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  1. Plantinga's Ontological Argument.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The ontological argument for the existence of God has enjoyed a recent renaissance among philosophers of religion. Alvin Plantinga's modal version is perhaps the most notable example. This essay critically examines Plantinga's rendition, uncovering both its strengths and weaknesses. The author concludes that while the argument is probably formally valid, it is ultimately unsound. Nonetheless, Plantinga's version has generated much interest and discussion. The author spends some time uncovering the reasons for the argument's powerful intuitive appeal. He concludes his essay (...)
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  2. A Falsifiable Ontological Argument for the Existence of (any) God(s) and Why the Universe Exists.David Angell - manuscript
    Absolute nothing is the absence of our universe and its laws. Without these rules, nothingness has infinite potential. This implies that within the infinite probability of nothing, infinity can emerge. This would be expressed through infinite universes like our own. Infinite of these universes will differ by several particles, appearing and disappearing for no reason other than fulfilling every possibility. This universe is the product of a greater realisation of infinity and we can test this theory via the measurement of (...)
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  3. Modal to traditional ontological arguments.Kris Ballard - manuscript
    I look at the literature surrounding the ontological argument and I ask the question why the new works in the literature move away from the traditional arguments to move to modal variants. My task here is to examine why this is happening and give an argument that I deem to be successful in proving god’s existence. I consider reasons why people reject the traditional ontological argument and hope to resolve them.
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  4. The Monologion Argument for the Existence and Supremacy of God.Hugh Chandler - manuscript
    In the first two chapters of the Monologion Anselm shows, or tries to show that “Of all the things that exist, there is one that is the best, greatest and supreme.” In this paper I examine his argument.
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  5. How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail.Matthew Parker - manuscript
    Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer scrutiny are not. The premises have modal import that is required for the arguments but is not immediately grasped on inspection, and which ultimately undermines the simpler logical intuitions that make the premises seem plausible. Furthermore, the notion of necessity that they involve goes unspecified, and yet must go beyond standard varieties of logical necessity. This leaves us little reason (...)
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  6. Probability of immortality and God’s existence. A mathematical perspective.Jesús Sánchez - manuscript
    What are the probabilities that this universe is repeated exactly the same with you in it again? Is God invented by human imagination or is the result of human intuition? The intuition that the same laws/mechanisms (evolution, stability winning probability) that have created something like the human being capable of self-awareness and controlling its surroundings, could create a being capable of controlling all what it exists? Will be the characteristics of the next universes random or tend to something? All these (...)
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  7. Unlimited Nature: A Śaivist Model of Divine Greatness.Davide Andrea Zappulli - forthcoming - Sophia:1-17.
    The notion of maximal greatness is arguably part of the very concept of God: something greater than God is not even possible. But how should we understand this notion? The aim of this paper is to provide a Śaivist answer to this question by analyzing the form of theism advocated in the Pratyabhijñā tradition. First, I extract a model of divine greatness, the Hierarchical Model, from Nagasawa’s work "Maximal God". According to the Hierarchical Model, God is that than which nothing (...)
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  8. Modal Ontolojik Argümanlar.Musa Yanık - 2024 - Oncul Analitik Felsefe Dergisi 1.
    Modal ontolojik argüman, Tanrı’nın varlığını sadece bilfiil gerçek olan bu dünyada değil, bütün mümkün dünyalarda göstermeye yönelik bir argümandır. Anselm’in (1033-1109) Proslogion adlı eserinin 3. bölümünde “kendisinden daha büyüğü düşünülemeyen” şeklinde tanımlanan; Tanrı’nın var olmamasının da düşünülemeyeceğini, bu yüzden de varolmamasının imkansızlığı üzerinde kurulu yeni bir argüman bulunduğunu öne süren bazı araştırmacılar, bu argümanı mümkün dünyalar semantiği yardımıyla formüle edip, “modal ontolojik argüman” şeklinde adlandırmışlardır. Çok farklı şekillerde formüle edilmiş bu argüman kabaca Tanrı’nın mümkünse zorunlu olması, dolayısıyla bilfiil gerçek olan (...)
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  9. Murdoch's Ontological Argument.Cathy Mason & Matt Dougherty - 2023 - European Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):769-784.
    Anselm’s ontological argument is an argument for the existence of God. This paper presents Iris Murdoch’s ontological argument for the existence of the Good. It discusses her interpretation of Anselm’s argument, her distinctive appropriation of it, as well as some of the merits of her version of the argument. In doing so, it also shows how the argument integrates some key Murdochian ideas: morality’s wide scope, the basicness of vision to morality, moral realism, and Platonism.
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  10. Modal Ontological Arguments.Gregory R. P. Stacey - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (8):e12938.
    Inspired by the third chapter of Anselm's Proslogion, twentieth century philosophers including Charles Hartshorne and Alvin Plantinga developed “modal” ontological arguments for the existence of God. Such arguments use modal logic to infer God's existence from the premises that (i) God's existence is possible and (ii) if God exists, He exists necessarily. Like other ontological arguments, modal arguments have won few converts to theism; many commentators consider them question‐begging or liable to parody. This article details how recent attempts to defend (...)
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  11. Review of Oppy (2018). [REVIEW]Mario Schärli - 2022 - Dialectica 74 (1):163-169.
    Review of Graham Oppy (ed.), Ontological Arguments, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. I particularly engage with the contributions of Lawrence Nolan on Descartes, Lawrence Pasternack on Kant, and Graham Oddie on Tichy.
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  12. A Patch to the Possibility Part of Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Johan E. Gustafsson - 2020 - Analysis 80 (2):229-240.
    Kurt Gödel’s version of the Ontological Proof derives rather than assumes the crucial Possibility Claim: the claim that it is possible that something God-like exists. Gödel’s derivation starts off with a proof of the Possible Instantiation of the Positive: the principle that, if a property is positive, it is possible that there exists something that has that property. I argue that Gödel’s proof of this principle relies on some implausible axiological assumptions but it can be patched so that it only (...)
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  13. The Greatest Possible Being, by Jeff Speaks. [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2020 - Philosophical Review 129 (4):664-669.
  14. Ontological arguments.Graham Oppy - 2020 - Think 19 (55):11-21.
    This is a short introduction to ontological arguments. It begins with a brief characterization of ontological arguments that proceeds mainly by way of example. The rest of the discussion is given over to consideration of what looks like a very simple ontological argument. This consideration turns up many of the issues that arise when more complex ontological arguments are examined.
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  15. Purism: An Ontological Proof for The Impossibility of God.* Primus - 2020 - Secular Studies 2 (2):160-178.
    This article presents an ontological proof that God is impossible.I define an ‘impossibility’ as a condition which is inconceivable due to its a priori characteristics (e.g. a ‘square circle’). Accordingly, said conditions will not ever become conceivable, as they could in instances of a posteriori inconceivability (e.g. the notion that someone could touch a star without being burned). As the basis of this argument, I refer to an a priori observation (Primus, 2019) regarding our inability to imagine inconsistency (difference) within (...)
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  16. A racionalidade da crença na existência de Deus em Santo Agostinho.Thiago Jordão - 2019 - Revista Brasileira de Filosofia da Religião 1 (5):153-165.
    De libero arbitrio presents one of the first arguments of God’s existence developed by a Christian thinker. Using the hierarchy of beings, St. Augustine establishes Reason as an instrument for seeking a reality that is supreme: that which, finding nothing more excellent, Reason itself would not hesitate to call “God”. The present paper demonstrates how this argument is aligned with Augustinian axiom that the rational search already presupposes a fiduciary adhesion. If on the one hand it offers a substrate upon (...)
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  17. Alexander R. Pruss and Joshua L. Rasmussen. Necessary Existence[REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2019 - Journal of Analytic Theology 7 (1):765-771.
    This is a review of *Necessary Existence* (by Alex Pruss and Josh Rasmussen). The review outlines a response to the main line of argument that is developed in the book.
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  18. Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 86:66-73.
    This article is a brief overview of major ontological arguments. The most noteworthy feature of this article is the statement of a new parody of the Anselmian and Cartesian arguments that is obviously immune to objections adverting to intrinsic minima and maxima.
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  19. An Objection to Naturalism and Atheism from Logic.Christopher Gregory Weaver - 2019 - In Graham Oppy (ed.), Blackwell Companion to Atheism and Philosophy. Malden: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 451-475.
    I proffer a success argument for classical logical consequence. I articulate in what sense that notion of consequence should be regarded as the privileged notion for metaphysical inquiry aimed at uncovering the fundamental nature of the world. Classical logic breeds necessitism. I use necessitism to produce problems for both ontological naturalism and atheism.
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  20. Ontologický důkaz Boží existence.Franz Brentano - 2018 - Studia Neoaristotelica 15 (3):1-61.
    A translation by Hynek Janoušek into Czech of Brentano on the ontological argument for the existence of God.
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  21. Review of Yujin Nagasawa, Maximal God: A New Defence of Perfect Being Theism: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, hb, ISBN: 978-0198758686, xiii+225 pp. [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2018 - Sophia 57 (1):189-191.
  22. "Kant's Fourfold Critique of the Ontological Argument: Conceptual Containment, Predication, and the Portents of Free Logic".Lawrence Pasternack - 2018 - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  23. Conceivability and Possibility.Joshua Spencer - 2018 - In Graham Oppy (ed.), The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 214-237.
    Some people might be tempted by modal ontological arguments from the possibility that God exists to the conclusion that God in fact exists. They might also be tempted to support the claim that possibly God exists by appealing to the conceivability of God’s existence. In this chapter, I introduce three constraints on an adequate theory of philosophical conceivability. I then consider and develop both imagination-based accounts of conceivability and conceptual coherence-based accounts of conceivability. Finally, I return to the modal ontological (...)
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  24. The Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2017 - In Donald M. Borchert (ed.), Philosophy: Religion. Boston, USA: Macmillan Reference. pp. 51-64.
    This paper discusses: (1) Anselm’s ontological argument and its criticism by Gaunilo; (2) Plantinga’s ontological argument and its criticism by Mackie and Sobel; and (3) a simplified version of Gödel’s ontological argument. It also looks carefully at (4) Kant’s attempt to show that it is impossible for there to be a successful ontological argument.
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  25. Uma avaliação do argumento ontológico modal de Plantinga.Domingos Faria - 2016 - Kairos 15 (1):71-84.
    My aim in this paper is to critically assess Plantinga’s modal ontological argument for existence of God, such as it is presented in the book “The Nature of Necessity”. Plantinga tries to show that this argument is valid and it is rational to believe in his main premise, namely “there is a possible world in which maximal greatness is instantiated”. On the one hand, I want to show that this argument is logically valid in both systems B and S5 of (...)
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  26. Berkeley: el conocimiento de Dios a través de uno mismo / Berkeley on the Knowledge of God through oneself.Alberto Luis López - 2016 - In Ildefonso Murillo (ed.), Pensar y conocer a Dios en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Spain: pp. 530-537.
    Is not easy to explain how God is known according to Berkeley. However, from his works one may infer that philosophically Berkeley oscillates between two conceptions of God: (i) as an indispensable and necessary assumption for his theory of ideas and (ii) as a being analogous to the man. From these conceptions, I present here a route for the knowledge of God, which emerges from Berkeley´s concept of finite spirit. As this possess the ideas of imagination and memory and is (...)
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  27. The Modal Ontological Argument Meets Modal Fictionalism.Ted Parent - 2016 - Analytic Philosophy 57 (4):338-352.
    This paper attacks the modal ontological argument, as advocated by Plantinga among others. Whereas other criticisms in the literature reject one of its premises, the present line is that the argument is invalid. This becomes apparent once we run the argument assuming fictionalism about possible worlds. Broadly speaking, the problem is that if one defines “x” as something that exists, it does not follow that there is anything satisfying the definition. Yet unlike non-modal ontological arguments, the modal argument commits this (...)
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  28. Leibniz on God and Religion.Lloyd Strickland - 2016 - London: Bloomsbury.
    Bringing together Leibniz's writings on God and religion for the very first time, Leibniz on God and Religion: A Reader reflects the growing importance now placed on Leibniz's philosophical theology. This reader features a wealth of material, from journal articles and book reviews published in Leibniz's lifetime to private notes and essays, as well as items from his correspondence. Organised thematically into the following sections, this reader captures the changes in Leibniz's thinking over the course of his career: 1. The (...)
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  29. Does religious belief impact philosophical analysis?Kevin P. Tobia - 2016 - Religion, Brain and Behavior 6 (1):56-66.
    One popular conception of natural theology holds that certain purely rational arguments are insulated from empirical inquiry and independently establish conclusions that provide evidence, justification, or proof of God’s existence. Yet, some raise suspicions that philosophers and theologians’ personal religious beliefs inappropriately affect these kinds of arguments. I present an experimental test of whether philosophers and theologians’ argument analysis is influenced by religious commitments. The empirical findings suggest religious belief affects philosophical analysis and offer a challenge to theists and atheists, (...)
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  30. Causal interpretation of Gödel's ontological proof.Srećko Kovač - 2015 - In Kordula Świętorzecka (ed.), Gödel's Ontological Argument: History, Modifications, and Controversies. Semper. pp. 163.201.
    Gödel's ontological argument is related to Gödel's view that causality is the fundamental concept in philosophy. This explicit philosophical intention is developed in the form of an onto-theological Gödelian system based on justification logic. An essentially richer language, so extended, offers the possibility to express new philosophical content. In particular, theorems on the existence of a universal cause on a causal "slingshot" are formulated.
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  31. Gödel's "slingshot" argument and his onto-theological system.Srećko Kovač & Kordula Świętorzecka - 2015 - In Kordula Świętorzecka (ed.), Gödel's Ontological Argument: History, Modifications, and Controversies. Semper. pp. 123-162.
    The paper shows that it is possible to obtain a "slingshot" result in Gödel's theory of positiveness in the presence of the theorem of the necessary existence of God. In the context of the reconstruction of Gödel's original "slingshot" argument on the suppositions of non-Fregean logic, this is a natural result. The "slingshot" result occurs in sufficiently strong non-Fregean theories accepting the necessary existence of some entities. However, this feature of a Gödelian theory may be considered not as a trivialisation, (...)
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  32. On the PROVER9 Ontological Argument.T. Parent - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (2):475-483.
    Oppenheimer & Zalta have re-formulated their non-modal version of the ontological argument, with the help of PROVER9, an automated reasoning engine. The authors end up rejecting the new argument; however, the theist has a rejoinder worth considering. But after presenting the rejoinder, I highlight that the conceivability of the being does not imply its possibility. One lesson is that even non-modal ontological arguments must engage modal matters concerning God. Another lesson is that if PROVER9 is able to derive a conclusion (...)
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  33. The greatest possible being needn't be anything impossible.Patrick Todd - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (4):531-542.
    There are various argumentative strategies for advancing the claim that God does not exist. One such strategy is this. First, one notes that God is meant to have a certain divine attribute (such as omniscience). One then argues that having the relevant attribute is impossible. One concludes that God doesn't exist. For instance, Dennis Whitcomb's recent paper, ‘Grounding and omniscience’, proceeds in exactly this way. As Whitcomb says, ‘I'm going to argue that omniscience is impossible and that therefore there is (...)
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  34. Augustine as an Apologist: Is Confessions Apologetic in Nature?Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2015 - American Journal of Biblical Theology 16 (32):1-34.
    This paper explores the apologetic nature of Augustine’s Confessions. It first takes a brief look at Augustine’s intricate view of the relationship between faith and reason, in order to provide a background to his employment of apologetic elements throughout Confessions. Both positive and negative apologetic elements are examined throughout the paper. Some positive apologetic elements include Augustine’s presentation of the implied ontological argument, the cosmological argument, the teleological argument, the argument from the experience of beauty, and the demonstration of the (...)
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  35. Richard Kearney y la cuarta reducción fenomenológica.Carlos Arboleda Mora - 2014 - Escritos 22 (49):313-335.
    Uno de los fenomenólogos de la nueva generación que sigue la línea de Husserl, Heidegger, Marion y Lévinas es Richard Kearney. Este filósofo irlandés, católico, propone una cuarta reducción fenomenológica, esto es, volver al eschaton enraizado en la existencia cotidiana: encontrar la voz y el rostro de lo más alto en lo más bajo. Es como la realización de aquella idea heideggeriana de que “Sólo aquello del mundo que es de poca monta llegará alguna vez a ser cosa.” . En (...)
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  36. Ontological arguments.Graham Oppy - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Latest version of my SEP entry on ontological arguments, which first appeared in 1996. General discussion of ontological arguments. Includes a brief historical overview, a taxonomy of different kinds of ontological arguments, a brief survey of objections to the different kinds of ontological arguments identified in the taxonomy, and more extended discussions of Anselm's ontological argument (Proslogion 2), Godel's ontological argument, and Plantinga's ontological argument.
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  37. ‘Ontological’ arguments from experience: Daniel A. Dombrowski, Iris Murdoch, and the nature of divine reality.Elizabeth D. Burns - 2013 - Religious Studies 49 (4):459-480.
    Dombrowski and Murdoch offer versions of the ontological argument which aim to avoid two types of objection – those concerned with the nature of the divine, and those concerned with the move from an abstract concept to a mind-independent reality. For both, the nature of the concept of God/Good entails its instantiation, and both supply a supporting argument from experience. It is only Murdoch who successfully negotiates the transition from an abstract concept to the instantiation of that concept, however, and (...)
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  38. Ontological Proofs Today. [REVIEW]Kevin J. Harrelson - 2013 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  39. Lowe on "The Ontological Argument".Graham Oppy - 2013 - In Chad Meister, J. P. Moreland & K. Sweus (eds.), Debating Christian Theism. Oxford University Press. pp. 72-84.
    This paper is a discussion of an ontological argument defended by E. J. Lowe in the *Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion* (edited by C. Meister and P. Copan, at pp.332-40). The volume to which this paper belongs contains an article by Lowe which defends a different ontological argument from the one that I discuss.
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  40. The Ontological Argument: Past, Present, and Future?Shaun Smith - 2013 - Sententias.
    This article serves to explore the historical development of the ontological argument from Anselm to Present. Initially, the main goal is to introduce the lay reader to one of the most perplexing arguments for the theistic conception of God. Logically, this is an a priori argument, similar to one of a mathematical proof. Oddly, the argument has sort of fallen out of place in contemporary philosophy, apart from a reboot from Alvin Plantinga. The goal is to illustrate that the initial (...)
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  41. Kant and Frege on Existence and the Ontological Argument.Michael E. Cuffaro - 2012 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (4):337-354.
    I argue that Kant's and Frege's refutations of the ontological argument are more similar than has generally been acknowledged. As I clarify, for both Kant and Frege, to say that something exists is to assert of a concept that it is instantiated. With such an assertion one expresses that there is a particular relation between the instantiating object and a rational subject - a particular mode of presentation for the object in question. By its very nature such a relation cannot (...)
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  42. El argumento ontológico y la muerte de la metafísica. Dos visiones complementarias: Kant y Hegel.Hector Ferreiro - 2012 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 57 (3):99-120.
    The core of Kant’s criticism of the ontological argument is the thesis that existence is not a real predicate capable of being added to the concept of an object. The concept of the most perfect or the most real being is a subjective content that is as such completely determined, that is to say, that already has all the determinations that define that concept as such. Therefore, to know if that object also exists in the real world is indispensable that (...)
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  43. Raymond Ruyer, la biologie et la théologie naturelle [Raymond Ruyer, biology, and natural theology].Philippe Gagnon - 2012 - In Ronny Desmet & Michel Weber (eds.), Chromatikon VIII: Annales de la philosophie en procès — Yearbook of Philosophy in Process. Louvain-la-Neuve: Éditions Chromatika. pp. 157-176.
    This is the outline: Introduction : le praticien d’une science-philosophie; Épiphénoménisme retourné et subjectivité délocalisée; Dieu est-il jamais inféré par la science ?; La question du panthéisme; Le pilotage axiologique et la parabole mécaniste; L'unité domaniale comme ce qui reste en dehors de la science.
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  44. Two Ontological Arguments for the Existence of an Omniscient Being.Jason Megill - 2012 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag. pp. 50--77.
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  45. A Modal Theistic Argument.Jason Megill & Amy Reagor - 2012 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag. pp. 50--89.
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  46. Existence.Michael Nelson - 2012 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  47. Maydole on Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2012 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag. pp. 445.
    This paper is an assessment of Robert Maydole's work on ontological arguments. (Bibliographical details are provided in the text.) I argue that Maydole's ontological arguments are unsuccessful.
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  48. Pruss, motivational centrality, and probabilities attached to possibility premises in modal ontological arguments.Graham Oppy - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):65-85.
    This paper is a critique of a paper by Alex Pruss. I argue that Pruss's attempt to motivate acceptance of the key possiblity premise in modal ontological arguments fails.
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  49. Response to Maydole.Graham Oppy - 2012 - In Miroslaw Szatkowski (ed.), Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag. pp. 445-68.
    This paper is my second contribution to the Szatkowski volume. In the first paper, I provide a critical discussion of Bob Maydole's ontological arguments. In this second paper, I respond to Maydole's critical response to my first paper. My overall verdict is that Maydole does not successfully defend his arguments against my critical attack.
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  50. 8 Debate Maydole-Oppy.Miroslaw Szatkowski - 2012 - In Ontological Proofs Today. Ontos Verlag. pp. 55.
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