was the relation between Leibniz’s metaphysical project as set out in the so-called ‘Monadologie’ and the more theological project in the Essais de Théodicée?” His answer is, in short, that there isn’t much of a relationship between these two great works. Furthermore, he takes this result to be evidence of Leibniz’s not being a systematic philosopher in the spirit of Descartes or Spinoza. In these brief comments, I revisit (...)
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  2. The Simplest Reality... In Mulla Sadra's Theology and Leibniz Monadology.M. Bidi - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 17.
    Pointing to the origination of the concept of "simplicity", conveying concepts such as "infinity" and "universality" in Islamic philosophy as well as Western philosophy in the 17 . Century , the author goes to elucidate the similarity between the meanings of "the simple existence", "the absolute existence" and "infinite existence" in the doctrines of Mulla Sadra, Spinoza, and Leibniz. He believes that from the rule of "the simplest reality..." of Mulla Sadra to the Spinoza's absolute existence, which are incorporated in (...)
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  3. Ontological Argument in Leibniz's Philosophy.Ali Tahiri - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 39.
    From among the arguments adduced for God's Existence, the ontological argument is of prime importance. Since long ago, prominent western philosophers have written important papers and books for or against this argument. Leibniz, who is one of the supporters of the ontological argument, claims that through removing the defect of the ontological argument posed by Anselm and Descartes, it can be transformed into an argument comparable to mathematical ones in terms of certainty and conclusiveness.In this paper, in addition to the (...)
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  4. God, Beauty, and Evil in Leibniz's Best of All Possible Worlds.Eric Wampler - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 18.
  5. Ecclesiology, Ecumenism, Toleration.Maria Rosa Antognazza - forthcoming - In The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz. Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This contribution discusses Leibniz’s conception of the Christian church, his life-long ecumenical efforts, and his stance toward religious toleration. Leibniz’s regarded the main Christian denominations as particular churches constituting the only one truly catholic or universal church, whose authority went back to apostolic times, and whose theology was to be traced back to the entire ecclesiastical tradition. This is the ecclesiology which underpins his ecumenism. The main phases and features of his work toward reunification of Protestants and Roman Catholics, and (...)
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  6. Faith and Reason.Maria Rosa Antognazza - forthcoming - In The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz. Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This contribution discusses Leibniz’s conception of faith and its relation to reason. It shows that, for Leibniz, faith embraces both cognitive and non-cognitive dimensions: although it must be grounded in reason, it is not merely reasonable belief. Moreover, for Leibniz, a truth of faith (like any truth) can never be contrary to reason but can be above the limits of comprehension of human reason. The latter is the epistemic status of the Christian mysteries. This view raises the problem of how (...)
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  7. Philosophical Theology and Christian Doctrines.Maria Rosa Antognazza - forthcoming - In The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz. Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This contribution discusses Leibniz’s views on key Christian doctrines which were surrounded, in the early modern period, by particularly lively debates. The first section delves into his defence of the Trinity and the Incarnation against the charge of contradiction, and his exploration of metaphysical models capacious enough to accommodate these mysteries. The second section focuses on the resurrection and the Eucharist with special regard to their connections with Leibniz’s metaphysics of bodies. The third section investigates Leibniz’s position on predestination, grace, (...)
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  8. Theory and Praxis in Leibniz’s Theological Thought.Maria Rosa Antognazza - forthcoming - In Wenchao Li & Hartmut Rudolph (eds.), G. W. Leibniz im Lichte der Theologien [Leibniz in the Light of Theology]. Steiner.
    This paper re-assesses the place of theology in Leibniz’s thought focusing on the relationship between theory and praxis. It takes as its point of departure a general conclusion established in previous work, namely that Leibniz’s key formulations of his overarching plan for the reform and advancement of all the sciences, are devoted to a set of objectives which is both shaped by broadly theological concerns and ultimately practical. Against this backdrop, the discussion will then turn to an exploration of how (...)
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  9. A LEIBNIZIAN, PLURALIST CONCEPTION OF BOTH BIOLOGICAL LIFE AND THEOLOGY. AntoninoDrago - forthcoming - In Proceedings of conference in Rome Tor Vergata sept. 2015 (in Italian).
  10. G. W. Leibniz Im Lichte der Theologien [Leibniz in the Light of Theology].Irena Backus, Wenchao Li & Hartmut Rudolph (eds.) - forthcoming - Steiner.
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  11. Leibniz and Kant on Miracles: Rationalism, Religion, and the Laws.Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Brandon Look (ed.), Leibniz and Kant. Oxford University Press.
  12. Moses Mendelssohn’s Original Modal Proof for the Existence of God.Noam Hoffer - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    In his 1785 book Morning hours, Moses Mendelssohn presents a proof for the existence of God from the grounding of possibility. Although Mendelssohn claims that this proof is original, it has not received much attention in the secondary literature. In this paper, I will analyze this proof and present its historical context. I will show that although it resembles Leibniz’s proof from eternal truths and Kant’s pre-critical possibility proof, it has unique characteristics which can be regarded as responses to deficiencies (...)
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  13. New Essays on Leibniz’s Theodicy.Samuel Newlands Larry Jorgensen (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  14. Existence, Essence, Et Expression: Leibniz Sur 'Toutes les Absurdités du Dieu de Spinoza'.Brandon C. Look - forthcoming - In Pierre-Francois Moreau & Mogens Laerke (eds.), Spinoza et Leibniz.
    That Leibniz finds the philosophy of Spinoza horrifyingly wrong is obvious to anyone who reads Leibniz’s work; that Leibniz finds Spinozism so seductive that his own system is in danger of collapsing into it is less obvious but, I believe, equally true. The difference here is not so much between an exoteric and an esoteric philosophy suggested by Russell2 but between a thorough-going rationalism on the part of Spinoza and Leibniz’s “mitigated rationalism” – mitigated by the exigencies of his orthodox (...)
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  15. God's Perfect Will: Remarks on Johnston and O'Connor.Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
    Why would God create a world at all? Further, why would God create a world like this one? The Neoplatonic framework of classical philosophical theology answers that God’s willing is an affirmation of God’s own goodness, and God creates to show forth God’s glory. Mark Johnston has recently argued that, in addition to explaining why God would create at all, this framework gives extremely wide scope to divine freedom. Timothy O’Connor objects that divine freedom, on this view, cannot be so (...)
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  16. Leibniz's Worlds. The Connection Between the Best Possible World and the Monadic Realm.Jan Levin Propach - forthcoming - Synthesis Philosophica.
    In this paper I claim that in Leibniz’s metaphysics we can use the term ‘world’ in a twofold sense. On the one hand to refer to highly complex divine thoughts, i.e. the ideal realm, and on the other hand to refer to a network of living substances with their perceptions and appetitions, i.e. the substantial realm. First of all, I will clarify the ideal realm in Leibniz's metaphysics, which consists of three combinatorial levels about the fundamental entities, namely the simple (...)
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  17. The ‘Necessity’ of Leibniz’s Rejection of Necessitarianism.Joseph Anderson - 2021 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 10 (1):75-91.
    In the Theodicy, Leibniz argues against two impious conceptions of God—a God who makes arbitrary choices and a God who doesn’t make choices at all. Many interpret Leibniz as navigating these dangers by positing a kind of non-Spinozistic necessitarianism. I examine passages from the Theodicy which reject not only blind necessitarianism but necessitarianism altogether. Leibniz thinks blind necessitarianism is dangerous due to the conception of God it entails and the implications for morality. Non-Spinozistic necessitarianism avoids many of these criticisms. Leibniz (...)
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  18. Leibniz frente al ocasionalismo. La lucha por la autonomía de la razón.Juan Antonio Nicolás - 2021 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 54 (2):313-329.
    Se aborda la polémica entre Leibniz y Malebranche en torno a la relación entre las sustancias. Se plantean cuatro hipótesis para explicar esta interacción: la influencia física, la asistencia divina inmediata, la identidad y la armonía previa. Se explica la posición crítica de Leibniz respecto a las otras tres. En relación con la primera hipótesis Leibniz y Malebranche están de acuerdo en que no es viable. Se explican la crítica de Leibniz al ocasionalismo de Malebranche y al monismo sustancialista de (...)
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  19. The Young Leibniz and the Ontological Argument: From Rejection to Reconsideration.Osvaldo Ottaviani - 2021 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 10 (1):47-73.
    Leibniz considered the Cartesian version of the ontological argument not as an inconsistent proof but only as an incomplete one: it requires a preliminary proof of possibility to show that the concept of ‘the most perfect being’ involves no contradiction. Leibniz raised this objection to Descartes’s proof already in 1676, then repeated it throughout his entire life. Before 1676, however, he suggested a more substantial objection to the Cartesian argument. I take into account a text written around 1671-72, in which (...)
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  20. Why God Thinks What He is Thinking? An Argument Against Samuel Newlands’ Brute–Fact–Theory of Divine Ideas in Leibniz’s Metaphysics.Jan Levin Propach - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (3).
    According to the most prominent principle of early modern rationalists, the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR], there are no brute facts, hence, there are no facts without any explanation. Contrary to the PSR, some philosophers have argued that divine ideas are brute facts within Leibniz’s metaphysics. In this paper, I argue against brute-fact-theories of divine ideas, especially represented by Samuel Newlands in Leibniz and the Ground of Possibility, and elaborate an alternative Leibnizian theory of divine ideas.
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  21. Leibniz on Divine Love.Lucy Sheaf - 2021 - Faith and Philosophy 38 (2):163-184.
    This paper considers two objections which can be levelled against Leibniz’s account of divine love. The first is that he cannot allow that divine love is gracious because he is committed to the view that love is properly proportioned to the perfection perceived in the beloved; the second is that God is cruel to those who are damned and so cannot be said to love all. I argue that Leibniz has the resources to rebut—or at least blunt—each of these objections.
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  22. Theodicy or Divine Justice in Leibniz.Shahin Avani - 2020 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (30):1-19.
    An examination of the history of the development of the philosophical issues in the West indicates that since the Demiurge of Plato in_ the Timaeus_ created the sensible world in imitation of the intelligible archetypes, failing at the same time, to overcome some necessities, until the beginning of the seventeenth century and the emergence of the Cartesian anthropocentric conception of reality, the common question most often raised by modern philosophers, in their discussions about the nature of God, man and universes (...)
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  23. Leibniz’s Early Theodicy and its Unwelcome Implications.Thomas Feeney - 2020 - The Leibniz Review 30:1-28.
    To explain why God is not the author of sin, despite grounding all features of the world, the early Leibniz marginalized the divine will and defined existence as harmony. These moves support each other. It is easier to nearly eliminate the divine will from creation if existence itself is something wholly intelligible, and easier to identify existence with an internal feature of the possibles if the divine will is not responsible for creation. Both moves, however, commit Leibniz to a necessitarianism (...)
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  24. Descartes Et la Généalogie de la Théodicée Moderne Chez Leibniz Et Malebranche.Alfredo Gatto - 2020 - Educação E Filosofia 33 (68):721-746.
    Résumé: Cet article vise à analyser la réception de la théorie cartésienne des vérités éternelles dans les œuvres de Leibniz et Malebranche. Les deux auteurs ont critiqué et refusé ses prémisses pour éviter les conséquences dont ils pensaient qu’elles découlaient de la doctrine de Descartes. L’objectif est celui de démontrer qu’on ne peut pas comprendre pleinement leurs réflexions sans les interpréter à la lumière de la théorie cartésienne, dans la mesure où elle représente la condition critique de possibilité de leur (...)
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  25. The Correspondence with Arnauld.Julia Jorati - 2020 - In Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland (eds.), Leibniz’s Key Philosophical Writings. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 80-100.
    Leibniz’s correspondence with Antoine Arnauld is one of the clearest and most comprehensive expressions of Leibniz’s philosophy in the so-called middle period. This chapter will explore the philosophical content of this correspondence. It will concentrate on four of the most central topics: (a) complete concepts and contingency, (b) substance and body, (c) causation, and (d) the special status of rational souls in God’s plan.
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  26. Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads Through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by Richard Arthur. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):664-673.
    Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by ArthurRichard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Pp. ix + 329.
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  27. Leibniz's Key Philosophical Writings: A Guide.Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents introductory chapters from internationally-renowned experts on eleven of Leibniz's key philosophical writings. Offering accessible accounts of the ideas and arguments of his work, along with information on their composition and context, this book is an invaluable companion to the study of Leibniz.
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  28. How to Distinguish Secondary From Primary Creations? A Leibnizian Elucidation of a Distinction by J.R.R. Tolkien.Jan Levin Propach - 2020 - Hither Shore 14 (1):34-45.
    Tolkien uses the terms “primary creation” and “secondary creation” in his works with reference to divine and human creation respectively. In the first part of this paper, I argue that one criterion to distinguish the former from the latter is their completeness or incompleteness. The primary creation is complete because it is thought of and created by God. The secondary creations like human fictions are incomplete since the human intellect is finite and does not have the capacity to grasp the (...)
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  29. Leibniz on God and Religion: A Reader. By Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Translated and Edited by Lloyd Strickland. [REVIEW]Thomas Feeney - 2019 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 93 (1):181-184.
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  30. Leibniz’s Horrendous and Unthinkable World: A Critique of Leibniz’s ‘Best Possible World’ Theodicy.Nicholas Hadsell - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 63 (1):57-63.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 1, Page 57-63, January 2022.
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  31. Leibniz on the Problem of Evil, by P. Rateau.Kristen Irwin - 2019 - The Leibniz Review 29:161-165.
  32. Virtual Union, the Seeds of Hatred, and the Fraternal Joining of Hands: Leibniz and Toleration.Mogens Laerke - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):6.
    In this paper, I am interested in the conception of toleration that can be gleaned from the political and theological texts of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. I argue that Leibniz did not defend a notion of toleration comparable to a standard modern conception. The modern conception is very often traced back to a constellation of writers contemporary with Leibniz including Locke, Bayle, and Spinoza. It involves an inclusive embrace of diversity, religious and otherwise, and an affirmation of toleration as a fundamental (...)
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  33. Leibniz on the Divine Preformation of Souls and Bodies.Christopher P. Noble - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (2):327-342.
  34. Leibniz Leitor de Anselmo: Um Caso Exemplar de Deslize Filosófico.Eliakim Ferreira Oliveira - 2019 - Cadernos Espinosanos 41:339-369.
    O artigo procura apresentar as modificações do clássico argumento da existência de Deus feitas por Leibniz nos textos _Novos ensaios sobre o entendimento humano _e _Meditações sobre o Conhecimento, a Verdade e as Ideias_. Defende-se que já há em Leibniz uma leitura "ontologizante" de Anselmo, cuja razão bem pode ser a apropriação cartesiana do argumento. O plano de fundo dessa discussão é a maneira como os filósofos, quando leem outros, na medida em que possuem suas próprias agendas filosóficas, cometem, intencionalmente (...)
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  35. Ideen bei Leibniz. Das Verhältnis zwischen den Ideen im göttlichen Intellekt und den Ideen des menschlichen Geistes.Jan Levin Propach - 2019 - In Manfred Negele & Jan Levin Propach (eds.), Geist-Erfahrung. Ein Beitrag zu einem Erfahrungsbegriff für die Geisteswissenschaften. Würzburg, Deutschland: pp. 153-176.
    Leibniz di fferenziert zwischen den Ideen des göttlichen Intellekts und den Ideen im menschlichen Geist, bestimmt ihr Verhältnis aber als Ähnlichkeit. Der Grund dafür, dass es sich bei der Beziehung zwischen Ideen des göttlichen Geistes und den Ideen der mens nicht um Identität oder Teilhabe, sondern um Ähnlichkeit handelt, liegt unter anderem in der Schulphilosophie des 17. Jahrhunderts geläufi gen theologischen Imago-Dei-Lehre begründet. Der menschliche Geist ist demnach dem göttlichen Intellekt wegen der biblisch begründeten Gottebenbildlichkeit, trotz des Sündenfalls und der (...)
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  36. Intentionalität und Bewusstsein in der frühen Neuzeit. Die Philosophie des Geistes von René Descartes und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. [REVIEW]Jan Levin Propach - 2019 - Theologie Und Philosophie 94:427-429.
  37. Reasoning of the Highest Leibniz and the Moral Quality of Reason.Ryan Quandt - 2019 - Dissertation, University of South Florida
    Loving God is our highest perfection for Leibniz. It secures our belief and trust in the Creator, which is integral to the sciences as well as faith. Those who love God have justification for reasoning, that is, they can rationally expect to arrive at truth. This is because love is a receptivity to the perfection all of things; loving God, then, is a disposition and tendency toward the most perfect being, the ens perfectissimum. Individuals who perceive the divine nature “do (...)
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  38. Staying Optimistic: The Trials and Tribulations of Leibnizian Optimism.Lloyd Strickland - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):1-21.
    The oft-told story of Leibniz’s doctrine of the best world, or optimism, is that it enjoyed a great deal of popularity in the eighteenth century until the massive earthquake that struck Lisbon on 1 November 1755 destroyed its support. Despite its long history, this story is nothing more than a commentators’ fiction that has become accepted wisdom not through sheer weight of evidence but through sheer frequency of repetition. In this paper we shall examine the reception of Leibniz’s doctrine of (...)
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  39. Leibniz's Legacy and Impact.Julia Weckend & Lloyd Strickland (eds.) - 2019 - New York: Routledge.
    This volume tells the story of the legacy and impact of the great German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Leibniz made significant contributions to many areas, including philosophy, mathematics, political and social theory, theology, and various sciences. The essays in this volume explores the effects of Leibniz’s profound insights on subsequent generations of thinkers by tracing the ways in which his ideas have been defended and developed in the three centuries since his death. Each of the 11 essays is concerned (...)
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  40. Cosmological Arguments.Michael Almeida - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    The book discusses the structure, content, and evaluation of cosmological arguments. The introductory chapter investigates features essential to cosmological arguments. Traditionally, cosmological arguments are distinguished by their appeal to change, causation, contingency or objective becoming in the world. But none of these is in fact essential to the formulation of cosmological arguments. Chapters 1-3 present a critical discussion of traditional Thomistic, Kalam, and Leibnizian cosmological arguments, noting various advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Chapter 4 offers an entirely new approach (...)
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  41. Der junge Leibniz und Gott. Der Beweis der Existenz Gottes in der Dissertatio de Arte Combinatoria.Stefania Centrone - 2018 - Studia Leibnitiana 50:146-162.
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  42. Leibniz, a Friend of Molinism.Juan Garcia - 2018 - Res Philosophica 95 (3):397-420.
    Leibniz is commonly labeled a foe of Molinism. His rejection of robust libertarian freedom coupled with some explicit passages in which he distances himself from the doctrine of middle knowledge seem to justify this classification. In this paper, I argue that this standard view is not quite correct. I identify the two substantive tenets of Molinism. First, the connection between the conditions for free actions and these free actions is a contingent one: free actions follow contingently from their sufficient conditions. (...)
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  43. Leibniz on Determinateness and Possible Worlds.Adam Harmer - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (1):e12469.
    Leibniz argues that God doesn't create everything possible because not all possible things are compossible, that is, compatible with each other. Much recent debate has focused on Leibniz's conception of compossibility. One important aspect of this debate, which has not been examined directly, is the distinction between possible worlds and possible creations: the notion of possible world is more robust than simply whatever God can create. Many commentators have relied on this distinction without a clear formulation of it. I develop (...)
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  44. Leibniz on Church and State: Presumptive Logic and Perplexing Cases.Mogens LÆrke - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (4):629-657.
    this paper has a double objective. On the one hand, it aims to examine Leibniz's approach to church-state relations, a central question in early modern political philosophy that has rarely been discussed in the context of the philosopher of Hanover despite the fact that his political texts contain much to be appreciated on the topic. On the other hand, it aims at providing a prominent example of how Leibniz's political philosophy, contrary to what is often held, was not exclusively grounded (...)
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  45. Leibniz and Spinozist Necessitarianism.Ari Maunu - 2018 - Studia Leibnitiana 48 (2):261-267.
    It is sometimes argued that Leibniz’s metaphysical commitments lead to Spinozist Necessitarianism, i.e., the view, in Spinoza’s words, that “Things could not have been produced by God in any way or in any order other than that in which they have been produced”. Leibniz comments on this passage as follows: “This proposition may be true or false, depending on how it is explained”. I suggest in this paper that what Leibniz means by this comment can be fleshed out by making (...)
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  46. Leibniz Heute Lesen: Wissenschaft, Geschichte, Religion.Herta Nagl-Docekal (ed.) - 2018 - De Gruyter.
    Welche Relevanz hat Leibniz für aktuelle Debatten? Untersucht wird Leibniz’ Konzeption der Individualität sowie seine These: „Der Ort des Anderen ist der wahre Standpunkt sowohl in der Politik als auch in der Moral.“ Ferner, wie weit Kants Theorie des Subjekts als Explikation Leibnizscher Einsichten zu lesen ist und wie die Monadenlehre Einspruch gegen den Szientismus erhebt. Die Aktualität der Leibnizschen Systematik wird auch im Blick auf Religion dargestellt: hinsichtlich der europäischen Rezeption buddhistischer Traditionen wie auch der Problematik der inter-religiösen Relationen. (...)
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  47. El mejor de todos los mundos posibles.Jesús Padilla Gálvez - 2018 - Cuadernos Salmantinos de Filosofía 45:231-259.
    La expresión “mundo posible” se emplea para expresar argumentos moda-les. En este trabajo encontramos las huellas implícitas anteriores de la idea de mundos posi-bles en las obras de Antonio Rubio que tuvo una gran influencia en la discusión posterior. Primero reconstruimos la crítica lleva a cabo por Suárez contra Aristóteles que postulaba que sólo había un mundo. Seguidamente, se desarrolla dicha propuesta en la que se asentó el planteamiento acerca de los mundos posibles desarrollada por Gottfried Leibniz. Se presenta el (...)
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  48. Leibniz’ Metaphysik der Modalität. [REVIEW]Jan Levin Propach - 2018 - Theologie Und Philosophie 93:269-272.
  49. Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and the (...)
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  50. Review of "Leibniz: Protestant Theologian" by Irena Backus. [REVIEW]Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Renaissance Quarterly 71:1545-1546.
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