Arguments for Theism

Edited by Daniel von Wachter (International Academy of Philosophy In The Principality of Liechtenstein)
About this topic
Summary Theism is generally taken to be the view that there is a person who is bodiless, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, perfectly good, perfectly free, and who is the creator and sustainer of the universe. There are of course  different ways to spell out these attributes, for example some spell out ‘eternal‘ as ‘being outside of time‘, others as ‘everlasting‘. However, those who present arguments for or against the ‘existence of God‘ use the term ‘God’ similarly enough to be discussing the same question. Philosophers rather say that there is no God than using ‘God’ in a very different sense, for example in the sense of something other than a person. Most or all arguments for or against theism, today as well as in the past, are not assumed to make belief in God somehow ‘apodictically‘ certain. However, some arguments are deductive, others inductive.
Key works The most thorough defense of the existence of God is Swinburne 1979, who gives probabilistic, inductive instead of deductive arguments and who rejects the ontological as well as the moral argument from the existence of values or duties. Plantinga 1974 defends the ontological argument, Adams 1979 the moral argument. Mackie 1982 is still a much quoted defense of atheism. Rowe 2010 presents an atheistic position.
Introductions Most anthologies with the title ‘philosophy of religion’ contain articles that give the various arguments, for example Craig 2002 or Davies 2000, and also Meister & Copan 2007, Taliaferro & Meister 2010, and Copan & Moser 2003. A simplified defense of theism with various arguments is Swinburne 1996, Le Poidevin 1996 is an introductory defense atheism.
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  1. From Nothing to Everything. [REVIEW]M. C. Cole - 2022 - Mind 132 (v):98-103.
    Throughout the history, whenever humans encounter a phenomenon for which there was no explanation, a theory was proposed for it. Of course, not necessarily all the theories were purely scientific and many of them were non-scientific, pseudo- scientific, or at best were only slightly influenced by science. But one thing was in common among them: they all were trying to provide as deeper as possible explanations about how the universe works. Although today and in the modern era the exact meaning (...)
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  2. Metaphysical explanation and the cosmological argument.Thomas Oberle - 2024 - Philosophical Studies 181 (6):1413-1432.
    A premise of the Leibnizian cosmological argument from contingency says that no contingent fact can explain why there are any contingent facts at all. David Hume and Paul Edwards famously denied this premise, arguing that if every fact has an explanation in terms of further facts ad infinitum, then they all do. This is known as the Hume–Edwards Principle (HEP). In this paper, I examine the cosmological argument from contingency within a framework of metaphysical explanation or ground and defend a (...)
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  3. Genetic Universe Glossary: A Reference Text for The Genetic Universe: Revised Edition (2nd edition).Nelson Garcia Gonzalez - 2024 - Jacksoville, Florida: Nelson E. Garcia.
    GENETIC UNIVERSE GLOSSARY expands upon The Genetic Universe, offering additional metaphysical definitions for advanced students or for individuals who are well versed in metaphysics or philosophy of mind. The 53 reference entries in this companion volume—including such terms as semantic faculty, force surface, and object of awareness—provide a better understanding of the larger picture behind absolute realization. This text is ideal for advanced students and professors, because it does not offer a step-by-step guide on how a given student should approach (...)
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  4. The Genetic Universe: Revised Edition (3rd edition).Nelson Garcia-Gonzalez - 2024 - Jacksonville, Florida USA: Nelson E. Garcia.
    THE GENETIC UNIVERSE explores the limitations of an invisible and silent universe and reveals details of how mind overcomes these limitations. Is a genetic essence needed before things can exist? In this work and its separate glossary, the author says “yes” and goes on to present, in controversial and eye-opening fashion, the profound ramifications involved therein. The notions explored in The Genetic Universe—existence and pre-existentiality, reception and perception, indirect creation and intelligent design, human development and transcendence, cognitive attribution and awareness (...)
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  5. Skeptical Theism, Fideism, and Pyrrhonian Skepticism.Diego E. Machuca - forthcoming - Bollettino Della Società Filosofica Italiana.
    Is skeptical theism tenable once one acknowledges, as the proponent of that view does, one's cognitive limitations vis-à-vis religious matters? In this article, I aim to answer that question both by examining the apparent radical skeptical implications of the skeptical component of skeptical theism and by comparing this view with both fideism and Pyrrhonism, which also lay emphasis on our cognitive limitations. My ultimate purpose is to determine which of the three stances it makes more sense to adopt once the (...)
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  6. The Gap in the Evil God Challenge.Justin Mooney & Perry Hendricks - forthcoming - Analysis.
    We argue that the evil-god challenge is not an additional challenge for theists above and beyond the (much older) gap problem. One version of the evil-god challenge is merely a specific instance of the gap problem, and another is dependent on that specific instance of the gap problem. Therefore, the various solutions to the gap problem that theists have developed double as responses to the evil-god challenge, placing the evil-god challenge in a more vulnerable position than has been supposed.
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  7. A Dialogue on the Existence and Nature of God with ChatGPT.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    This work is the transcript of a theological dialogue I had with ChatGPT that spanned a couple of days. I began it merely out of curiosity over how ChatGPT might respond to questions and challenges I posed. As it progressed, I became increasingly impressed with the nuance, depth, and relevance of its responses. The dialogue became, for me, something of a contemplative exercise. I still don’t know quite how to understand the ability of generative A.I. to respond with such (apparent) (...)
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  8. Review of R. Douglas Geivett's Evil and the Evidence for God. [REVIEW]Michael Bergmann - 1996 - Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):436-41.
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  9. Coloquio Interinstitucional de Estudiantes de Patrología en Colombia.Estiven Valencia Marin - 2024 - Anuário de Historia de la Iglesia 33 (1):472-475.
    Convocado inicialmente por los miembros del Semillero de Investigación «Hermenéutica y Padres de la Iglesia» de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Bogotá, el Coloquio Interinstitucional de Estudiantes de Patrología se erige en 2018 como un espacio académico de reflexión sobre el pensamiento de los autores de los primeros siglos de la era cristiana. Hasta el día de hoy, el Coloquio se ha convertido en una importante iniciativa en Colombia para la visibilización de los trabajos de estudiantes que se han destacado (...)
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  10. Doğal Teoloji ve Doğal Din (Stanford Felsefe Ansiklopedisi).Musa Yanık, Andrew Chignell & Derk Pereboom - 2024 - Öncül Analitik Felsefe Dergisi. Translated by Musa Yanık.
    “Doğal din” terimi, bazen doğanın kendisinin ilahi olduğu bir panteistik doktrine atıfta bulunur. “Doğal teoloji” terimi ise aksine, başlangıçta gözlemlenen doğal gerçekler temelinde (ve bazen) Tanrı’nın varlığını savunmaya yönelik projeye atıfta bulunur. Bununla birlikte çağdaş felsefede, hem “doğal din” hem de “doğal teoloji” genel olarak, dinî veya teolojik konuları araştırmak için insana, “doğal” olan bilişsel yetilerini – akıl, algı, içgözlem- kullanma projesini ifade eder. Doğal din veya teoloji, mevcut anlayış üzerine, doğayla ilgili ampirik araştırmalarla sınırlı olmamakla birlikte ayrıca panteistik bir (...)
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  11. The Problem of Divine Personality.Andrew M. Bailey & Bradley Rettler - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
    The main question of this study is whether God has a personality. We show what the question means, why it matters, and that good sense can be made of an affirmative answer to it. A God with personality — complete with particular, sometimes peculiar, and even seemingly unexplainable druthers — is not at war with maximal perfection, nor is the idea irredeemably anthropomorphic. And the hypothesis of divine personality is fruitful, with substantive consequences that span philosophical theology. But problems arise (...)
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  12. Natural Theology and Divine Freedom.Philipp Kremers - 2024 - Sophia 63 (1):135-150.
    Many philosophers of theistic religions claim (1) that there are powerful a posteriori arguments for God’s existence that make it rational to believe that He exists and at the same time maintain (2) that God always has the freedom to do otherwise. In this article, I argue that these two positions are inconsistent because the empirical evidence on which the a posteriori arguments for God’s existence rest can be explained better by positing the existence of a God-like being without the (...)
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  13. The Symmetry Regained.Tien-Chun Lo - 2024 - Analysis 84 (1):42-46.
    Collin (2022) attempts to break the symmetry between the modal ontological argument for the existence of God and the reverse modal ontological argument against the existence of God by drawing on some Kripkean lessons about a posteriori necessity. He argues that there is an undercutting defeater for taking God’s non-existence to be possible. In this paper, I reply that taking the Kripkean considerations about a posteriori necessity into account does not help break the symmetry. For we can argue in a (...)
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  14. Natural Theology and Religious Belief.Max Baker-Hytch - 2023 - In John Greco, Tyler Dalton McNabb & Jonathan Fuqua (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Religious Epistemology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 13-28.
    It is no exaggeration to say that there has been an explosion of activity in the field of philosophical enquiry that is known as natural theology. Having been smothered in the early part of the twentieth century due to the dominance of the anti-metaphysical doctrine of logical positivism, natural theology began to make a comeback in the late 1950s as logical positivism collapsed and analytic philosophers took a newfound interest in metaphysical topics such as possibility and necessity, causation, time, the (...)
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  15. Led 4 (us) — A dialogue about faith and knowledge.Johan Gamper - manuscript
    In this dialogue a sceptic meets one that convinces him that he is safe from the void of Nothingness although it exists.
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  16. Dudgeon, William (1705/6–1743), freethinker and philosopher.Paul Russell - 2004 - In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford Univerrsity Press.
    Dudgeon, William (1705/6–1743), freethinker and philosopher, is of unknown origins. A tenant farmer who resided at Lennel Hill Farm, near Coldstream, Berwickshire, he was one of several philosophers active in the borders area of Scotland during this period. Other figures in this group include Andrew Baxter, Henry Home (Lord Kames), and most importantly David Hume.....
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  17. Defeating the Problem of Evil with Evil.Rad Miksa - 2024 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 9 (1).
    I argue that the creation and freely chosen salvation and everlasting bliss of even just one person is a greater good than any finite amount of evil and suffering. Since it is extremely likely (if not certain) that, out of all possible individuals that could exist, some (or at least one) would only be freely saved through the contemplation and experience of evil and suffering, then God would be justified in creating a world with evil and suffering to allow for (...)
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  18. Awe at Natural Beauty as a Religious Experience.José Eduardo Porcher & Daniel De Luca-Noronha - 2023 - Síntese: Revista de Filosofia 50 (158):423-445.
    In this paper, we discuss an abductive argument for the existence of God from the experience of awe at natural beauty. If God's creative work is a viable explanation for why we experience awe at natural beauty, and there is no satisfactory naturalistic explanation for the origins of such experiences, then we have defeasible evidence that God exists. To evaluate the argument's tenability, we assess the merits of the two main theocentric frameworks that can be marshaled to answer the question (...)
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  19. ESKİÇAĞ BATI DÜNYASINDA YARATILIŞ KAVRAMI ÜZERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME.Erdemir Hatice - 2019 - In 3rd International Creation Congress in the Light of Sciences. Iğdır Üniversitesi. pp. 546-582.
    Bu bildirinin amacı, insanlığın varoluşu ile başlayan ilahî dinlerden (Allah tarafından gönderilmiş dinler) pagan dönemlere ve özellikle Eski Batı anlayışına aktarılan yaratılış kavramını ele almak, varsa benzerlik ve farklılıklarını ortaya koymaktır.
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  20. Kant as a Carpenter of Reason: The Highest Good and Systematic Coherence.Alexander T. Englert - 2024 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 32 (3):496-524.
    What is the highest good actually good for in Kant’s third Critique? While there are well-worked out answers to this question in the literature that focus on the highest good’s practical importance, this paper argues that there is an important function for the highest good that has to do exclusively with contemplation. This important function becomes clear once one notices that coherent [konsequent] thinking, for Kant, was synonymous with "bündiges" thinking, and that both are connected with the highest good in (...)
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  21. Astronism and the Astronic Religious Tradition.[author unknown] - 2023 - International Journal for the Study of New Religions 12 (1):3-31.
    A new religion was founded in 2013 that goes by the name of Astronism while its community of followers are known as Astronists. This article gives a rigorous account of the eschatology, soteriology and worldview of this new space religion while contextualizing its emergence as part of a broader Astronic religious tradition. This proposed tradition may itself possess prehistoric roots in the Upper Palaeolithic in the earliest human observations of the night sky. Human beings in turn came to establish a (...)
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  22. Oppy on arguments and worldviews: an internal critique.Bálint Békefi - 2024 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 95 (1):61-76.
    This paper develops an internal critique of Graham Oppy’s metaphilosophy of religion – his theories of argumentation, worldview comparison, and epistemic justification. First, it presents Oppy’s views and his main reasons in their favor. Second, it argues that Oppy is committed to two claims – that only truth-conducive reasons can justify philosophical belief and that such justification depends entirely on one’s judgments about the theoretical virtues of comprehensive worldviews – that jointly entail the unacceptable conclusion that philosophical beliefs cannot be (...)
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  23. No Work for Fundamental Facts.Thomas Oberle - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (4):983-1003.
    Metaphysical foundationalists argue that without fundamental facts, we cannot explain why there exist any dependent facts at all. Thus, metaphysical infinitism, the view that chains of ground can descend indefinitely without ever terminating in a level of fundamental facts, allegedly exhibits a kind of explanatory failure. I examine this argument and conclude that foundationalists have failed to show that infinitism exhibits explanatory failure. I argue that explaining the existence of dependent facts in terms of further dependent facts ad infinitum is (...)
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  24. Precis of Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy. SKEPSIS Book Symposium: Paul Russell, Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy, With replies to critics: Peter Fosl (pp. 77-95), Claude Gautier (pp. 96-111) , and Todd Ryan (pp.112-122).Paul Russell - 2023 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 14 (26):71-73.
    Recasting Hume and Early Modern Philosophy is a collection of essays that are all concerned with major figures and topics in the early modern philosophy. Most of the essays are concerned, more specifically, with the philosophy of David Hume (1711-1776). The sixteen essays included in this collection are divided into five parts. These parts are arranged under the headings of: (1) Metaphysics and Epistemology; (2) Free Will and Moral Luck; (3) Ethics, Virtue and Optimism; (4) Skepticism, Religion and Atheism; and (...)
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  25. A Metaphysical Demonstration of the Existence of God.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    This is an earlier version of the argument presented as the appendix to the author's final book, Peri Physeos.
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  26. Moral knowledge and the existence of God.Noah D. McKay - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 94 (1).
    I argue that, all else being equal, theism is more probable than naturalism on the assumption that human beings are able to arrive at a body of moral knowledge that is largely accurate and complete. I put forth this thesis on grounds that, if naturalism is true, the explanation of the content of our moral intuitions terminates either in biological-evolutionary processes or in social conventions adopted for pragmatic reasons; that, if this is so, our moral intuitions were selected for their (...)
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  27. Nachman Krochmal and the Argument from Design.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2018 - Scripta Judaica Cracoviensia 19:127-139.
  28. Krochmal’s Teleological and Ethical Arguments for the Existence of the Deity.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2019 - Judaica Petropolitana 11:87-103.
  29. Natural Theology: A Biblical and Historical Introduction and Defense.David Haines - 2021 - Landrum, SC: Davenant Press.
    Christians affirm that Scripture alone reveals truths about God which cannot be known by mere reason, such as the Trinity or the Gospel itself. But how do we account for Scripture’s apparent talk of a knowledge of God possible solely from creation? Or for our own sense of the divine in nature? Or for the startling insights of ancient philosophers about the nature of God? The answer: natural theology. Often misrepresented as a fruitless human attempt to comprehend God, natural theology (...)
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  30. Is There a Right to Hope that God Exists?Jacqueline Mariña - 2022 - Religions 13:Online.
    Abstract: In this paper, I respond to James Sterba’s recent book ‘Is a Good God Logically Possible?’ I show that Sterba concludes that God is not logically possible by ignoring three important issues: (a) the different functions of leeway indeterminism (and the political freedom presupposed by it) and autonomy (the two are very different things, even though both go under the name of freedom), (b) the differences in the conditions of agency in God and in creatures, (there is non-parity in (...)
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  31. Logika i vjera [Logic and Faith].Srećko Kovač - 2011 - In Suvremena znanost i vjera / Contemporary Science and Faith. pp. 69-84.
    A close interrelationship between logic and religious faith is confirmed in many places of the Bible. In the paper, special attention is paid to the dialogue of Jesus and a Samaritan woman (John 4). In a proposed outline of a logical formalization, religious faith is described as a pragmatic function through which the linguistic and logical content is contextually realized. In the continuation of the paper, Gödel's ontological proof is commented, which in a logically rigorous way describes the ontology where (...)
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  32. Resuscitating the Common Consent Argument for Theism.Matthew Braddock - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 93 (3):189-210.
    The common consent argument claims that widespread belief in God is good evidence for God’s existence. Though taken seriously throughout the history of philosophy, the argument died in the 1800s. Our philosophy of religion textbooks ignore it. In this paper, we hope to resuscitate it drawing upon the demographics of religious belief, the cognitive science of religion, and contemporary epistemology. We develop and defend two common consent arguments, which maintain that widespread belief in a High God is good evidence for (...)
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  33. Tertullian on Divine Sovereignty and Free Will.David Clark - 2019 - Philosophy and Theology 31 (1-2):3-19.
    Christian thinkers in the patristic era were not reluctant to integrate classical philosophy with biblical theology as they addressed the seeming incompatibility of free will and determinism (fate). This paper compares and contrasts Tertullian and the Stoics as they explain three issues relating to freedom and fate: 1) The operation of the Logos, 2) Theological Anthropology, and 3) Teleology. While in agreement with the Stoics on several key points, Tertullian crucially departs from them as he argues it is not by (...)
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  34. God.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2025 - In Karolina Hübner & Justin Steinberg (eds.), The Cambridge Spinoza lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In his Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Hegel offers the following verdict on Spinoza’s ontology: “According to Spinoza what is, is God, and God alone. Therefore, the allegations of those who accuse Spinoza of atheism are the direct opposite of the truth; with him there is too much God” (Hegel 1995, vol. 3, 281-2). It is not easy to dismiss Hegel’s grand pronouncement, since Spinoza indeed clearly affirms: “whatever is, is in God” (E1p15). Crocodiles, porcupines (and your thoughts about (...)
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  35. Fundamentality and the prior probability of theism.Luke Wilson - 2020 - Religious Studies 56 (2):169-180.
    Paul Draper has recently developed an account of intrinsic probability according to which a theory's intrinsic probability is determined by its modesty and coherence. He employs this account in an argument that Source Physicalism (SP) and Source Idealism (SI) are equally intrinsically probable. Since SP and SI are not exhaustive, and Theism is one very specific version of SI, it follows that the intrinsic probability of Theism is very low. I argue here that considerations of fundamentality show that more work (...)
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  36. Tanrı, Özgürlük ve Kötülük.Alvin Plantinga & Musa Yanık - 2022 - Ankara, Türkiye: Fol Yayınları. Translated by Musa Yanık.
    Ateistler, kötülük probleminin Tanrı’nın varlığı aleyhine en güçlü argüman olduğu konusunda hâlâ ısrarcılar. Felsefe tarihine baktığımızda da Epikuros’tan Hume’a ve yakın dönemde Mackie’ye kadar uzanan bir yelpazede çeşitli düşünürler tarafından bu konuda birçok eleştirinin dile getirildiğini görmek mümkün. Plantinga bu çalışmasında felsefe tarihinin en köklü sorunlarından biri olan ‘Tanrı’nın varlığı sorusu’nu cevaplamaya çalışmakla kalmayıp felsefi bir yöntem ve soruşturmanın nasıl olması gerektiği konusunda muhteşem bir örnek de sunmaktadır. Plantinga, bu kitabıyla bizi, felsefe tarihinin en temel ilkelerinden birini hatırlamaya çağırıyor: var (...)
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  37. Leibniz' Anthology of Maimonides' Guide.R. Moses Ben Maimon, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Walter Hilliger & Lloyd Strickland (eds.) - 2022 - New York: Shehakol Inc..
    Maimonides’ Latin translation of Moreh Nevukhim | Guide for the Perplexed, was the most influential Jewish work in the last millennia (Di Segni, 2019; Rubio, 2006; Wohlman, 1988, 1995; Kohler, 2017). It marked the beginning of scholasticism, a daughter of Judaism raised by Jewish thinkers, according to historian Heinrich Graetz (Geschichte der Juden, L. 6, Leipzig 1861, p. xii). Printed by Gutenberg's first mechanical press, its influence in the West went as far as the Fifth Lateran Council (1512 — 1517) (...)
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  38. Two challenges for 'no-norms' theism.James Reilly - 2023 - Religious Studies 59 (4):775-782.
    A number of theistic philosophers have recently denied that God is subject to moral and rational norms. At the same time, many theists employ epistemological and inductive arguments for the existence of God. I will argue that ‘no-norms’ theists cannot make use of such arguments: if God is not subject to norms – particularly rational norms – then we can say nothing substantive about what kind of worlds God would be likely to create, and as such, we cannot predict the (...)
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  39. Being a ‘not-quite-Buddhist theist’.James Dominic Rooney - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):787-800.
    Buddhism is a tradition that set itself decidedly against theism, with the development of complex arguments against the existence of God. I propose that the metaphysical conclusions reached by some schools in the Mahayana tradition present a vision of reality that, with some apparently small modification, would ground an argument for the existence of God. This argument involves explanation in terms of natures rather than causal agency. Yet I conclude not only that the Buddhist becomes a theist in embracing such (...)
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  40. Powers, possibility, and the essential cosmological argument.Ben Cook - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (4):745-758.
    One classical version of cosmological argument, defended famously by Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, deduces the existence of a First Cause from the existence of a particular sort of causal series: one that is ‘essentially ordered’. This argument has received renewed defence in recent work by Feser, Cohoe, and Kerr. I agree with these philosophers that the argument is sound. I believe, however, that the standard defence given of the ECA in these philosophers can be complemented by a formulation that (...)
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  41. Default Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Religions 12 (1):1-13.
    Agnosticism has always had its fair amount of criticism. Religious believers often described the first agnostics as infidels and it is not uncommon to see them described as somewhat dull fence-sitters. Moreover, the undecided agnostic stance on belief in gods is often compared with being unsure about such obviously false statements as the existence of orbiting teapots, invisible dragons or even Santa Claus. In this paper, I maintain that agnosticism can properly be endorsed as a default stance. More precisely, I (...)
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  42. Hopeism.Francis Jonbäck - forthcoming - Studia Theologica.
    Philosophers of religion have traditionally focused their attention on belief in God and assessed such belief in terms of it having some epistemic status like“rationality” or “probability”, or indeed by determining whether or not it constitutes knowledge. In this paper, I focus my attention on the non-doxastic attitude of hope and formulate reasons for whether or not we should hope for God. In light of these reasons, I formulate hopeism as a research programme according to which we should develop concepts (...)
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  43. Sceptical Agnosticism.Francis Jonbäck - 2022 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism (1):1-13.
    Agnostics as well as theists should answer evidential arguments from evil, at least when confronted with them. In this paper, I answer such an argument by appealing to sceptical agnosticism. A sceptical agnostic is not only undecided about the existence of a perfectly good and omnipotent God, but also believes that we cannot make any judgement about whether or not seemingly gratuitous evil probably is gratuitous. I argue that such agnosticism has several advantages compared with sceptical theism.
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  44. The Sceptical Response to the Existential Problem of Systemic Suffering.Francis Jonbäck - 2021 - Open Theology 2 (1):102-10.
    Recently, Yujin Nagasawa has argued that “systemic suffering” – suffering inherent in the evolutionary process – poses a problem for existentially optimistic theists and atheists who think that the world is overall good and therefore are happy and thankful to be alive in it. In short, he shows that it is difficult to consistently believe that the world is overall good when also recognising the existence of systemic suffering. In this article, I evaluate a sceptical response to the problem. The (...)
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  45. The Soul: How We Know It’s Real and Why It Matters. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2014 - Science Et Esprit 66 (3):490-494.
  46. God? Very Probably: Five Rational Ways to Think about the Question of God. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2019 - Science Et Esprit 71 (1):129-132.
  47. A Critical Examination on the Religious Argument for God's Existence.Juyong Kim - 2020 - 신학과 학문 (Theology and Other Disciplines) 1 (22):107-123.
    In this article, I critically examine the religious argument for the existence of God, which Palmquist formulated from Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. After showing the structure of the argument, I point the problematic point of the argument and focus on the concept of Gesinnung. The privateness of Gesinnung is problematized in the analysis of it, and I briefly suggest that an alternative account of the Gesinnung is possible. Yet I emphasize the advantage that this argument has (...)
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  48. The Theological Philosophy of William Temple: A Desire Argument and a Compassionate Theodicy.Rory Lawrence Phillips - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (5):2627-2643.
    In this paper, I will investigate the early work of William Temple (1881–1944). My contention is that Temple’s systematic philosophy contains resources for an interesting variant of a desire argument for God’s existence and for the truth of Christianity. This desire argument moves from claims about the nature of human reason to the conditions for its satisfaction and how that satisfaction might be achieved. In constructing this argument, Temple confronts the problem of evil, and so I will also outline his (...)
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  49. Teilhard's Dangerous Theological Errors.Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2017 - Fidelitas 10 (1):27-48.
    This article explores various issues with Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theology including his view of God, his articulation of a "new religion," and his thoughts about transhumanism. This article published is a commemoration of Monsignor Vincent Foy's contributions to Catholic thought. -/- After having examined many of Teilhard's writings and commentaries that have been articulated by both supporters and detractors, I am persuaded that one should not take an all-or-nothing approach to Teilhard (or any other thinker for that matter). The (...)
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  50. The Institutional Dictionary of Astronism. Cometan - 2021 - Preston, UK: Astral Publishing.
    The Institutional Dictionary of Astronism is the cumulation of receptions between Cometan and the astronomical world during the Founding era (2013-2021). The publication of this very first full-length Institutional Dictionary of Astronism represents eight years of the development of Astronism from its inception to how it stands today in 2021. The publication of this dictionary also encapsulates Astronism exactly as it exists now and how Cometan conceives it by the end of the Founding era. This dictionary and its contents capture (...)
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