About this topic
Summary This category includes work on a wide variety of British philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It excludes those figures covered in other categories within '17th/18th Century British Philosophy'. But it includes many others, such as Samuel Clarke, Richard Price, James Beattie, Damaris Masham and Lady Mary Shepherd.
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2558 found
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1 — 50 / 2558
  1. Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Mary Shepherd and the Causal Relation - Part One -/- Part One gives context to the life and work of Lady Mary Shepherd. It weaves together the stories of her ancestors, her own stories and the wider social, historical and philosophical context. The aim is to evoke a world from which to mark the emergence of Mary Shepherd, Scotland’s first female philosopher.
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  2. La controverse Newton-Hooke dans l'opinion des scientifiques contemporains.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Une présentation de la monographie de 1674 de Hooke présentant l'idée de la gravitation universelle est apparue dans Philosophical Transactions de 1674, et puis plusieurs lettres contenant des observations, dont celle de Huygens. Mais évidemment, après la publication du Principia en 1687, la priorité de Hooke dans la proposition de la gravitation universelle a été oubliée. Après avoir entendu parler de la demande de Hooke de reconnaître sa priorité, Newton a supprimé les nombreuses références à Hooke dans Principia. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27734.40009.
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  3. L'action à distance dans la correspondance d'Isaac Newton avec Richard Bentley et les questions d'Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans sa correspondance avec Richard Bentley, Newton a rejeté la possibilité d'une action à distance, bien qu'il l'ait acceptée en Principia. L’environnement introduit par Newton à la question 21 d'Opticks se compose d’une part de corps matériels extrêmement petits, séparés dans l’espace, et d’un principe actif non mécanique produisant et médiatisant les forces de répulsion entre ces corps. À la question 28, il a clairement fait valoir qu'un environnement mécanique devrait être rejeté. L'éther traverse les corps, il est donc sans (...)
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  4. About God in Newton's Correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley, Newton rejected the possibility of remote action, even though he accepted it in the Principia. Practically, Newton’s natural philosophy is indissolubly linked to his conception of God. The knowledge of God seems to be essentially immutable, unlike the laws of nature that can be subjected to refining, revision and rejection procedures. As Newton later states in Opticks, the cause of gravity is an active principle in matter, but this active principle is not an essential (...)
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  5. La revendication de Hooke sur la loi de la gravité.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans une note intitulée « Un état vrai de l'affaire et la controverse entre Sr Isaak Newton et le Dr Robert Hooke comme priorité de cette noble hypothèse du mouvement des planètes autour du Soleil en tant que leurs centres » non publié au cours de sa vie, Hooke a décrit sa théorie de la gravité. Pour soutenir sa « priorité », Hooke cite ses conférences sur les mouvements planétaires du 23 mai 1666, « Une tentative de prouver le mouvement (...)
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  6. Controversa dintre Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke despre prioritatea în legea gravitației.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Una din cele mai disputate controverse privind prioritatea unor descoperiri științifice este cea privind legea gravitației universale, între Isaac Newton și Robert Hooke. În acest eseu extind o lucrare mai veche pe aceeași temă, ”Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke în legea gravitației universale”. Hooke l-a acuzat pe Newton de plagiat, preluându-i ideile exprimate în lucrările anterioare. În această lucrare încerc să arăt, pe baza unor analize anterioare, că ambii oameni de știință au greșit: Robert Hooke pentru că teoria sa nu (...)
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  7. Newton-Hooke Controversy in the Opinion of Scientists.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    A presentation of Hooke’s 1674 monograph introducing the idea of universal gravity was included in the Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society 1775) and subsequently several letters containing observations, including one of Huygens. But obviously, after the publication of Principia in 1687, Hooke’s priority in proposing universal gravitation was forgotten. Hooke, considered as a “mechanical genius” rather than a scientist, was often at a social disadvantage to Newton, the noble theorist, or Huygens. Hooke’s inferior social status did not allow him to identify (...)
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  8. Hooke's Claim on the Law of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Based on Galileo's experiments, Newton develops the theory of gravity in his first book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Principia") of 1686. Immediately after, Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, claiming that he unduly assumed his "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". But, according to Edmond Halley, Hooke agreed that "the demonstration of the curves generated by it" belongs entirely to Newton.
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  9. Isaac Newton Vs. Robert Hooke on the Law of Universal Gravitation.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    One of the most disputed controversy over the priority of scientific discoveries is that of the law of universal gravitation, between Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke. Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, of taking over his ideas expressed in previous works. In this paper I try to show, on the basis of previous analysis, that both scientists were wrong: Robert Hooke because his theory was basically only ideas that would never have materialized without Isaac Newton's mathematical support; and the latter was (...)
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  10. Isaac Newton vs Robert Hooke sur la loi de la gravitation universelle.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    L'une des controverses les disputées sur la priorité des découvertes scientifiques est celle de la loi de la gravitation universelle, entre Isaac Newton et Robert Hooke. Hooke a accusé Newton de plagiat, de reprendre ses idées exprimées dans des travaux antérieurs. J'essaie de montrer, sur la base d'une analyse précédente, que tous les deux scientifiques avaient tort: Robert Hooke parce que sa théorie n'était fondamentalement que des idées qui ne se seraient jamais matérialisées sans l'appui mathématique d'Isaac Newton; et ce (...)
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  11. Hume, Newton, & Maclaurin.Charles R. Twardy - manuscript
    Paper presented to the Twenty-seventh Hume Society Conference, 26 July 2000, Williamsburg, Virginia. -/- At the time I thought there was a stronger link between Maclaurin and Hume, but in discussions at and after the meeting, decided Hume was not taking his mechanics out of Maclaurin’s Account. Although I still have found Maclaurin useful in interpreting Hume -- see Sapadin 1997 for a discussion of popular Newtonianism in Hume's day -- I suspect my draft suffers somewhat from ambivalence. There are (...)
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  12. Anglo-Scottish Relations From 1603 to 1900.T. C. Smout - unknown - Proceedings of the British Academy 127.
    1: T. C. SMOUT: Introduction 2: JENNY WORMALD: O Brave New World? The Union of England and Scotland in 1603 3: KEITH BROWN: A Blessed Union? Anglo-Scottish Relations before the Covenant 4: JOHN MORRILL: The English, the Scots, and the Dilemmas of Union, 1638-1654 5: CLARE JACKSON: Judicial Torture, the Liberties of the Subject, and Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1660-1690 6: CHRISTOPHER A. WHATLEY: Taking Stock: Scotland at the End of the Seventeenth Century 7: JOHN FORD: The Law of the Sea and (...)
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  13. Thomas White on Location and the Ontological Status of Accidents.Han Thomas Adriaenssen - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy.
    The work of Thomas White represents a systematic attempt to combine the best of the new science of the seventeenth century with the best of Aristotelian tradition. This attempt earned him the criticism of Hobbes and the praise of Leibniz, but today, most of his attempts to navigate between traditions remain to be explored in detail. This paper does so for his ontology of accidents. It argues that his criticism of accidents in the category of location as entities over and (...)
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  14. Richard Price and the Foundation of Virtue. The Historical Roots of Contemporary Ethics in “A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals.Francesco Allegri - forthcoming
    Although little known, Richard Price’s A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals (1758) by Richard Price (1723-1791) is one of the most relevant texts of Eighteenth-century moral philosophy. H. Rasdhall described it “as the best work published on Ethics till quite recent times” because it “contains the gist of the kantian doctrine without Kant’s confusions”; C. D. Broad pointed out in this regard that “until Ross published his book The Right and the Good in 1930” there existed “no statement (...)
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  15. Ms.Natasha Bailie - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Mathematics.
    The reception of Newton's Principia in 1687 led to the attempt of many European scholars to ‘mathematicise' their field of expertise. An important example of this ‘mathematicisation' lies in the work of Irish-Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson, a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. This essay aims to discuss the mathematical aspects of Hutcheson's work and its impact on British thought in the following centuries, providing a case in point for the importance of the interactions between mathematics and philosophy throughout time.
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  16. Two Routes to Idealism: Collier and Berkeley.David Bartha - forthcoming - Tandf: British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-23.
  17. Of Savages and Stoics: Converging Moral and Political Ideals in the Conjectural Histories of Rousseau and Ferguson.Rudmer Bijlsma - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism:019145372199070.
    This article undertakes a comparative study of the conjectural histories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Ferguson, focusing on the convergences in the moral and political ideals expressed and grounded in these histories. In comparison with Scots like Adam Smith and John Millar, the conjectural histories of Ferguson and Rousseau follow a similar historical trajectory as regards the development and progress of commercial, political and cultural arts. However, their assessment of the moral progress of humanity does not, or in a much (...)
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  18. Active Powers of the Human Mind.Ruth Boeker - forthcoming - In Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, vol. 2. Oxford:
  19. Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century.Alexander Broadie - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  20. Revisiting William Paley.John Hedley Brooke - forthcoming - Zygon.
  21. How Did the American Revolution Relate to the French? Richard Price, the Age of Revolutions, and the Enlightenment.J. C. D. Clark - forthcoming - Modern Intellectual History:1-23.
    Richard Price is important in present-day historiography chiefly for the interpretation of two great revolutions, the American and the French. Recent studies have depicted him as insightfully forward-looking, a well-informed cosmopolitan, his thought providing an interpretive key to the Age of Revolutions, and so as a landmark figure of a singular Enlightenment. They have paid insufficient attention to his identity as a theologian, a Welsh-born Nonconformist minister of more defined outlook, spending his life in England and campaigning above all for (...)
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  22. Locke and Sergeant on Syllogistic Reasoning.Patrick J. Connolly - forthcoming - In Shelley Weinberg & Jessica Gordon-Roth (eds.), The Lockean Mind. Routledge.
    This paper explores Locke’s thinking specifically about syllogisms and more generally about logic and proper logical method. Locke’s texts display a mixed attitude toward syllogisms. On the one hand, he was highly critical of syllogisms and their central role in Scholastic disputation. On the other hand, he sometimes allowed that syllogisms could effectively capture valid forms of inference and could be useful in certain contexts. This paper seeks to explain Locke’s mixed attitude by showing that he believed syllogisms were useful (...)
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  23. Susanna Newcome and the Origins of Utilitarianism.Patrick J. Connolly - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-15.
    This paper provides the first systematic interpretation of the moral theory developed in Newcome’s Enquiry Into the Evidence of the Christian Religion (1728, revised 1732). More importantly, it shows that Newcome’s views constitute a valuable but overlooked contribution to the development of utilitarianism. Indeed, she is arguably the first utilitarian. Her ethical views are considered in two stages. The paper first explores her hedonist approach to the good and then turns to her consequentialist account of right action. The paper then (...)
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  24. Cairns Craig, Out of History: Narrative Paradigms in Scottish and British Culture.S. Cowley - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  25. Post-Mechanical Explanation in the Natural and Moral Sciences: The Language of Nature and Human Nature in David Hume and William Cullen.Tamás Demeter - forthcoming - Jahrbuch für Europäische Wissenschaftskultur.
    It is common wisdom in intellectual history that eighteenth-century science of man evolved under the aegis of Newton. It is also frequently suggested that David Hume, one of the most influential practitioners of this kind of inquiry, aspired to be the Newton of the moral sciences. Usually this goes hand in hand with a more or less explicit reading of Hume’s theory of human nature as written in an idiom of particulate inert matter and active forces acting on it, i.e. (...)
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  26. Adam Ferguson: History, Progress and Human Nature. [REVIEW]Marco Di Giulio - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
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  27. Early Modern Accounts of Epicureanism.Stewart Duncan & Antonia LoLordo - forthcoming - In Jacob Klein & Nathan Powers (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    We look at some interesting and important episodes in the life of early modern Epicureanism, focusing on natural philosophy. We begin with two early moderns who had a great deal to say about ancient Epicureanism: Pierre Gassendi and Ralph Cudworth. Looking at how Gassendi and Cudworth conceived of Epicureanism gives us a sense of what the early moderns considered important in the ancient tradition. It also points us towards three main themes of early modern Epicureanism in natural philosophy, which we (...)
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  28. The Downfall of All Slavish Hierarchies: Richard Price on Emancipation, Improvement, and Republican Utopia.Yiftah Elazar - forthcoming - Modern Intellectual History:1-24.
    Scholars have been paying increasing attention to the republican theory of liberty developed by the eighteenth-century British radical Richard Price. This article studies his narrative of a revolution of liberty, which consists in the downfall of oppressive powers, the establishment of republican institutions, and the introduction of a utopian age. In distinction from work that has focused on the millennial aspects of Price's narrative of emancipation, I highlight its political contexts and functions, situating its early development in utopian speculations about (...)
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  29. Diderot Et le Problème de Molyneux.Richard Glauser - forthcoming - Les Etudes Philosophiques.
  30. Protestantism and Liberty: Catharine Macaulay’s Politics of Religion as a Response to David Hume.Lucy Littlefield - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-20.
  31. The Oxford Handbook of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophy.Brandon Look & Frederick Beiser (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  32. Utilitarianism in the Age of Enlightenment: The Moral and Political Thought of William Paley, by Niall O’Flaherty.R. J. W. Mills - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-3.
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  33. George Campbell and Richard Whately: Two Examples of Rhetoric Rationality in the Enlightenment.María G. Navarro - forthcoming - In Brunhilde Wehinger (ed.), Forschungszentrum Europäische Aufklärung. Wehrhahn Verlag.
    So wohl Campbell als auch Whately sind sehr besorgt um die verschiedenen argumentations Formen zu analisieren, aber nicht in seiner abstrecten Vielfalt, sondern den verschiedenen Ableihungen des gebrauches oder der gegenwärtigen argumentations absicht im Entwurf jedes Arguments. In seiner Analyse haben sie beobachtet, dass die etische Begründung bemerkensmert verschieden als die Wissenschafliche. Beide Verfasser sind damit einverstanden dass es einen grossen Unterschied gibt zwischen: der existenten Prämisse in der Wissenchaftlichen Probe, und zweitens, die Form in der die Prämissen im induktiven (...)
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  34. Infinitesimal Knowledges.Rodney Nillsen - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-27.
    The notion of indivisibles and atoms arose in ancient Greece. The continuum—that is, the collection of points in a straight line segment, appeared to have paradoxical properties, arising from the ‘indivisibles’ that remain after a process of division has been carried out throughout the continuum. In the seventeenth century, Italian mathematicians were using new methods involving the notion of indivisibles, and the paradoxes of the continuum appeared in a new context. This cast doubt on the validity of the methods and (...)
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  35. Mercantilisme et utopie dans la « Préface » de L'Anatomie de la Mélancolie de Robert Burton.Claire Crignon-De Oliveira - forthcoming - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale.
    Si l'on s'accorde à voir dans l'ouvrage du clergyman mélancolique Robert Burton paru en 1621 une sorte d'aboutissement et de consécration de la mode mélancolique, l'on a toutefois tendance à négliger le fait que l'anatomiste utilise le discours médical et la tradition mélancolique pour attirer l'attention de ses contemporains sur l'existence d'un désordre qui se manifeste, au niveau de la collectivité, par une crise religieuse, politique, sociale et économique. C'est sous le patronage de l'un des premiers représentants du courant mercantiliste (...)
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  36. The Epistemology of Testimony: Locke and His Critics.Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - In Stephen Howard & Jack Stetter (eds.), The Edinburgh Critical History of Early Modern and Enlightenment Philosophy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Contemporary discussions of the epistemology of testimony are often framed in terms of the disagreement on this topic between Hume and Reid. However, it is widely assumed that, prior to Hume, philosophers in the grip of Enlightenment individualism neglected philosophical questions about testimony, simply treating testimony as ordinary empirical evidence. In fact, although the evidential model of testimony was popular in early modern philosophy, it was also the subject of vigorous debate. This chapter examines Locke's defence of the evidential model (...)
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  37. Astell and Masham on Epistemic Authority and Women's Individual Judgment in Religion.Kenneth L. Pearce - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy.
    In 1705, Mary Astell and Damaris Masham both published works advocating for women's use of individual judgment in matters of religion. Although both philosophers advocate for women's education and intellectual autonomy, and both are adherents of the Church of England, they differ dramatically in their attitudes to religious authority. These differences are rooted in a deeper disagreement about the nature of epistemic authority in general. Astell defends an interpersonal model of epistemic authority on which we properly trust testimony when the (...)
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  38. Joseph Glanvill: Apologet der Royal Society und Erforscher der Geisterwelt.Reinald Schröder - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiae.
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  39. Liberty and Religion: Catharine Macaulay and the History of Republicanism and the Enlightenment.Max Skjönsberg - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-10.
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  40. Catharine Cockburn on Substantival Space.Emily Thomas - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30(30).
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  41. On Mary Shepherd's Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect.Jessica Wilson - forthcoming - In Eric Schliesser (ed.), Neglected Classics of Philosophy, II. Oxford University Press.
    Mary Shepherd (1777–1847) was a fierce and brilliant critic of Berkeley and Hume, who moreover offered strikingly original positive views about the nature of reality and our access to it which deserve much more attention (and credit, since she anticipates many prominent views) than they have received thus far. By way of illustration, I focus on Shepherd's 1824 Essay Upon the Relation of Cause and Effect, Controverting the Doctrine of Mr. Hume, Concerning the Nature of that Relation (ERCE). After a (...)
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  42. Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ and Scottish Political Thought of the 1790s.Danielle Charette - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):78-96.
    ABSTRACT This article traces the reception of Hume's ‘Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth’ among a circle of Scottish Whigs supportive of the French Revolution. While the influence of Hume's essay on American Federalists like James Madison has long been a subject of debate, historians have overlooked the appeal that the plan held for Hume's intellectual heirs in Scotland. In the early 1790s, theorists such as John Millar, James Mackintosh, and Dugald Stewart believed European governments – above all France – could (...)
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  43. Monboddo’s ‘Ugly Tail’: The Question of Evidence in Enlightenment Sciences of Man.Silvia Sebastiani - 2022 - History of European Ideas 48 (1):45-65.
    ABSTRACT The erudite James Burnet, Lord Monboddo, member of the Select Society and judge of the Court of Session in Edinburgh, wrote many pages about the existence of ‘men with tails’ and orang-utans’ humanity. For this reason, he has been labelled as ‘credulous’, ‘bizarre’ and ‘eccentric’ both by his contemporaries and by modern scholars. In this paper, I shall try to take his argument seriously and to show that throughout his work Monboddo searched for evidence. If his belief in mermaids, (...)
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  44. Mary Astell’s Radical Criticism of Gender Inequality.Martin Fog Lantz Arndal - 2021 - Intellectual History Review 31 (1):91-110.
  45. The Virtues of Everyday Talk: The Enduring Significance of John Milton’s Theory of Expressive Liberties.Chloé Bakalar - 2021 - Political Theory 49 (4):584-612.
    The system of free expression John Milton defends in Areopagitica, a pamphlet against prior restraint in publishing, is often characterized as merely a proto-liberal, truth-based marketplace of ideas theory. But this represents a misunderstanding of Milton’s views on the freedoms of conscience, speech, and the press. The tendency in political theory, philosophy, and law to reduce the “free speech Milton” to Areopagitica, and the reduction of that essay to several soundbites, has meant sidelining both the significant exceptions to expressive liberties (...)
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  46. Locke and William Molyneux.Ruth Boeker - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. Routledge.
    William Molyneux (1656–1698) was an Irish experimental philosopher and politician, who played a major role in the intellectual life in seventeenth-century Dublin. He became Locke’s friend and correspondent in 1692 and was probably Locke’s philosophically most significant correspondent. Locke approached Molyneux for advice for revising his Essay concerning Human Understanding as he was preparing the second and subsequent editions. Locke made several changes in response to Molyneux’s suggestions; they include major revisions of the chapter ‘Of Power’ (2.21), the addition of (...)
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  47. The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment, 2nd Ed.: Edited by Alexander Broadie and Craig Smith, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Pp. Xvi + 375, £18.00 (Pb), ISBN: 9781108430784.Deborah Boyle - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 29 (1):188-191.
    The second edition of The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment has the same goal as the first edition : to describe “the historical circumstances”, the “leading idea...
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  48. The Rise and Fall of Scottish Common Sense Realism by Douglas McDermid.Deborah Boyle - 2021 - Hume Studies 43 (2):107-109.
    This rich and interesting book tells the story of the development and ultimate disappearance over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries of a central theme in Scottish philosophy: common sense realism. Taking Thomas Reid's version of common sense realism as the paradigmatic form, McDermid shows how Reid's views had their roots in Lord Kames's account of perceptual realism, how Dugald Stewart and Sir William Hamilton defended and modified Reid's view, and how James Ferrier systematically repudiated both Reid's appeal (...)
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  49. How Physics Flew the Philosophers' Nest.Katherine Brading - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:312-20.
  50. Catharine Trotter Cockburn on the Virtue of Atheists.Jacqueline Broad - 2021 - Intellectual History Review 31 (1):111-128.
    In her Remarks Upon Some Writers (1743), Catharine Trotter Cockburn takes a seemingly radical stance by asserting that it is possible for atheists to be virtuous. In this paper, I examine whether or not Cockburn’s views concerning atheism commit her to a naturalistic ethics and a so-called radical enlightenment position on the independence of morality and religion. First, I examine her response to William Warburton’s critique of Pierre Bayle’s arguments concerning the possibility of a society of virtuous atheists. I argue (...)
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