Results for 'moral reasons'

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Bibliography: Moral Reasons in Meta-Ethics
  1. Morals, Reason, and Animals.Steve F. Sapontzis - 1987 - Temple University Press.
    This book criticizes the common belief that we are entitled to exploit animals for our benefit because they are not as rational as people. After discussing the moral (in)significance of reason in general, the author proceeds to develop a clear, commonsensical conception of what "animal rights" is about and why everyday morality points toward the liberation of animals as the next logical step in Western moral progress. The book evaluates criticisms of animal rights that have appeared in recent (...)
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  2. Moral Reasons, Epistemic Reasons, and Rationality.Alex Worsnip - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (263):341-361.
    It is standard, both in the philosophical literature and in ordinary parlance, to assume that one can fall short of responding to all one’s moral reasons without being irrational. Yet when we turn to epistemic reasons, the situation could not be more different. Most epistemologists take it as axiomatic that for a belief to be rational is for it to be well-supported by epistemic reasons. We find ourselves with a striking asymmetry, then, between the moral (...)
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  3. Moral Reasons.Jonathan Dancy - 1993 - Blackwell.
    This book attempts to place a realist view of ethics (the claim that there are facts of the matter in ethics as elsewhere) within a broader context. It starts with a discussion of why we should mind about the difference between right and wrong, asks what account we should give of our ability to learn from our moral experience, and looks in some detail at the different sorts of ways in which moral reasons can combine to show (...)
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  4. Moral Reasons.Georg Spielthenner - 2007 - Etica E Politica 9 (2):423-437.
    My primary aim in this essay is to clarify the notion of a moral reason. To accomplish this, I criticise in the first section the main conceptions of moral reasons. In the second and third section, I explain my account of moral reasons, arguing that moral reasons are a kind of social reasons, and illustrate it by examples. Although the concept of a moral reason is central to our moral thinking; (...)
     
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  5.  1
    Morals Reason Animals.Steve F. Sapontzis - 1987 - Temple University Press.
    This book criticizes the common belief that we are entitled to exploit animals for our benefit because they are not as rational as people. After discussing the moral significance of reason in general, the author proceeds to develop a clear, commonsensical conception of what "animal rights" is about and why everyday morality points toward the liberation of animals as the next logical step in Western moral progress. The book evaluates criticisms of animal rights that have appeared in recent (...)
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  6. Why Moral Reasoning Is Insufficient for Moral Progress.Agnes Tam - 2020 - Journal of Political Philosophy 28 (1):73-96.
    A lively debate in the literature on moral progress concerns the role of practical reasoning: Does it enable or subvert moral progress? Rationalists believe that moral reasoning enables moral progress, because it helps enhance objectivity in thinking, overcome unruly sentiments, and open our minds to new possibilities. By contrast, skeptics argue that moral reasoning subverts moral progress. Citing growing empirical research on bias, they show that objectivity is an illusion and that moral reasoning (...)
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  7. Moral Reasoning.Henry S. Richardson - 2013 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Moral reasoning is individual or collective practical reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Philosophical examination of moral reasoning faces both distinctive puzzles — about how we recognize moral considerations and cope with conflicts among them and about how they move us to act — and distinctive opportunities for gleaning insight about what we ought to do from how we reason about what we ought to do.
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  8.  87
    Moral Reason.Julia Markovits - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Julia Markovits develops a desire-based, internalist account of what normative reasons are--an account which is compatible with the idea that moral reasons can apply to all of us, regardless of our desires. She builds on Kant's formula of humanity to defend universal moral reasons, and addresses the age-old question of why we should be moral.
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  9. Moral Reasoning: Hints and Allegations.Joseph M. Paxton & Joshua D. Greene - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):511-527.
    Recent research in moral psychology highlights the role of emotion and intuition in moral judgment. In the wake of these findings, the role and significance of moral reasoning remain uncertain. In this article, we distinguish among different kinds of moral reasoning and review evidence suggesting that at least some kinds of moral reasoning play significant roles in moral judgment, including roles in abandoning moral intuitions in the absence of justifying reasons, applying both (...)
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  10.  90
    Moral Reasoning and Business Ethics: Implications for Research, Education, and Management. [REVIEW]Linda Klebe Trevino - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (5-6):445 - 459.
    This paper reviews Kohlberg''s (1969) theory of cognitive moral development, highlighting moral reasoning research relevant to the business ethics domain. Implications for future business ethics research, higher education and training, and the management of ethical/unethical behavior are discussed.
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  11. Are Moral Reasons Morally Overriding?Douglas W. Portmore - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):369-388.
    In this paper, I argue that those moral theorists who wish to accommodate agent-centered options and supererogatory acts must accept both that the reason an agent has to promote her own interests is a nonmoral reason and that this nonmoral reason can prevent the moral reason she has to sacrifice those interests for the sake of doing more to promote the interests of others from generating a moral requirement to do so. These theorists must, then, deny that (...)
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  12.  45
    Beyond Moral Reasoning: A Review of Moral Identity Research and Its Implications for Business Ethics. [REVIEW]Ruodan Shao, Karl Aquino & Dan Freeman - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4):513-540.
    Moral identity has been touted as a foundation for understanding moral agency in organizations. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding moral identity and highlight several promising avenues for advancing current understandings of moral actions in organizational contexts. The article begins with a brief overview of two distinct conceptual perspectives on moral identity—the character perspective and the social-cognitive perspective—that dominate extant literature. It then discusses varying approaches that have (...)
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  13. Moral Reasoning on the Ground.Richmond Campbell & Victor Kumar - 2012 - Ethics 122 (2):273-312.
    We present a unified empirical and philosophical account of moral consistency reasoning, a distinctive form of moral reasoning that exposes inconsistencies among moral judgments about concrete cases. Judgments opposed in belief or in emotion and motivation are inconsistent when the cases are similar in morally relevant respects. Moral consistency reasoning, we argue, regularly shapes moral thought and feeling by coordinating two systems described in dual process models of moral cognition. Our empirical explanation of (...) change fills a gap in the empirical literature, making psychologically plausible a defensible new model of justified moral change and a hybrid theory of moral judgment. (shrink)
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  14.  18
    Moral Reasoning and Empathy in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Moral Education.Amie K. Senland & Ann Higgins-D’Alessandro - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (2):209-223.
    A mixed methods approach was used to understand moral reasoning and empathy in 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) compared to same age typically developing (TD) youth. Adolescents completed measures assessing empathy (perspective-taking, personal distress, and empathic concern), and moral reasoning, as well as a qualitative interview asking them to discuss a challenging sociomoral situation and recount their moral competencies and strengths in difficult situations. For quantitative results, both groups demonstrated similar empathic concern, (...)
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  15. “Psychopathy, Moral Reasons, and Responsibility”.Erick Ramirez - 2013 - In Alexandra Perry C. D. Herrera (ed.), Ethics and Neurodiversity.
    In popular culture psychopaths are inaccurately portrayed as serial killers or homicidal maniacs. Most real-world psychopaths are neither killers nor maniacs. Psychologists currently understand psychopathy as an affective disorder that leads to repeated criminal and antisocial behavior. Counter to this prevailing view, I claim that psychopathy is not necessarily linked with criminal behavior. Successful psychopaths, an intriguing new category of psychopathic agent, support this conception of psychopathy. I then consider reactive attitude theories of moral responsibility. Within this tradition, psychopaths (...)
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  16. Moral Reasoning and Emotion.Joshua May & Victor Kumar - 2018 - In Karen Jones, Mark Timmons & Aaron Zimmerman (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Moral Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 139-156.
    This chapter discusses contemporary scientific research on the role of reason and emotion in moral judgment. The literature suggests that moral judgment is influenced by both reasoning and emotion separately, but there is also emerging evidence of the interaction between the two. While there are clear implications for the rationalism-sentimentalism debate, we conclude that important questions remain open about how central emotion is to moral judgment. We also suggest ways in which moral philosophy is not only (...)
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  17. Moral Reasons.Jonathan Dancy - 1994 - Philosophy 69 (267):114-116.
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  18.  60
    Moral Reasoning as a Determinant of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Study in the Public Accounting Profession. [REVIEW]John J. Ryan - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (3):233 - 244.
    This study examines the relationship between an employee's level of moral reasoning and a form of work performance known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Prior research in the public accounting profession has found higher levels of moral reasoning to be positively related to various types of ethical behavior. This study extends the ethical domain of accounting behaviors to include OCB. Analysis of respondents from a public accounting firm in the northeast region of the United States (n = 107) (...)
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  19. Measuring Moral Reasoning Using Moral Dilemmas: Evaluating Reliability, Validity, and Differential Item Functioning of the Behavioral Defining Issues Test (bDIT).Youn-Jeng Choi, Hyemin Han, Kelsie J. Dawson, Stephen J. Thoma & Andrea L. Glenn - 2019 - European Journal of Developmental Psychology 16 (5):622-631.
    We evaluated the reliability, validity, and differential item functioning (DIF) of a shorter version of the Defining Issues Test-1 (DIT-1), the behavioral DIT (bDIT), measuring the development of moral reasoning. 353 college students (81 males, 271 females, 1 not reported; age M = 18.64 years, SD = 1.20 years) who were taking introductory psychology classes at a public University in a suburb area in the Southern United States participated in the present study. First, we examined the reliability of the (...)
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  20.  62
    Moral Reasoning Skills: Are Entrepreneurs Different? [REVIEW]Elisabeth J. Teal & Archie B. Carroll - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 19 (3):229 - 240.
    Drawing on existing theory in the fields of business ethics, entrepreneurship, and psychology, this research provides an initial empirical exploration of whether entrepreneurs use cognitive reasoning processes which reflect a higher level of moral development than the level of moral development that has been empirically observed either in middle-level managers or in the general adult population. The Defining Issues Test was used to measure the level of moral reasoning skill of the entrepreneurs in this study. Although the (...)
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  21.  37
    Managers' Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Large Indian Manufacturing Organisations. [REVIEW]Manjit Monga - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):179 - 194.
    Increased globalisation has also seen increased scrutiny of corporate behaviour by the communities. Clearly managers are under increased pressure from stakeholders not only to outperform their competitors, but also are expected to do so in an ethical manner. In order to act ethically an individual is expected to have a well-developed moral imagination and moral reasoning. Literature on ethical reasoning research indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of moral reasoning and ethical behaviour. This paper presents the (...)
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  22.  48
    Beyond Moral Reasoning: A Review of Moral Identity Research and Its Implications for Business Ethics.Dan Freeman - 2008 - Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (4):513-540.
    Moral identity has been touted as a foundation for understanding moral agency in organizations. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding moral identity and highlight several promising avenues for advancing current understandings of moral actions in organizational contexts. The article begins with a brief overview of two distinct conceptual perspectives on moral identity—the character perspective and the social-cognitive perspective—that dominate extant literature. It then discusses varying approaches that have (...)
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  23.  37
    Moral Reasons to Edit the Human Genome: Picking Up From the Nuffield Report.Christopher Gyngell, Hilary Bowman-Smart & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (8):514-523.
    In July 2018, the Nuffield Council of Bioethics released its long-awaited report on heritable genome editing. The Nuffield report was notable for finding that HGE could be morally permissible, even in cases of human enhancement. In this paper, we summarise the findings of the Nuffield Council report, critically examine the guiding principles they endorse and suggest ways in which the guiding principles could be strengthened. While we support the approach taken by the Nuffield Council, we argue that detailed consideration of (...)
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  24.  24
    Moral Reasons.Mark Van Roojen - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (178):118-120.
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  25.  13
    Morals, Reasons, and Animals.R. G. Frey - 1989 - Ethics 100 (1):191-192.
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  26.  18
    Mindfulness, Moral Reasoning and Responsibility: Towards Virtue in Ethical Decision-Making.Cherise Small & Charlene Lew - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 169 (1):103-117.
    Ethical decision-making is a multi-faceted phenomenon, and our understanding of ethics rests on diverse perspectives. While considering how leaders ought to act, scholars have created integrated models of moral reasoning processes that encompass diverse influences on ethical choice. With this, there has been a call to continually develop an understanding of the micro-level factors that determine moral decisions. Both rationalist, such as moral processing, and non-rationalist factors, such as virtue and humanity, shape ethical decision-making. Focusing on the (...)
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  27.  16
    Moral Reasons.Donald C. Hubin - 1995 - Ethics 106 (1):187-189.
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  28.  49
    Moral Reasoning and Ethical Climate: Not-for-Profit Vs. For-Profit Boards of Directors. [REVIEW]Holly Henderson Brower & Charles B. Shrader - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 26 (2):147 - 167.
    Utilizing Rest's moral development and Victor and Cullen's ethical climate surveys, we examine differences in moral reasoning and ethical climate between board members in the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors. Six for-profit corporations and seven not-for-profit corporations, all with base operations in a major midwestern state, participated in the study. We find that profit and not-for-profit boards may not differ in moral reasoning, but do exhibit different types of ethical climates. We also find that for-profit board members may (...)
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  29. Accountants' Value Preferences and Moral Reasoning.Mohammad J. Abdolmohammadi & C. Richard Baker - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):11 - 25.
    This paper examines relationships between accountants’ personal values and their moral reasoning. In particular, we hypothesize that there is an inverse relationship between accountants’ “Conformity” values and principled moral reasoning. This investigation is important because the literature suggests that conformity with rule-based standards may be one reason for professional accountants’ relatively lower scores on measures of moral reasoning (Abdolmohammadi et al. J Bus Ethics 16 (1997) 1717). We administered the Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) (Rokeach: 1973, The Nature (...)
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  30. A Systematic Approach to Clinical Moral Reasoning.Rosamond Rhodes & David Alfandre - 2007 - Clinical Ethics 2 (2):66-70.
    Because the process of moving from moral principles and facts to action-guiding moral conclusions has not been articulated clearly enough to be useful in a practical way, we designed a systematic approach to aid learners and clinicians in their application of ethical principles to the resolution of clinical dilemmas. Our model for clinical moral reasoning is intended to provide a clear and replicable structure that makes the thought process involved in reasoning about clinical cases explicit. In this (...)
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  31.  41
    Moral Reasoning "on Hold" During a Competitive Game.Michael J. Reall, Jeffrey J. Bailey & Sharon K. Stoll - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11):1205-1210.
    When a person engages in a "game," that person may reason and behave in a manner that is inconsistent with non-game-situation moral reasoning. In this study we measured moral reasoning with the Defining Issues Test (DIT). We then engaged the students in a competitive game and collected accounts of their "reasoning" by having them explain their decisions with a forced choice inventory. The results indicate that there were significant inconsistencies in moral reasoning between non-game and game situations. (...)
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  32.  44
    Principled Moral Reasoning: Is It a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? [REVIEW]James Weber & Sharon Green - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (5):325 - 333.
    In response to recent recommendations for the teaching of principled moral reasoning in business school curricula, this paper assesses the viability of such an approach. The results indicate that, while business students' level of moral reasoning in this sample are like most 18- to 21-year-olds, they may be incapable of grasping the concepts embodied in principled moral reasoning. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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  33.  58
    Moral Reasoning in Computer-Based Task Environments: Exploring the Interplay Between Cognitive and Technological Factors on Individuals' Propensity to Break Rules. [REVIEW]Jeffrey A. Roberts & David M. Wasieleski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (3):355-376.
    This study examines the relationship between cognitive moral development (CMD), productivity features of information technology (IT) and unethical behavior or misconduct. Using an experimental design that randomly assigns subjects to one of four unique technology conditions, we assess the relationship between a subjects' predominant level of CMD and ethical misconduct on IT-oriented work tasks. Our results show that both higher levels of CMD and increased levels of IT productivity features at one's disposal have a significant role to play in (...)
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  34. Moral Reasons: Internal and External.David B. Wong - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):536 - 558.
    The view defended is one sense externalist on the relation between moral reasons and motivation: A's having a moral reason to do X does not necessarily imply that A has a motivation that would support A's doing X via some appropriate deliberative route. However, it is in another sense externalist in holding that there are the kind of moral reasons there are only if the relevant motivational capacities are "generally present" in human beings, if not (...)
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  35. Morality, Reasons, and Sentiments.Eric Vogelstein - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 155 (3):421-432.
    Morality is commonly thought to be normative in a robust and important way. This is commonly cashed out in terms of normative reasons. It is also commonly thought that morality is necessarily and universally normative, i.e., that moral reasons are reasons for any possible moral agent. Taking these commonplaces for granted, I argue for a novel view of moral normativity. I challenge the standard view that moral reasons are reasons to act. (...)
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  36. Moral Reasoning in Medicine.Donnie J. Self & D. Baldwin - 1994 - In James R. Rest & Darcia Narváez (eds.), Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 147--62.
     
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  37. Expertise in Moral Reasoning? Order Effects on Moral Judgment in Professional Philosophers and Non‐Philosophers.Eric Schwitzgebel & Fiery Cushman - 2012 - Mind and Language 27 (2):135-153.
    We examined the effects of order of presentation on the moral judgments of professional philosophers and two comparison groups. All groups showed similar‐sized order effects on their judgments about hypothetical moral scenarios targeting the doctrine of the double effect, the action‐omission distinction, and the principle of moral luck. Philosophers' endorsements of related general moral principles were also substantially influenced by the order in which the hypothetical scenarios had previously been presented. Thus, philosophical expertise does not appear (...)
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  38.  39
    Institutional Context and Auditors' Moral Reasoning: A Canada-U.S. Comparison. [REVIEW]Linda Thorne, Dawn W. Massey & Michel Magnan - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):305 - 321.
    This paper compares the moral reasoning of 363 auditors from Canada and the United States. We investigate whether national institutional context is associated with differences in auditors'' moral reasoning by examining three components of auditors'' moral decision process: (1) moral development, which describes cognitive moral capability, (2) prescriptive reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma ought to be resolved and, (3) deliberative reasoning of how a realistic accounting dilemma will be resolved. Not surprisingly, it appears (...)
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  39.  7
    Moral Reasoning.R. W. Beardsmore - 1969 - New York: Schocken Books.
    Accounts of moral reasoning have tended either to ignore the differences in what men count as good reasons for their moral judgments, or, in emphasizing these differences, to imply that anything whatsoever can count as a moral reason. This book shows that both of these positions rest on a mistaken assumption, and by rejecting this assumption brings out important features of moral discourse. Although moral disagreement is seen to be far more radical than empirical (...)
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  40.  9
    Managers’ Moral Reasoning: Evidence From Large Indian Manufacturing Organisations.Manjit Monga - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):179-194.
    Increased globalisation has also seen increased scrutiny of corporate behaviour by the communities. Clearly managers are under increased pressure from stakeholders not only to outperform their competitors, but also are expected to do so in an ethical manner. In order to act ethically an individual is expected to have a well-developed moral imagination and moral reasoning. Literature on ethical reasoning research indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of moral reasoning and ethical behaviour. This paper presents the (...)
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  41. Moral Reasons for Moral Beliefs: A Puzzle for Moral Testimony Pessimism.Andrew Reisner & Joseph Van Weelden - 2015 - Logos and Episteme 6 (4):429-448.
    According to moral testimony pessimists, the testimony of moral experts does not provide non-experts with normative reasons for belief. Moral testimony optimists hold that it does. We first aim to show that moral testimony optimism is, to the extent such things may be shown, the more natural view about moral testimony. Speaking roughly, the supposed discontinuity between the norms of moral beliefs and the norms of non-moral beliefs, on careful reflection, lacks the (...)
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  42.  23
    Morality, Reason, and Truth: New Essays on the Foundations of Ethics.David Copp & David Zimmerman (eds.) - 1984 - Rowman & Allanheld.
    The thirteen papers...address various dimensions of the complex relationship between morality and rationality. Most of the papers are new and they are generally at the cutting edge of current research. The collection is a substantial and important contribution to metaethics.
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  43. A Moral Reason to Be a Mere Theist: Improving the Practical Argument.Xiaofei Liu - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 79 (2):113-132.
    This paper is an attempt to improve the practical argument for beliefs in God. Some theists, most famously Kant and William James, called our attention to a particular set of beliefs, the Jamesian-type beliefs, which are justified by virtue of their practical significance, and these theists tried to justify theistic beliefs on the exact same ground. I argue, contra the Jamesian tradition, that theistic beliefs are different from the Jamesian-type beliefs and thus cannot be justified on the same ground. I (...)
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  44.  25
    Moral Reasoning of in‐Service and Pre‐Service Teachers: A Review of the Research. [REVIEW]Rhoda Cummings, Steve Harlow & Cleborne D. Maddux - 2007 - Journal of Moral Education 36 (1):67-78.
    Although concerns about the moral domain of teaching have been expressed for more than 30 years, empirical studies investigating moral reasoning of in?service and pre?service teachers are sparse. Even fewer studies have investigated the effectiveness of educational interventions to advance moral reasoning in these populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on moral reasoning of and moral interventions with in?service and pre?service teachers and to suggest implications for teacher education programs. Results (...)
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  45.  9
    Moral Reasoning and Its Connections With Machiavellianism and Authoritarianism: The Critical Roles of Index Choice and Utilization.E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack - 2019 - Business and Society 58 (4):779-812.
    Moral reasoning typically relates unexpectedly weakly with both Machiavellianism and authoritarianism. Although researchers often explain this by pointing to apparent shortcomings in both the construct and the measure of moral reasoning, such explanations are questionable given the many instances of support for hypotheses involving moral reasoning using the same construct and measure. As these latter cannot only sometimes be flawed, we explored the possible influence of moral reasoning index choice on observed results by using multiple indices (...)
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  46.  35
    Moral Reasons Not to Breastfeed: A Response to Woollard and Porter.Laura Frances Callahan - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (3):213-214.
    Woollard and Porter argue that mothers have no moral duty to breastfeed their babies. Rather, mothers simply have moral reason(s) to breastfeed, stemming from the benefits of breast feeding for babies. According to Woollard and Porter, doing what one has moral reason to do is often supererogatory, not obligatory. I agree that mothers have no moral duty to breastfeed. However, it is misleading to suggest that mothers in general have moral reason to breastfeed and to (...)
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  47.  8
    Studying Moral Reasoning in Forensic Psychiatric Patients.Gwen Adshead - 2008 - In Guy Widdershoven (ed.), Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
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  48. Blame and Responsiveness to Moral Reasons: Are Psychopaths Blameworthy?Matthew Talbert - 2008 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 89 (4):516-535.
    Abstract: Many philosophers believe that people who are not capable of grasping the significance of moral considerations are not open to moral blame when they fail to respond appropriately to these considerations. I contend, however, that some morally blind, or 'psychopathic,' agents are proper targets for moral blame, at least on some occasions. I argue that moral blame is a response to the normative commitments and attitudes of a wrongdoer and that the actions of morally blind (...)
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  49. Buddhist Moral Reason: Morality or (and) Virtue.Dawei Zhang - 2022 - Journal of South Asian Buddhalogy Studies 1 (1):115-140.
    The research method of Buddhist ethics is contemporary ethical theory, which focuses on precepts (Sila) and disciplines (Vinaya) in experience, rather than transcendental moral ideals (Nirvana or wisdom). Precepts are seen as external norms, while disciplines are internal norms. The former belongs to rule ethics and the latter belongs to virtue ethics. Although the exposition of duty and responsibility can be discovered in Buddhist ethics, there is no sufficient reason to interpret Buddhist ethics as deontology. Views on the consequences (...)
     
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  50. Morality, Reason, and the Rights of Animals.Peter Singer - 2006 - In Stephen Macedo & Josiah Ober (eds.), Primates and Philosophers. Princeton University Press.
     
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