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  1. Joel Smith’s definition of empathy II.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I flag what seem to me to be some minor concerns about Joel Smith’s definition of empathy, but maybe they are important to someone.
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  2. What is empathy for indeed? On Joel Smith’s no-morality definition of empathy.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper responds to Joel Smith’s definition of empathy. It is unclear to me that it can serve as a dictionary definition of empathy, owing to the lack of a moral aspect, and I think Smith overlooks what its function is in specialist disciplines, such as psychology.
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  3. Anchoring empathy in receptivity.Seisuke Hayakawa & Katsunori Miyahara - manuscript
    In one sense of the term, empathy refers to the act of sharing in another person’s experience of and perspective on the world. According to simulation accounts of empathy, we achieve this by replicating the other’s mind in our imagination. We explore a form of empathy, empathic perspective-taking, that is not adequately captured by existing simulationist approaches. We begin by pointing out that we often achieve empathy (or share in another’s perspective) by listening to the other person. This form of (...)
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  4. Parousia, Sympathy and Sensory Presentation.Mark Eli Kalderon - manuscript
    I give an account of sensory presentation, an indispensable and irreducible element of perceptual experience, in terms of the principle of sympathy. Haptic touch, audition, and vision are compared.
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  5. Feeling for others: Empathy and sympathy as sources of moral motivation.Heidi Maibom - manuscript
    According to the Humean theory of motivation, we only have a reason to act if we have both a belief and a pro-attitude. When it comes to moral reasons, it matters a great deal what that pro-attitude is; pure self-interest cannot combine with a belief to form a moral reason. A long tradition regards empathy and sympathy as moral motivators, and recent psychological evidence supports this view. I examine what I take to be the most plausible version of this claim: (...)
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  6. I Feel Your Pain: Acquaintance & the Limits of Empathy.Emad Atiq & Stephen Mathew Duncan - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    The kind of empathy that is communicated through expressions like “I feel your pain” or “I share your sadness” is important, but peculiar. For it seems to require something perplexing and elusive: sharing another’s experience. It’s not clear how this is possible. We each experience the world from our own point of view, which no one else occupies. It’s also unclear exactly why it is so important that we share others' pains. If you are in pain, then why should it (...)
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  7. Empathy: Why it matters, and how to get it [Book Review].Kevin Bain - forthcoming - Australian Humanist, The 123:23.
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  8. How are Moral Foundations Associated with Empathic Traits and Moral Identity?Kelsie J. Dawson, Hyemin Han & YeEun Rachel Choi - forthcoming - Current Psychology.
    We examined the relationship between moral foundations, empathic traits, and moral identity using an online survey via Mechanical Turk. In order to determine how moral foundations contribute to empathic traits and moral identity, we performed classical correlation analysis as well as Bayesian correlation analysis, Bayesian ANCOVA, and Bayesian regression analysis. Results showed that individualizing foundations (harm/care, fairness/reciprocity) and binding foundations (ingroup/loyalty, authority/respect, purity/sanctity) had various different relationships with empathic traits. In addition, the individualizing versus binding foundations showed somewhat reverse relationships (...)
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  9. Einfühlung und Empathie.Monika Dullstein - forthcoming - In T. Breyer (ed.), Grenzen der Empathie. Philosophische, psychologische und anthropologische Perspektiven. Wilhelm Fink.
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  10. Comprehending the Whole Person: On Expanding Jaspers' Notion of Empathy.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - forthcoming - In Aaron Mishara, Philip Corlett, Alexander Kranjec, Michael A. Schwartz & Marcin Moskalewicz (eds.), Phenomenological Neuropsychiatry: How Patient Experience Bridges Clinic with Clinical Practice. Springer.
    In this chapter, we explain how Karl Jaspers’ concept of empathy can be expanded by drawing upon the tradition of philosophical phenomenology. In the first section, we offer an account of Jaspers' concepts of empathy and incomprehensibility as he develops them in General Psychopathology and “The Phenomenological Approach in Psychopathology.” In the second section, we survey the recent literature on overcoming Jaspers' notion of incomprehensibility and expanding his concept of empathy. In the third section, we outline the levels of investigation (...)
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  11. Making space for empathy: supporting doctors in the emotional labour of clinical care.Angeliki Kerasidou & Ruth Horn - forthcoming - Most Recent Articles: Bmc Medical Ethics.
    The academic and medical literature highlights the positive effects of empathy for patient care. Yet, very little attention has been given to the impact of the requirement for empathy on the physicians themsel..
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  12. An Evolutionary Account of Guilt?Charlie Kurth - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    . Grant Ramsey and Michael Deem argue that appreciating the role that empathy plays in posttransgression guilt leads to a more promising account of the emotion’s evolutionary origins. But because their proposal fails to adequately distinguish guilt from shame, we cannot say which of the two emotions we are actually getting an evolutionary account of. Moreover, a closer look at the details suggests both that empathy may be more relevant for our understanding of shame’s evolutionary origins than guilt’s, and that (...)
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  13. Edith Stein: On the Problem of Empathy.Kris McDaniel - forthcoming - In Eric Schliesser (ed.), Ten Neglected Philosophical Classics. Oxford University Press.
    I will discuss Stein’s first major philosophical work, On the Problem of Empathy. I’ll first present some of the background context to the composition of this work and then discuss some of the themes of the work that I find intriguing.
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  14. Imagining Others.Shannon Spaulding - forthcoming - Analysis.
    How good are we at imagining what it is like to be someone else? Clearly, we sometimes get it right. Proponents of empathy suggest that it is an important and useful tool in our interactions with other people. But, also clearly, there are many inauspicious instances where we badly misimagine what it is like to be someone else. In this paper, I consider the epistemic utility of empathic imagination. I argue that most views fail to explain the distinctive patterns of (...)
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  15. Measuring empathy.Karsten Stueber - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford (Ca): Center for the Study of Language and Information. Available From: Http://Plato. Stanford. Edu/Archives/Fall2008/Entries/Empathy/Measuring. Html.
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  16. Empathy, Motivating Reasons, and Morally Worthy Action.Elizabeth Ventham - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-13.
    Contemporary literature criticises a necessary link between empathy and actions that demonstrate genuine moral worth. If there is such a necessary link, many argue, it must come in the developmental stages of our moral capacities, rather than being found in the mental states that make up our motivating reasons. This paper goes against that trend, arguing that critics have not considered how wide-ranging the mental states are that make up a person’s reasons. In particular, it argues that empathy can play (...)
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  17. Subjectivity in Film: Mine, Yours, and No One’s.Sara Aronowitz & Grace Helton - 2024 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 11.
    A classic and fraught question in the philosophy of film is this: when you watch a film, do you experience yourself in the world of the film, observing the scenes? In this paper, we argue that this subject of film experience is sometimes a mere impersonal viewpoint, sometimes a first-personal but unindexed subject, and sometimes a particular, indexed subject such as the viewer herself or a character in the film. We first argue for subject pluralism: there is no single answer (...)
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  18. Thin sympathy: A strategy to thicken transitional justice.Onur Bakiner - 2024 - Contemporary Political Theory 23 (1):171-174.
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  19. Transformative experiences, rational decisions and shark attacks.Marc-Kevin Daoust - 2024 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 67 (6):1619-1639.
    How can we make rational decisions that involve transformative experiences, that is, experiences that can radically change our core preferences? L. A. Paul (2014) has argued that many decisions involving transformative experiences cannot be rational. However, Paul acknowledges that some traumatic events can be transformative experiences, but are nevertheless not an obstacle to rational decision-making. For instance, being attacked by hungry sharks would be a transformative experience, and yet, deciding not to swim with hungry sharks is rational. Paul has tried (...)
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  20. Examining the Network Structure among Moral Functioning Components with Network Analysis.Hyemin Han - 2024 - Personality and Individual Differences 217:112435.
    I explored the association between components constituting the basis for moral and optimal human functioning, i.e., moral reasoning, moral identity, empathy, and purpose, via network analysis. I employed factor scores instead of composite scores that most previous studies used for better accuracy in score estimation in this study. Then, I estimated the network structure among collected variables and centrality indicators. For additional information, the structure and indicators were compared between two groups, participants who engaged in civic activities highly versus lowly. (...)
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  21. Exploring the relationship between purpose and moral psychological indicators.Hyemin Han - 2024 - Ethics and Behavior 34 (1):28-39.
    ABSTRACT In the present study, I explore the relationship between purpose, which was measured by the Claremont Purpose Scale, and moral psychological indicators, moral reasoning, moral identity, and empathy. Purpose was quantified in terms of three subcomponents: meaning, goal, and beyond-the-self motivation. Moral reasoning was assessed in terms of utilization of postconventional moral reasoning. Moral identity was examined with two subscales: moral internalization, and symbolization. Among diverse subscales of empathy, I focused on empathic concern and perspective taking, which have been (...)
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  22. Empathy, Timeliness, and Virtuous Hearing.Seisuke Hayakawa - 2024 - Journal of Philosophical Research 49.
    ***This paper is published along with Professor Amy Coplan's commentary, "Response to "Empathy, Timeliness, and Virtuous Hearing."" *** This paper aims to demonstrate how the notion of timeliness enriches our understanding of empathy and its associated virtuous hearing as discussed in liberatory virtue epistemology. I begin by showing how timeliness is relevant to empathy. Next, I apply this insight to the idea of virtuous hearing, in which empathy plays a significant role. I thus broaden the liberatory-epistemological conception of virtuous hearing (...)
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  23. Sophie de Grouchy’s Political Thought in the Letters on Sympathy (1798).Minchul Kim - 2024 - Journal of the History of Ideas 85 (2):237-255.
    This article proposes a reading of Sophie de Grouchy’s moral, political, and economic thought as embedded in the tradition of natural jurisprudence, adapted to the context of the French First Republic. A close reading of her French translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiment and her eight Letters on Sympathy confirms that there are points to be made by reading her works in the context of the language of early modern natural law. This sheds light on the important question (...)
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  24. Defiance and Sympathy: Heterogeneity of Experiences Among Members of a Stigmatized Organization.Sung-Chul Noh & Kyoung-Hee Yu - 2024 - Business and Society 63 (6):1307-1339.
    Organizational members are likely to harbor different allegiances, values, and identifications that can affect how they respond to their organization’s stigmatization. Drawing on the empirical case of a public broadcaster in South Korea initially stigmatized for its association with an authoritarian government, we focus on the responses of different intra-organizational groups to stigma and their interactions with each other and with external audiences. We find that faced with stigma, groups in the organization were divided about how to respond, with those (...)
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  25. Objections to Simon Baron-Cohen's The Science of Evil.Collin Robbins - 2024 - Sorge: The Undergraduate Philosophy Journal at the Ohio State University 2.
  26. Sympathy and Moral Sentiments in Maine de Biran’s Philosophy.Grégoire Sanchez - 2024 - Perspectives on Science 32 (1):28-46.
    The foundation of morality, and mainly, the possibility of moral sentiments that are universal and inalienable, is a central problem in Maine de Biran’s philosophy. Many studies focus on the part played by the self in Maine de Biran’s late philosophy, but relatively few consider with precision the importance of the concept of sympathy in this context. In this paper, I would like to show that this concept, which Biran mobilizes from his first to his last writings, is an important (...)
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  27. Kant on Rational Sympathy.Benjamin Vilhauer - 2024 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element explains Kant's distinction between rational sympathy and natural sympathy. Rational sympathy is regulated by practical reason and is necessary for adopting as our own those ends of others which are contingent from the perspective of practical rationality. Natural sympathy is passive and can prompt affect and dispose us to act wrongly. Sympathy is a function of a posteriori productive imagination. In rational sympathy, we freely use the imagination to step into others' first-person perspectives and associate imagined intuitional contents (...)
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  28. Macchine Empatiche? "Pluto" di Toshio Kawaguchi.Gianmaria Avellino - 2023 - Fata Morgana Web.
  29. An Adam Smithian Account of Humanity.Nir Ben-Moshe - 2023 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 10 (32):908-936.
    In The Sources of Normativity, Korsgaard argues for what can be called “The Universality of Humanity Claim” (UHC), according to which valuing humanity in one’s own person entails valuing it in that of others. However, Korsgaard’s reliance on the claim that reasons are essentially public in her attempt to demonstrate the truth of UHC has been repeatedly criticized. I offer a sentimentalist defense, based on Adam Smith’s moral philosophy, of a qualified, albeit adequate, version of UHC. In particular, valuing my (...)
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  30. Being Me Being You: Adam Smith & Empathy. [REVIEW]Nir Ben-Moshe - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (1):243-246.
    Samuel Fleischacker’s Being Me Being You: Adam Smith & Empathy offers a new interpretation of Adam Smith’s conception of empathy—or ‘sympathy’, as Smith referred to the phenomenon in The Theory of...
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  31. When Sympathy Hesitates: An Empathetic Understanding of Cinematic Slowness in Stray Dogs.Hui-Han Chen - 2023 - Film-Philosophy 27 (3):531-552.
    With its minimalist narrative and long durational recordings of a family living on the margins of modern society and drifting around deserted urban spaces in Taiwan, Stray Dogs ( Jiaoyou, Tsai Ming-liang, 2013) provides a productive reading of cinematic slowness and a critique of the globalising domination of capitalism and neoliberalism in a locally and culturally specific context. This article examines how the representation of cinematic slowness in Stray Dogs encompasses both a narrative that requires the audience’s sympathetic and intellectual (...)
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  32. Empathy and Psychopaths’ Inability to Grieve.Michael Cholbi - 2023 - Philosophy 98 (4):413-431.
    Psychopaths exhibit diminished ability to grieve. Here I address whether this inability can be explained by the trademark feature of psychopaths, namely, their diminished capacity for interpersonal empathy. I argue that this hypothesis turns out to be correct, but requires that we conceptualize empathy not merely as an ability to relate (emotionally and ethically) to other individuals but also as an ability to relate to past and present iterations of ourselves. This reconceptualization accords well with evidence regarding psychopaths’ intense focus (...)
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  33. Sympathy, Resonance, and the Use of Natural Correspondences in Philosophical Argument: A Comparison of Greco-Roman and Early Chinese Sources.Jordan Palmer Davis - 2023 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 22 (4):525-553.
    Thinkers from the Chinese and Greco-Roman traditions posit that disparate objects throughout the cosmos have mutual affinities. In the Stoic tradition, such affinities are explained through “sympathy.” In the Chinese tradition, the explanatory principle is often called ganying 感應 (resonance). In addition, both traditions use similar philosophical strategies when discussing these concepts. Thinkers cite natural correspondences, placing them in parallel lists as evidence for philosophical truths. On the surface, the analogous concepts and strategies hint that these thinkers share similar philosophical (...)
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  34. En el mundo de la vida con los otros en comunidad.Nathalie de la Cadena - 2023 - Conjectura: Filosofia E Educação 28:e023019.
    Resumen: Husserl propone una teoría sobre la intersubjetividad que parte de la conciencia trascendental como inserta en el mundo de la vida donde están los otros y donde la comunidad se construye bajo una estructura de esencias que garantiza la comunalidad. El mundo de la vida es dado y compartido por todas las conciencias intencionales y trascendentales, es condición para intuiciones empíricas y eidéticas, la epoché y las reducciones eidética y trascendental. Cada momento del método fenomenológico se basa en la (...)
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  35. Hume on Self and Sympathy.Dario Galvão - 2023 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 21 (3):255-273.
    The paper seeks to contribute to the discussion of Hume's theory of personal identity, by examining a conflict regarding the vivacity of the self in his writings about sympathy. Although the mechanism of sympathy supposes that self is the liveliest perception of thought, when we consider sympathy through the perspective of the ‘desire of company’, we find that self lacks vivacity and, without alterity, it would be in reality nothing. Our objective is to present the conflict and show that, far (...)
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  36. Emotion sharing as empathic.Maxwell Gatyas - 2023 - Philosophical Psychology 36 (1):85-108.
    Emotion sharing plays a key role in many accounts of empathy. However, some equate emotion sharing with emotional “contagion” and thereby discount it as a form of empathy. In what follows, I clarify the nature of empathic emotion sharing and differentiate it from contagion. I first reflect on the notions of sharing an object and of sharing a life, arguing that each has four core features. I then argue that emotion sharing also has those features. These characteristics allow me to (...)
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  37. Suffering is bad.Louis Gularte - 2023 - Synthese 202 (6):1-28.
    Subtitle: "Experiential understanding and the impossibility of intrinsically valuing suffering." Suffering, I argue, is bad. This paper supports that claim by defending a somewhat bolder-sounding one: namely that if anyone—even a sadistic ‘amoralist’—fully understands the fact that someone else is suffering, then the only evaluative attitude they can possibly form towards the person’s suffering as such is that of being _intrinsically against_ it. I first argue that, necessarily, everyone is disposed to be intrinsically against their _own_ suffering experiences, holding fixed (...)
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  38. Exploring the association between character strengths and moral functioning.Hyemin Han, Kelsie J. Dawson, David I. Walker, Nghi Nguyen & Youn-Jeng Choi - 2023 - Ethics and Behavior 33 (4):286-303.
    We explored the relationship between 24 character strengths measured by the Global Assessment of Character Strengths (GACS), which was revised from the original VIA instrument, and moral functioning comprising postconventional moral reasoning, empathic traits and moral identity. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was employed to explore the best models, which were more parsimonious than full regression models estimated through frequentist regression, predicting moral functioning indicators with the 24 candidate character strength predictors. Our exploration was conducted with a dataset collected from 666 (...)
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  39. Empathy and Calm as Social Resources in Clinical Practice.Carter Hardy - 2023 - AMA Journal of Ethics 24 (12):E1135-1140.
    Empathy has been shown to improve patient care and physician well-being. However, the emotional labor involved in expressing empathy might interfere with experiencing calm, equally important to clinicians’ well-being. This article offers examples of how clinical environments can bolster both empathy and calm and suggests that empathy can be expressed socially, not just individually, to build solidarity and make space for calm.
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  40. Hot-cold empathy gaps and the grounds of authenticity.Grace Helton & Christopher Register - 2023 - Synthese 202 (5):1-24.
    Hot-cold empathy gaps are a pervasive phenomena wherein one’s predictions about others tend to skew ‘in the direction’ of one’s own current visceral states. For instance, when one predicts how hungry someone else is, one’s prediction will tend to reflect one’s own current hunger state. These gaps also obtain intrapersonally, when one attempts to predict what one oneself would do at a different time. In this paper, we do three things: We draw on empirical evidence to argue that so-called hot-cold (...)
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  41. Remorse and Moral Progress in Sophie de Grouchy's Letters on Sympathy.Getty L. Lustila - 2023 - In Karen Detlefsen & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Women and Early Modern European Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 584-596.
    This chapter explores the place of remorse in Sophie de Grouchy’s moral theory, as presented in her 1798 work, Letters on Sympathy, which was originally published with her translation of Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments. I argue that, for Grouchy, a cultivated sense of remorse weakens our self-conceit by drawing our attention to the ways in which we harm others, even for seemingly justifiable reasons. In so doing, we are led to recognize the equal standing of others, which gives (...)
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  42. Kant's social sympathy : debunking beneficence and cultivating the sense of justice.Nuria Sánchez Madrid - 2023 - In Fernando M. F. Silva & Luigi Caranti (eds.), The Kantian subject: new interpretative essays. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  43. "I am feeling tension in my whole body": An experimental phenomenological study of empathy for pain.David Martínez-Pernía, Ignacio Cea, Alejandro Troncoso, Kevin Blanco, Jorge Calderón, Constanza Baquedano, Claudio Araya-Veliz, Ana Useros, David Huepe, Valentina Carrera, Victoria Mack-Silva & Mayte Vergara - 2023 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Introduction: Traditionally, empathy has been studied from two main perspectives: the theory-theory approach and the simulation theory approach. These theories claim that social emotions are fundamentally constituted by mind states in the brain. In contrast, classical phenomenology and recent research based on enactive theories consider empathy as the basic process of contacting others’ emotional experiences through direct bodily perception and sensation. Objective: This study aims to enrich knowledge of the empathic experience of pain by using an experimental phenomenological method. Method: (...)
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  44. From Sympathy to Respect.Roberto Mordacci - 2023 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 40 (4):359-378.
    Despite the differences, there is some convergence between Adam Smith's and Immanuel Kant's theories of moral motivation. Both rely on a peculiar feeling, respect, as the proper source of motive in moral matters. An analysis of Smith's and Kant's conception of respect shows that both recognize that it has a specific normative import and plays a decisive role in morality. This convergence offers some support to the idea that Smith's sentimentalism and Kant's rationalism are compatible, at least as far as (...)
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  45. I Feel You: Toward a Schelerian Conception of Empathy.Jean Moritz Müller - 2023 - In Thomas Petraschka & Christiana Werner (eds.), Empathy's Role in Understanding Persons, Literature and Art. New York: Routledge. pp. 272-295.
    In his The Nature of Sympathy, Max Scheler (2007 [1923]) offers an intriguing, if puzzling, account of empathy. According to this account, empathy is a specific kind of feeling through which we are immediately aware of others’ emotions but which is not itself an emotion and doesn’t require us to have those emotions ourselves. Moreover, qua immediate awareness of others’ emotions empathy is supposed to afford understanding why they feel those emotions. Although having echoes with ordinary discourse and experience, Scheler's (...)
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  46. Empathizing with The Intellectually Disabled.Claudia Passos-Ferreira - 2023 - In Ana Paula Barbosa-Fohrmann & Sandra Caponi (eds.), Latin American Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Bioethics and Disabilities. Springer Nature. pp. 3-16.
    This chapter is devoted to reflecting on the role of empathy in interactions with people with profound intellectual disabilities. We have a duty to respect people with intellectual disabilities. Respect involves identification with a point of view. We owe them an effort at identification with their perspective. However, if intellectually disabled people’s communicative abilities are impaired, our apprehension of their point of view might be limited, reducing our ability to identify with them and respect them. To answer this challenge, I (...)
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  47. Regolazione dell'empatia: una prospettiva kantiana.Stefano Pinzan - 2023 - Balthazar 1 (6):45-59.
    Nel presente paper, propongo un argomento kantiano per giustificare la necessità della coltivazione dell’empatia e il ruolo moralmente rilevante che essa può svolgere per l’agente una volta coltivata. Infatti, riferendosi al testo kantiano, è possibile mostrare che l’empatia è un sentimento insito nella natura umana e che orienta l’agente nel processo di deliberazione morale. Nonostante ciò, essa non può determinare direttamente la volontà dell’agente, ma deve essere vagliata criticamente dalla ragion pratica. Quest’ultima però non si limita a vagliare il sentimento; (...)
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  48. Detecting the Factors Affecting Classroom Dialogue Quality.Chrysi Rapanta, Merce Garcia-Milà, Andrea Miralda Banda & Fabrizio Macagno - 2023 - Linguistics and Education 77:101223.
    Despite the emphasis on dialogue and argumentation in educational settings, still not much is known about how best we can support learners in their interthinking, reasoning, and metadialogic understanding. The goal of this classroom intervention study is to explore the degree of students’ dialogicity and its possible increase during a learning programme implementing dialogic and argument-based teaching goals and principles. In particular, we focus on how students from 5 to 15 years old engage with each other's ideas, and whether/how this (...)
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  49. Herder and the Limits of Einfühlung.Roey Reichert - 2023 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 31 (2):232-241.
    The fifth chapter of _Experience Embodied_ is devoted to Herder’s theory of cognition and the epistemic merits of the capacity for ‘sympathy’, or ‘empathy’ – what Herder calls _Einfühlung_, and which Waldow renders more accurately as ‘affective immersion’. I situate Waldow’s reading of Herder as a member of the epistemological tradition within the debate on Herder’s relationship to the Enlightenment. Waldow’s reading, I contend, is congruent with the view of Herder as an Enlightenment, rather than anti-Enlightenment, figure. I focus on (...)
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  50. Sympathy for Caligula? A New Defense of Williams’ Internalism About Reasons.Andrés Soria Ruiz - 2023 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 304 (2):93-106.
    L’enjeu de cet article est de défendre l’internalisme de Bernard Williams à propos de la raison pratique, en adoptant un point de vue différent de ce qui se fait habituellement dans la littérature. Les expériences de pensée impliquant des « excentriques idéalement cohérents » sont généralement présentées dans ce débat comme un argument majeur contre l’internalisme. Je conteste ce point et montre que nos intuitions concernant de telles figures impliquent en réalité une compréhension internaliste de la notion de raisons d’agir. (...)
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