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Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) was an Austrian philosopher whom many regard to have been the most important philosopher of the twentieth century. His work is often divided into two distinct periods, early and later, with the division occurring at some point shortly after his return to Cambridge in 1929 following a period of self-imposed exile as, among other things, a village school-teacher, monastery gardener, and architect. Wittgenstein wrote extensively on many topics including the philosophy of language, logic, mathematics and mind though he published little during his lifetime. His work is distinctive particularly for his claim that philosophy is for the most part nonsense, his aim being to bring to light the confusions that give to it the appearance of sense.

Key works Wittgenstein’s most important works are the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (first published in English in 1922) and the Philosophical Investigations (first published posthumously in 1953). The nature and extent of the continuity between these two works is a matter of great controversy, with one extreme representing them as offering fundamentally opposed philosophies and another treating the differences as largely stylistic. Among the many other works produced from his manuscripts and notebooks, Wittgenstein’s On Certainty, compiled from notes made in the two years before his death, is sometimes regarded as his third “masterpiece”.
Introductions There are many good introductions to Wittgenstein's thought. Monk 2005 and Hacker 1999 are both short and accessible. More in-depth, but still engaging, are Child 2011, Kenny 1973, and Sluga 2011. Dean Jolley 2010 contains a good selection of essays on central topics. McGinn 2006 and McGinn 2013 provide in-depth introductions to the Tractatus and Philosophical Investigations, respectively.
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7781 found
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1 — 50 / 7781
  1. What is Spoken of When We Speak About Being.Niel Bezrookove - manuscript
    τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν: Another look at being, asking what a interlocutor means to show by saying they feel themselves to be something. An ambiguity of the verb "to be" is disambiguated to reveal that it can be meant to show what something is and a process of being something. The relationship between being and essence is made by describing engagement through the encounter, giving us a non-exhaustive account of something's essence. Practice is then understood as (...)
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  2. Intention and Self Knowledge: Wittgenstein's Bequeathal A First Draft.Les Jones - manuscript
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  3. Showing Certainty: An Essay on Wittgenstein's Response to Scepticism.Anne Newstead - manuscript
    Coping with everyday life limits the extent of one’s scepticism. It is practically impossible to doubt the existence of the things with which one is immediately engaged and interacting. To doubt that, say, a door exists, is to step back from merely using the door (opening it) and to reflect on it in a detached, theoretical way. It is impossible to simultaneously act and live immersed in situation S while doubting that one is in S. Sceptical doubts—such as ‘Is this (...)
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  4. Phenomenal Concepts and Wittgenstein's Private Language Argument.Martina Prinz & François-Igor Pris - manuscript
  5. Pragmatism and Legal Reasoning.Narve Strand - manuscript
  6. Wittgenstein’s Analysis on Cantor’s Diagonal Argument.Chaohui Zhuang - manuscript
    In Zettel, Wittgenstein considered a modified version of Cantor’s diagonal argument. According to Wittgenstein, Cantor’s number, different with other numbers, is defined based on a countable set. If Cantor’s number belongs to the countable set, the definition of Cantor’s number become incomplete. Therefore, Cantor’s number is not a number at all in this context. We can see some examples in the form of recursive functions. The definition "f(a)=f(a)" can not decide anything about the value of f(a). The definiton is incomplete. (...)
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  7. Wittgenstein and Deconstruction.Nick Gier - manuscript
    forthcoming in Review of Contemporary Philosophy 6 (2007).
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  8. Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics.Victor Rodych - unknown - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9. Wittgenstein And Alice's Dreams.Fulya Alıç - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 8.
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  10. Seeing Wittgenstein Anew.Norton Batkin, Sandra Laugier, Timouthy Gould, Stanley Cavell, Garry L. Hagberg & Victor J. Krebs - unknown - Cambridge University Press.
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  11. The Impact of Wittgenstein on Theology.Rasul Bergisian - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 51.
    The present paper deals with Wittgenstein's influence on theology considering the concept of "logical atmosphere", which connects his earlier and later philosophical ideas.It reveals that the concepts underlying his earlier and later philosophies have had numerous impacts upon theology. Accordingly, they have been discussed under two groups of actual and potential ones.
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  12. The Wittgensteinian Paradox.Matt Campbell - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 18.
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  13. »the Greatest Jewish Thinker Is Only A Talent. « Wittgenstein’s Revoked Judaism.Donatella Di Cesare - unknown - Phainomena 74.
    In the latest studies on Wittgenstein, the interest for his life has raised a question that had remained in the shadow: the question of his »Judaism«. This essay acknowledges Steven S. Schwarzschild’s suggestion, according to which Wittgenstein could be seen as an »alienated Jew«. Contrasting those who consider Wittgenstein’s Judaism as a negligible, if not insignificant, detail of his biography, it tries not to claim a Jewish identity for Wittgenstein, but rather to evaluate the effects elicited on his philosophy by (...)
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  14. Investigating Wittgenstein.J. F. M. Hunter - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  15. A Comparison Of Logical Form In Russell And Wittgenstein.Philip May - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 2.
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  16. A Very Short Guide To Understanding Wittgenstein.Larry Resnick - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  17. Wittgenstein's Understanding Of The Subject.Çetin Türkyılmaz - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 8.
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  18. Recent Canadian Work on Wittgenstein: 1980-1989.George Williamson - unknown - Eidos: The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy 9.
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  19. With Factualist Friends, Kripke's Wittgenstein Needs No Enemies: On Byrne's Case for Kripke's Wittgenstein Being a Factualist About Meaning Attributions.John Humphrey - manuscript
    _Private Language_ is that it almost universally sees KW as offering, in his sceptical solution, an account of meaning attributions (i.e., statements of the form, "X means such-and-so by 's'"; hereafter, MAs) which takes their legitimate attribution to be a function of something other than facts or truth conditions. KW is almost universally read as having rejected any account of meaning attributions which takes them to be stating facts or corresponding to facts. In a word, KW is understood as offering (...)
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  20. Avner Baz on Aspects and Concepts: A Critique.Reshef Agam-Segal - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-33.
    ABSTRACTI defend the view that aspect-perception – seeing as a duck, or a face as courageous – typically involves concept-application. Seemingly obvious, this is contested by Avner Baz: ‘aspects ma...
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  21. Belief and Religious ‘Belief’.Arif Ahmed - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-15.
    Is the analysis of religion best conducted in terms of the beliefs of its practitioners? I describe a Wittgenstein-inspired approach to belief on which it is dubious that religious practices satisfy the criteria for the attribution of belief. I defend this more moderate and plausible version of Needham's thesis against two natural reasons to think religious belief widespread.
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  22. Meta-Ethical Quietism? Wittgenstein, Relaxed Realism, and Countercultures in Meta-Ethics.Farbod Akhlaghi - forthcoming - In Jonathan Beale & Richard Rowland (eds.), Wittgenstein and Contemporary Moral Philosophy.
    Ludwig Wittgenstein has often been called a quietist. His work has inspired a rich and varied array of theories in moral philosophy. Some prominent meta-ethicists have also been called quietists, or ‘relaxed’ as opposed to ‘robust’ realists, sometimes with explicit reference to Wittgenstein in attempts to clarify their views. In this chapter, I compare and contrast these groups of theories and draw out their importance for contemporary meta-ethical debate. They represent countercultures to contemporary meta-ethics. That is, they reject in different (...)
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  23. El Futuro de la Filosofía Después de Wittgenstein.Gómez Alonso & M. Modesto - forthcoming - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
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  24. Ludwig Wittgenstein.B. Anat & M. Anat - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  25. Wittgenstein and Formal Semantics: A Case Study on the Tractarian Notions of Truth-Conditions and Compositionality.Nicoletta Bartunek - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-16.
    This paper argues that there are three reasons why we should regard Wittgenstein's Tractatus as a forerunner of formal semantics: Wittgenstein is convinced that we can apply formal notions to natur...
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  26. Wittgenstein and Contemporary Moral Philosophy.Jonathan Beale & Richard Rowland (eds.) - forthcoming
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  27. On Wittgenstein’s Notion of a Surveyable Representation: Rituals, Aesthetics, and Aspect-Perception.Nir Ben-Moshe - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    I demonstrate that analogies, both explicit and implicit, between Wittgenstein’s discussions of rituals, aesthetics, and aspect-perception, have important payoffs in terms of understanding his notion of a “surveyable representation” (übersichtliche Darstellung) as it applies to phenomena that are not exclusively grammatical in nature. In particular, I argue that a surveyable representation of certain anthropological and aesthetic facts allows us to see, qua form of aspect-perception, internal relations and formal connections, so that the inner nature of a ritual or the solution (...)
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  28. The Logical Analysis of Colour Statements in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Bradford F. Blue - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  29. The Logical Analysis of Colour Statements in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Bradford F. Blue - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  30. The Search for the "Essence of Human Language" in Wittgenstein and Davidson.Jason Bridges - forthcoming - In Claudine Verheggen (ed.), Wittgenstein and Davidson on Language, Thought and Action. cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-158.
    This paper offers an interpretation of the later Wittgenstein's handling of the idea of an "essence of human language", and examines in particular his treatment of the 'Augustinean' vision of reference as constituting this "essence". A central theme of the interpretation is the perennial philosophical desire to impose upon linguistic meaning conceptual templates drawn from outside the forms of thought about meaning in which we engage when we exercise our capacity to speak and understand a language. The paper closes with (...)
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  31. Wittgenstein and Ascriptions of "Religion".Thomas D. Carroll - forthcoming - In Gorazd Andrejč & Daniel Weiss (eds.), Interpreting Interreligious Relations with Wittgenstein: Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Leiden, Netherlands:
    Recent years have seen an increasing amount of studies of the history of the term “religion” and how it figures in conceptions of “the secular” and of cultural differences generally. A recurrent theme in these studies is that “religion” carries associations with Protestant Christianity and thus is not as universal a category as it might appear. The aim of this paper is to explore some resources in Wittgenstein’s philosophy to obtain greater clarity about the contexts of ascription of religion-status to (...)
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  32. Types Categories and Nonsense.J. W. Cornman - forthcoming - Studies in Logical Theory, American Philosophical Quarterly.
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  33. Ordinary Language Philosophy as an Extension of Ideal Language Philosophy. Comparing the Methods of the Later Wittgenstein and P.F. Strawson.Benjamin De Mesel - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  34. Being and holding responsible: Reconciling the disputants through a meaning-based Strawsonian account.Benjamin De Mesel - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    A fundamental question in responsibility theory concerns the relation between being responsible and our practices of holding responsible. ‘Strawsonians’ often claim that being responsible is somehow a function of our practices of holding responsible, while others think that holding responsible depends on being responsible, and still others think of being and holding responsible as interdependent. Based on a Wittgensteinian reading of Strawson, I develop an account of the relation between being and holding responsible which respects major concerns of all parties (...)
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  35. Wittgenstein, antyesencjalizm i definicja sztuki.Terence J. Diffey - forthcoming - Estetyka I Krytyka 9 (9/10):76-92.
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  36. Ginsborg’s Reading of Wittgenstein on Rules and Normativity.Gary Ebbs - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  37. A Abordagem Ecológica das Habilidades e a Epistemologia dos eixos.Carvalho Eros - forthcoming - In Plinio J. Smith & Nara Figueiredo (eds.), A epistemologia dos eixos: uma introdução e debate sobre as certezas de Wittgenstein. São Paulo:
    Neste texto, discuto a interpretação defendida por Moyal-Sharrock, segundo a qual as proposições eixo são maneiras de agir com o objetivo de oferecer uma proposta sobre como compreendê-las. Sustento que a posição de Moyal-Sharrock deixa algumas lacunas, porque não explica a origem das nossas certezas fundamentais. A sua leitura também carece de recursos para responder ao problema da demarcação, uma vez que não é claro como distinguir maneiras de agir que podem legitimamente cumprir o papel de fundamento não fundamentado das (...)
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  38. Wittgenstein, Defationism and Moral Entities.Jordi Fairhurst - forthcoming - Synthese:1-28.
    This paper discusses the meta-ethical implications of Wittgenstein’s later moral philosophy. According to Lovibond and Brandhorst, Wittgenstein provided a novel conception of moral facts, properties and objects by adopting deflationism. Lovibond argues that Wittgenstein’s seamless conception of language together with his non-foundational epistemology and non-transcendent understanding of rationality involves a change of perspective towards a plausible and non-mystificatory moral realism. Meanwhile, Brandhorst argues that Wittgenstein’s provides a deflationist conception of moral truths from which we obtain a deflationist conception of moral (...)
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  39. Wittgenstein and Gadamer on Private Language.Ghasem Fazli - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
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  40. Wittgensteins Diagonal-Argument: Eine Variation auf Cantor und Turing.Juliet Floyd - forthcoming - In Joachim Bromand & Bastian Reichert (eds.), Wittgenstein und die Philosophie der Mathematik. Münster: Mentis Verlag. pp. 167-197.
    A German translation with 2017 postscript of Floyd, Juliet. 2012. "Wittgenstein's Diagonal Argument: A Variation on Cantor and Turing." In Epistemology versus Ontology, Logic, Epistemology: Essays in Honor of Per Martin-Löf, edited by P. Dybjer, S. Lindström, E. Palmgren and G. Sundholm, 25-44. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. An analysis of philosophical aspects of Turing's diagonal argument in his (136) "On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem" in relation to Wittgenstein's writings on Turing and Cantor.
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  41. Wittgenstein's Practical Thought.Florian Franken Figueiredo - forthcoming
    The book investigates Wittgenstein's practical thought after his return to Cambridge in 1929 until the first version of his 'Philosophical Investigations' in 1936. It is argued that Wittgenstein's philosophical development is determined by his practical turn in 1929-30. The assumption is rejected that the practical turn is to be interpreted as a continuation of ideas of classic pragmatists like Peirce and James. Instead it is argued that due to his development Wittgenstein abandons the picture theory of the Tractatus and the (...)
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  42. Wittgenstein’s Dreams of Meaning.Heather J. Gert - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  43. Wittgenstein’s Dreams of Meaning.Heather J. Gert - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  44. Going on as One Ought: Kripke and Wittgenstein on the Normativity of Meaning.Hannah Ginsborg - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Kripke’s thesis that meaning is normative is typically interpreted, following Boghossian, as the thesis that meaningful expressions allow of true or warranted use. I argue for an alternative interpretation centered on Wittgenstein’s conception of the normativity involved in “knowing how to go on” in one’s use of an expression. Meaning is normative for Kripke because it justifies claims, not to be saying something true, but to be going on as one ought from prevous uses of the expression. I argue that (...)
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  45. The Later Wittgenstein and Moral Philosophy Benjamin de Mesel, Cham, Springer, 2018, € 50.28, Vii+186 Pp. [REVIEW]Hans-Johann Glock - forthcoming - Ratio.
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  46. The Later Wittgenstein and Moral Philosophy Benjamin de Mesel, Cham, Springer, 2018, € 50.28, Vii+186 Pp. [REVIEW]Hans-Johann Glock - forthcoming - Ratio.
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  47. Wittgenstein and the ABC's of Religious Epistemics.Axtell Guy - forthcoming - In Pritchard Duncan & Venturinha Nuno (eds.), Wittgenstein and the Epistemology of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    This paper continues my development of philosophy of religion as multi-disciplinary comparative research. An earlier paper, “Wittgenstein and Contemporary Belief-Credence Dualism” compared Wittgensteinian reflections on religious discourse and praxis with B-C dualism as articulated by its leading proponents. While some strong commonalities were elaborated that might help to bridge Continental and Analytic approaches in philosophy of religion, Wittgenstein was found to be a corrective to B-C dualism especially as regards how the psychology and philosophy of epistemic luck/risk applies to doxastic (...)
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  48. Probability in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Clare Hay - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  49. Probability in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Clare Hay - forthcoming - Wiley: Philosophical Investigations.
    Philosophical Investigations, EarlyView.
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  50. Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers: His Influence on Historical and Contemporary Analytic Philosophers (Volume I).Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    This edited volume includes 36 Chapters, each of which discusses the influence of a philosopher's reading of Wittgenstein in his/her philosophical works and the way such Wittgensteinian ideas have manifested themselves in those works.
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1 — 50 / 7781