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  1. Poetry's Secret Truth.Mark F. Sharlow - manuscript
    Poetry, it is said, can reveal truth. Yet despite the best efforts of philosophers and poets to describe this truth, very few understand what kinds of truth poetry can convey.* One fact seems clear: only a few of the truths of poetry can be captured equally well in prose. Poetry also conveys truths of a different kind — truths that seem to exist on a level entirely different level from that of ordinary, factual truth. Some poems try to teach moral (...)
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  2. Elgin on Science, Art and Understanding.Jochen Briesen - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    Is art epistemically valuable? Catherine Z. Elgin answers this question in the affirmative. She argues for the epistemic value of art on the basis of her innovative epistemological theory, in which the focus is shifted from knowledge and truth to a non-factive account of understanding. After an exposition and critique of her view, as she develops it in her most recent book “True Enough”, I will build on some of her ideas in order to strengthen her account.
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  3. Testimony, Understanding, and Art Criticism.Allan Hazlett - forthcoming - In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Philosophy and Art: New Essays at the Intersection. Oxford University Press.
    I present a puzzle – the “puzzle of aesthetic testimony” – along with a solution to it that appeals to the impossibility of testimonial understanding. I'll criticize this solution by defending the possibility of testimonial understanding, including testimonial aesthetic understanding.
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  4. Visual Metaphors and Aesthetics: A Formalist Theory of Metaphor.Michalle Gal - 2022 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Puplishing.
    This book offers a new definition of metaphor-as an ontological and visual construction, whose roots are external visual forms, and its motivation is our attachment to forms. This definition, which Michalle Gal names “visualist,” challenges the ruling conceptualist theory of metaphors and places a new emphasis on how we experience rather than understand metaphors. In doing so, she responds to the visual turn that is taking place in literature and the media, demanding that the visual become a site of philosophical (...)
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  5. Immaterial: Rules in Contemporary Art.Sherri Irvin - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
    Contemporary art can seem chaotic: it may be made of toilet paper, candies you can eat, or meat that is thrown out after each exhibition. Some works fill a room with obsessively fabricated objects, while others purport to include only concepts, thoughts, or language. Immaterial argues that, despite these unruly appearances, making rules is a key part of what many contemporary artists do when they make their works, and these rules can explain disparate developments in installation art, conceptual art, time-based (...)
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  6. Aesthetic Understanding.Jeremy Page - 2022 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 1:48-68.
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  7. What is an aesthetic concept?Andrea Sauchelli - 2022 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):1-17.
    Aesthetic concepts and conceptions are structured mental representations partly composed of phenomenal concepts. I defend this claim by appealing to contemporary accounts of concepts and to the current literature on phenomenal concepts. In addition, I discuss the relationship between aesthetic concepts and aesthetic understanding — an epistemic state at the centre of much work in contemporary epistemology.
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  8. Moved by Music Alone.Tom Cochrane - 2021 - British Journal of Aesthetics 61 (4):455-470.
    In this paper I present an account of musical arousal that takes into account key demands of formalist philosophers such as Peter Kivy and Nick Zangwill. Formalists prioritise our understanding and appreciation of the music itself. As a result, they demand that any feelings we have in response to music must be directed at the music alone, without being distracted by non-musical associations. To accommodate these requirements I appeal to a mechanism of contagion which I synthesize with the expectation-based arousal (...)
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  9. Videogame Cognitivism.Alexandre Declos - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Games 1:1-31.
    The aim of this article is to examine and defend videogame cognitivism (VC). According to VC, videogames can be a source of cognitive successes (such as true beliefs, knowledge or understanding) for their players. While the possibility of videogame-based learning has been an extensive topic of discussion in the last decades, the epistemological underpinnings of these debates often remain unclear. I propose that VC is a domain- specific brand of aesthetic cognitivism, which should be carefully distinguished from other views that (...)
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  10. Artistic Objectivity: From Ruskin’s ‘Pathetic Fallacy’ to Creative Receptivity.Eli I. Lichtenstein - 2021 - British Journal of Aesthetics 61 (4):505-526.
    While the idea of art as self-expression can sound old-fashioned, it remains widespread—especially if the relevant ‘selves’ can be social collectives, not just individual artists. But self-expression can collapse into individualistic or anthropocentric self-involvement. And compelling successor ideals for artists are not obvious. In this light, I develop a counter-ideal of creative receptivity to basic features of the external world, or artistic objectivity. Objective artists are not trying to express themselves or reach collective self-knowledge. However, they are also not disinterested (...)
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  11. Philosophy, Literature and Understanding: On Reading and Cognition.Jukka Mikkonen - 2021 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Challenging existing methodological conceptions of the analytic approach to aesthetics, Jukka Mikkonen brings together philosophy, literary studies and cognitive psychology to offer a new theory on the cognitive value of reading fiction. -/- Philosophy, Literature and Understanding defends the epistemic significance of narratives, arguing that it should be explained in terms of understanding rather than knowledge. Mikkonen formulates understanding as a cognitive process, which he connects to narrative imagining in order to assert that narrative is a central tool for communicating (...)
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  12. Aesthetic Understanding and Epistemic Agency in Art.Elisabeth Schellekens & Guy Dammann - 2021 - Disputatio 13 (62):265-282.
    Recently, cognitivist accounts about art have come under pressure to provide stronger arguments for the view that artworks can yield genuine insight and understanding. In Gregory Currie’s Imagining and Knowing: Learning from Fiction, for example, a convincing case is laid out to the effect that any knowledge gained from engaging with art must “be judged by the very standards that are used in assessing the claim of science to do the same” (Currie 2020: 8) if indeed it is to count (...)
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  13. Kreativität und Präzision. Eine Neubestimmung kreativen Denkens und Handelns.Simone Mahrenholz - 2020 - Imago 13:13-23.
    IMAGO TEXT 2020 ABSTRACTS -/- (German abstract below) The text presents a structural analysis and a logical theory of creativity. It argues that creativity emerges from the translation between two forms of precision, thus from the ubiquitous transformation between incompatible forms of thought and articulation. This transformation allows for unexpected surpluses and innovations, in conjunction with fallacies, waste and noise. Common myths and misconceptions – i.e. about creativity as a force in dire supply - are debunked, as are mistaken strategies (...)
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  14. Non-standard Emotions and Aesthetic Understanding.Irene Martínez Marín - 2020 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 2 (57):135–49.
    For cognitivist accounts of aesthetic appreciation, appreciation requires an agent (1) to perceptually respond to the relevant aesthetic features of an object o on good evidential grounds, (2) to have an autonomous grasp of the reasons that make the claim about the aesthetic features of o true by pointing out the connection between non-aesthetic features and the aesthetic features of o, (3) to be able to provide an explanation of why those features contribute to the overall aesthetic value of o. (...)
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  15. Respect, Responsibility and Ruins.Jeremy Page & Elisabeth Schellekens Dammann - 2020 - In Carolyn Korsmeyer, Jennifer Judkins & Jeanette Bicknell (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Ruins, Monuments, and Memorials. New York: Routledge. pp. ch.20.
    A person can appropriately manifest respect toward a world heritage ruin by developing a sensitive understanding of the ruin’s cultural and historical context and significance. In this paper, we link such respectful understanding to the question of the aesthetic appreciation of world heritage ruins. Our claim is that an aesthetic appreciation of a world heritage ruin qua world heritage ruin typically involves two things: first, the responsibility not to neglect the individuality of the object, and, second, a commitment to the (...)
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  16. Authenticity, Misunderstanding, and Institutional Responsibility in Contemporary Art.Sherri Irvin - 2019 - British Journal of Aesthetics 59 (3):273-288.
    This paper addresses two questions about audience misunderstandings of contemporary art. First, what is the institution’s responsibility to prevent predictable misunderstandings about the nature of a contemporary artwork, and how should this responsibility be balanced against other considerations? Second, can an institution ever be justified in intentionally mounting an inauthentic display of an artwork, given that such displays are likely to mislead? I will argue that while the institution has a defeasible responsibility to mount authentic displays, this is not always (...)
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  17. Robinson and Self-Conscious Emotions: Appreciation Beyond (Fellow) Feeling.Irene Martínez Marín - 2019 - Debates in Aesthetics 14 (1):74-94.
    Jenefer Robinson believes that feelings can play an important role in the critical evaluation of artworks. In this paper, I want to put some pressure on two important notions in her theory: emotional understanding and affective empathy. I will do this by focusing on the nature of self-conscious emotions. My strategy will be, firstly, to demonstrate the difficulty that Robinson’s two step theory of emotions has in accommodating higher cognitive emotional responses to art. Secondly, I will discuss how the tight (...)
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  18. Art, Moral Understanding, Radical Changes.Elvio Baccarini - 2018 - Rivista di Estetica 69:40-53.
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  19. On Not Explaining Anything Away.Eran Guter & Craig Fox - 2018 - In Gabriele M. Mras, Paul Weingartner & Bernhard Ritter (eds.), Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics, Contributions to the 41st International Wittgenstein Symposium. Kirchberg am Wechsel, Austria: Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society. pp. 52-54.
    In this paper we explain Wittgenstein’s claim in a 1933 lecture that “aesthetics like psychoanalysis doesn’t explain anything away.” The discussions of aesthetics are distinctive: Wittgenstein gives a positive account of the relationship between aesthetics and psychoanalysis, as contrasted with psychology. And we follow not only his distinction between cause and reason, but also between hypothesis and representation, along with his use of the notion of ideals as facilitators of aesthetic discourse. We conclude that aesthetics, like psychoanalysis, preserves the verifying (...)
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  20. Food Landscapes: An Object-Centered Model of Food Appreciation.Matteo Ravasio - 2018 - The Monist 101 (3):309-323.
    In this paper I claim that Allen Carlson’s object-centered model for the aesthetic appreciation of nature could be extended to food. The application of an object-centered model to food requires the identification of appropriate foci of appreciative attention. I claim that knowledge about food function and history is relevant to its appreciation, as is the interplay between the resources of a territory and the way in which these are used by its inhabitants. After having offered a brief application of the (...)
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  21. Reasoned and Unreasoned Judgement: On Inference, Acquaintance and Aesthetic Normativity.Dan Cavedon-Taylor - 2017 - British Journal of Aesthetics 57 (1):1-17.
    Aesthetic non-inferentialism is the widely-held thesis that aesthetic judgements either are identical to, or are made on the basis of, sensory states like perceptual experience and emotion. It is sometimes objected to on the basis that testimony is a legitimate source of such judgements. Less often is the view challenged on the grounds that one’s inferences can be a source of aesthetic judgements. This paper aims to do precisely that. According to the theory defended here, aesthetic judgements may be unreasoned, (...)
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  22. Aesthetic Understanding.Alison Hills - 2017 - In Stephen R. Grimm (ed.), Making Sense of the World: New Essays on the Philosophy of Understanding. Oxford University Press.
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  23. In Advance of the Broken Theory: Philosophy and Contemporary Art.Sherri Irvin & Julian Dodd - 2017 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 75 (4):375-386.
    We discuss how analysis of contemporary artworks has shaped philosophical theories about the concept of art, the ontology of art, and artistic media. The rapid expansion, during the contemporary period, of the kinds of things that can count as artworks has prompted a shift toward procedural definitions, which focus on how artworks are selected, and away from definitions that focus exclusively on artworks’ features or effects. Some contemporary artworks challenge the traditional art–ontological dichotomy between physical particulars and repeatable entities whose (...)
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  24. Aesthetic ineffability.Silvia Jonas - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (2):e12396.
    This essay provides an overview of the ways in which contemporary philosophers have tried to make sense of ineffability as encountered in aesthetic contexts. Section 1 sets up the problem of aesthetic ineffability by putting it into historical perspective. Section 2 specifies the kinds of questions that may be raised with regard to aesthetic ineffability, as well as the kinds of answer each one of those questions would require. Section 3 investigates arguments that seek to locate aesthetic ineffability within the (...)
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  25. This Is Art: A Defence of R. G. Collingwood's Philosophy of Art.James Camien McGuiggan - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Southampton
    R. G. Collingwood’s 'The Principles of Art' argues that art is the expression of emotion. This dissertation offers a new interpretation of that philosophy, and argues that this interpretation is both hermeneutically and philosophically plausible. The offered interpretation differs from the received interpretation most significantly in treating the concept of ‘art’ as primarily scalarly rather than binarily realisable (this is introduced in ch. 1), and in understanding Collingwood’s use of the term ‘emotion’ more broadly (introduced in ch. 2). -/- After (...)
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  26. Aesthetic Value, Artistic Value, and Morality.Andrea Sauchelli - 2016 - In David Coady, Kimberley Brownlee & Kasper Lipper-Rasmussen (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Applied Philosophy. Blackwell. pp. 514-526.
    This entry surveys issues at the intersection of art and morality. Particular emphasis is placed on whether, and in what way, the moral character of a work of art influences its artistic value. Other topics include the educational function of art and artistic censorship.
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  27. Virginia Woolf, Literary Style, and Aesthetic Education. Simoniti - 2016 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (1):62-79.
    Works of literature represent stories, characters, and events: these are the contents of a work. Often, the contents of literary works are fictional; however, it is just as characteristic of works of literature that these contents are narrated in a distinct style of writing, in an author’s distinct literary “voice.” In this paper, I consider whether works of literature might represent something over and above their fictional contents in virtue of their style alone and what consequences this might have for (...)
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  28. Korsmeyer on Fiction and Disgust.Filippo Contesi - 2015 - British Journal of Aesthetics 55 (1):109-116.
    In Savoring Disgust, Carolyn Korsmeyer argues that disgust is peculiar amongst emotions, for it does not need any of the standard solutions to the so-called paradox of fiction. I argue that Korsmeyer’s arguments in support of the peculiarity of disgust with respect to the paradox of fiction are not successful.
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  29. Cognitive Function of Beauty and Ugliness in Light of Kant’s Theory of Aesthetic Ideas.Mojca Küplen - 2015 - In Andras Benedek and Kristof Nyiri (ed.), Beyond Words: Pictures, Parables, Paradoxes (Series Visual Leaning, vol. 5). Peter Lang Publisher. pp. 209-216.
  30. Beauty, Ugliness and the Free Play of Imagination: an approach to Kant's Aesthetics.Mojca Küplen - 2015 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    At the end of section §6 in the Analytic of the Beautiful, Kant defines taste as the “faculty for judging an object or a kind of representation through a satisfaction or dissatisfaction without any interest”. On the face of it, Kant’s definition of taste includes both; positive and negative judgments of taste. Moreover, Kant’s term ‘dissatisfaction’ implies not only that negative judgments of taste are those of the non-beautiful, but also that of the ugly, depending on the presence of an (...)
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  31. The Cognitive Value of Blade Runner.McGregor Rafe - 2015 - Aesthetic Investigations 1 (2).
    The purpose of this essay is to argue that Blade Runner: The Final Cut (Ridley Scott, 2007) has cognitive value which is inseparable from its value as a work of cinema. I introduce the cinematic philosophy debate in §1. §2 sets out my position: that the Final Cut affirms the proposition there is no necessary relation between humanity and human beings. I outline the combination of cinematic depiction with distinctive features of the narrative’s peripeteia in §3. In §4, I explain (...)
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  32. Emotion, Cognition, and the Value of Literature: The Case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.Antony Aumann - 2014 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 45 (2):182-195.
    ABSTRACT One striking feature of On the Genealogy of Morals is how it is written. Nietzsche employs a literary style that provokes his readers' emotions. In Beyond Selflessness, Christopher Janaway argues that such a literary approach is integral to Nietzsche's philosophical goals. Feeling the emotions Nietzsche's style arouses is necessary for understanding the views he defends. I argue that Janaway's position is mistaken. The evidence at our disposal fails to establish that emotion is ever necessary for cognition. However, I maintain (...)
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  33. Memories of Art.William Hirstein - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):146 - 147.
    [This is a response to a target article in BBS]. Although the art-historical context of a work of art is important to our appreciation of it, it is our knowledge of that history that plays causal roles in producing the experience itself. This knowledge is in the form of memories, both semantic memories about the historical circumstances, but also episodic memories concerning our personal connections with an artwork. We also create representations of minds in order to understand the emotions that (...)
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  34. Formative Fictions: Imaginative Literature and the Training of the Capacities.Joshua Landy - 2012 - Poetics Today 2 (33):167-214.
    While it is often assumed that fictions must be informative or morally improving in order to be of any real benefit to us, certain texts defy this assumption by functioning as training grounds for the capacities: in engaging with them, we stand to become not more knowledgeable or more virtuous but more skilled, whether at rational thinking, at maintaining necessary illusions, at achieving tranquility of mind, or even at religious faith. Instead of offering us propositional knowledge, these texts yield know-how; (...)
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  35. Aesthetic autonomy: tracing the Kantian legacy to Olafur Eliasson.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2012 - Proceedings of the European Society of Aesthetics, 2011.
    Aesthetic autonomy is sometimes equated with an art for art’s sake approach to art. On the contrary, the philosophers whose work is often cited as backup to this concept of aesthetic autonomy held a very different conception of it. I will trace an alternative notion of aesthetic autonomy in the work of Adorno and Habermas, the origins of which can be found in Immanuel Kant’s aesthetic theory, the popular notion of his formalism, notwithstanding. I draw upon the art practice of (...)
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  36. Frontiers of Pleasure: Models of Aesthetic Response in Archaic and Classical Greek Thought.Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Frontiers of Pleasure calls into question a number of influential modern notions regarding aesthetics by going back to the very beginnings of aesthetic thought in Greece and raising critical issues regarding conceptions of how one responds to the beautiful. Despite a recent rebirth of interest in aesthetics, extensive discussion of this key cluster of topics has been absent. Anastasia-Erasmia Peponi argues that although the Greek language had no formal term equivalent to the "aesthetic," the notion was deeply rooted in Greek (...)
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  37. Modelling Aesthetic Judgment: An Interactive-semiotic Perspective.Ioannis Xenakis, Argyris Arnellos, Thomas Spyrou & John Darzentas - 2012 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 19 (3).
    Aesthetic experience, as a cognitive activity is a fundamental part of the interaction process in which an agent attempts to interpret his/her environment in order to support the fundamental process of decision making. Proposing a four-level interactive model, we underline and indicate the functions that provide the operations of aesthetic experience and, by extension, of aesthetic judgment. Particularly in this paper, we suggest an integration of the fundamental Peircean semiotic parameters and their related levels of semiotic organization with the proposed (...)
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  38. Musical Understandings: And Other Essays on the Philosophy of Music.Stephen Davies - 2011 - New York;Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter, I discuss the kinds of understanding expected of and evinced by skilled listeners, performers, analysts, and composers. I confine the discussion to Western, purely instrumental music, mainly with the classical tradition in mind.[1] And I refer primarily to the Anglophone literature of "analytic" philosophy of music. As will become apparent, my concern is with an analysis that maps what are meant to be familiar aspects of musical experience. I investigate the various understandings expected of an accomplished listener, (...)
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  39. Przyroda w filozofii i kulturze Indii.Marzenna Jakubczak - 2011 - Kultura Współczesna (1):171-182.
    W artykule rozważane są rozmaite semantyczne i symboliczne relacje, w jakich ujmuje się przyrodę na gruncie filozofii, kosmologii i estetyki indyjskiej. Punktem wyjścia jest charakterystyka wewnętrznej dynamiki przyrody, w którą wpisane jest nieustanne zderzanie się biegunowych jakości. Przedstawione są m.in. wedyjskie kosmogoniczne rozważania, konstatujące samorodność i substancjalną jednorodność cyklicznej natury, oraz pięć reprezentatywnych filozoficznych koncepcji przyrody. Autorka podkreśla także swoistą współzależność pomiędzy afirmowaną wizją przyrody a kulturowymi reprezentacjami natury ludzkiej.
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  40. The Cognitive Dimension of Art: Aesthetic and Educational Value.Alexandra Mouriki & Alexandra Mouriki-Zervou - 2011 - International Journal of Learning: Annual Review 18 (1):1-12.
    The question of whether art is a source of knowledge is a question of epistemic as well as of aesthetic interest which has significant pedagogical implications as well. This issue, both in its epistemic and aesthetic dimensions, is addressed here under the general perspective of the contemporary cognitivist - anti-cognitivist debate. Consequently, it is asked: a) can art be a means of knowledge and if it does, is knowledge obtained through art of the same kind with scientific knowledge? and b) (...)
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  41. Originality and Value.Christopher Bartel - 2010 - Hermeneia:66-77.
    What does it mean to describe a work of art as being ‘original’? Frank Sibley believed that works of art are not valued for their originality independently of their aesthetic value. He argued that a work may be described as being ‘original’ if it is innovative and also exhibits some further aesthetic value. In this essay, I argue against this conjunctive account of originality as some kind of innovation-plus-value. I claim that a work may be valued for and described as (...)
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  42. Understanding Music: The Nature and Limits of Musical Cognition.Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht - 2010 - Ashgate.
    Understanding Music summarizes Eggebrecht's thoughts on the relationship between music and cognition.
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  43. How and what we can learn from fiction.Mitchell Green - 2010 - In Garry Hagberg & Walter Jost (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Literature. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  44. Rethinking Aristotle’s Poetics: The Pragmatic Aspect of Art and Knowledge.Anoop Gupta - 2010 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 44 (4):60.
    And in general it is a sign of the man who knows and of the man who does not know that the former can teach, and therefore we think art more truly knowledge than experience is; for the artist can teach, and men of experience cannot. When pragmatism first gained favor in the early twentieth century, some British philosophers like Russell regarded it as evidencing their perception of America’s crude and enterprising spirit.1 The Imperial jab lay in this: that just (...)
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  45. Intention, Interpretation and Contemporary Visual Art.Hans Maes - 2010 - British Journal of Aesthetics 50 (2):121-138.
    The role of the artist's intention in the interpretation of art has been the topic of a lively and ongoing discussion in analytic aesthetics. First, I sketch the current state of this debate, focusing especially on two competing views: actual and hypothetical intentionalism. Secondly, I discuss the search for a suitable test case, that is, a work of art that is interpreted differently by actual and hypothetical intentionalists, with only one of these interpretations being plausible. Many examples from many different (...)
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  46. A correspondence theory of musical representation.Brandon E. Polite - 2010 - Dissertation, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
    This dissertation defends the place of representation in music. Music’s status as a representational art has been hotly debated since the War of the Romantics, which pitted the Weimar progressives (Liszt, Wagner, &co.) against the Leipzig conservatives (the Schumanns, Brahms, &co.) in an intellectual struggle for what each side took to be the very future of music as an art. I side with the progressives, and argue that music can be and often is a representational medium. Correspondence (or resemblance) theories (...)
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  47. On Wittgenstein's notion of meaning-blindness: Its subjective, objective and aesthetic aspects.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2010 - Philosophical Investigations 33 (3):201-219.
    Wittgenstein in his later years thought about experiences of meaning and aspect change. Do such experiences matter? Or would a meaning- or aspect-blind person not lose much? Moreover, is this a matter of aesthetics or epistemology? To get a better perspective on these matters, I will introduce distinctions between certain subjective and objective aspects, namely feelings of our inner psychological states versus fine-tuned objective experiences of the outer world. It seems to me that in his discussion of meaning-blindness, Wittgenstein unhappily (...)
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  48. Art's detour: A clash of aesthetic theories.S. K. Wertz - 2010 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 44 (1):pp. 100-106.
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  49. Understanding Narratives and Narrative Understanding.Ismay Barwell - 2009 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (1):49-59.
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  50. Kunst und Wissen in der Moderne.Andreas Dorschel (ed.) - 2009 - Böhlau.
    The relationship between art and knowledge is subject to historical change. In the early 19th century, the view was still prevalent that art was about eternal values, especially beauty, whereas science was entirely involved in historical time: The former was seen as contemplative, the latter as searching. But ever since, most artists have given up that stance and hence the once imagined detachment from historical time. They search, and sometimes research, too. Does that mean that art and science have come (...)
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