Confucius

Edited by Hagop Sarkissian (CUNY Graduate Center, Baruch College (CUNY))
Assistant editor: Andrew Lambert (College of Staten Island (CUNY))
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393 found
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  1. Fallibilism in Early Confucian Philosophy.Tim Connolly - manuscript
    Fallibilism is a precondition for the conversation between culturally distinct philosophies that comparative philosophy tries to bring about. Without an acknowledgement that our own tradition’s claims may be incomplete or mistaken, we would have no reason to engage members of other communities. Were the early Confucians fallibilists? While some contemporary commentators have seen fallibilism as an essential characteristic of the Confucian tradition, others have argued that the tradition is characterized instead by an “epistemological optimism,” and must be substantially revised if (...)
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  2. Does a politician need paideia? The contextualized vantage of (neo) confucian and platonic ethics.M. Benetatou - forthcoming - Philosophy of Education.
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  3. Virtuous contempt (wu 惡) in the Analects.Hagop Sarkissian - forthcoming - In Justin Tiwald (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Much is said about what Kongzi liked or cherished. Kongzi revered the rituals of the Zhou. He cherished tradition and classical music. He loved the Odes. Far less is said, however, about what he despised or held in contempt (wu 惡). Yet contempt appears in the oldest stratum of the Analects as a disposition or virtue of moral exemplars. In this chapter, I argue that understanding the role of despising or contempt in the Analects is important in appreciating Kongzi’s dao (...)
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  4. Why observing li is not the instrument to attain ren: on the relationship between ren and li in the Analects.Jian Zhang - forthcoming - Philosophy East and West.
    Many scholars generally believe that Confucius thinks the observance of li is instrumental to attaining ren. In this paper, I argue that observing li is not the instrument to attain ren in the Analects. If we endorse the instrumentalist’s interpretation of li for attaining ren, four contradictions would be followed in the Analects. Besides, there is no clear and solid textual evidence for the instrumentalist’s interpretation of li. By reinterpreting passage 12.1, where Confucius said, “ke ji fu li wei ren (...)
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  5. Portraits of Confucius: The Reception of Confucianism from 1560-1960.Kevin DeLapp - 2022 - Bloomsbury.
    With selections from over 100 figures covering the 1560s to the 1960s, this two-volume work features writing from three continents, with sources including Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Max Weber, Bertrand Russell, and Ezra Pound. Arranged chronologically, they represent methodologies that span philosophy, political science, religious studies, sociology, anthropology, economic theory, linguistics, missionary texts, and works of popular moralism. Together they reveal important ideological trends in Western attitudes toward China.
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  6. Let the ruler be the ruler.Liam D. Ryan - 2022 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2).
    How should we understand the Confucian doctrine of the rectification of names (zhengming): what does it mean that an object’s name must be in accordance with its reality, and why does it matter? The aim of this paper is to answer this question by advocating a novel interpretation of the later Confucian, Xunzi’s account of the doctrine. Xunzi claims that sage-kings ascribe names and values to objects by convention, and since they are sages, they know the truth. When we misuse (...)
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  7. Well-Functioning Daos and Moral Relativism.Hagop Sarkissian - 2022 - Philosophy East and West 72 (1):230-247.
    What are the nature and status of moral norms? And what makes individuals abide by them? These are central questions in metaethics. The first concerns the nature of the moral domain—for example, whether it exists independently of what individuals or groups think of it. The second concerns the bindingness or practical clout of moral norms—how individuals feel impelled to abide by them. In this article, I bring two distinct approaches to these questions into dialogue with one another.
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  8. Confucius on Balancing Generalism and Particularism in Ethics and Aesthetics.Jonathan Kwan - 2021 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 2 (38):99–117.
    Confucius endorses a balance between generalism and particularism in ethics and aesthetics. Rather than standards, his rules are defeasible guides for perception, thought, and action balanced by particularizing capacities of judgment. These rules have opaque and open-ended hedges that strengthen a generalization by restricting its application. A similar architecture for ethical and aesthetic rules reflects a broad view of ethics and aesthetics as intertwined and continuous. Hence, whether one chooses a generalist or particularist ethics depends on one's corresponding choices in (...)
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  9. Confucius spreekt.Paul van Els & Carine Defoort - 2021 - 2920 Kalmthout, Belgium: Pelckmans.
    This book contains translations of roughly fifty statements attributed to Confucius. Each statement is followed by an explanation and a reflection on how Confucius can continue to inspire, whether it's on the importance of learning or rituals, self-examination and self-improvement, or virtuous leadership.
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  10. What is the Nature of “the Unperturbed Mind-heart” in Mencius 2A:2?Peter Tsung Kei Wong - 2021 - Chinese Studies 漢學研究 39 (2):1-37.
    「不動心」的本質是甚麼? ─《孟子》〈知言養氣章〉的文理與義理 / 漢學研究 39.2 (2021): 1-37. Scholars have tended to focus on the implications of such philosophical terms as “flood-like qi” 浩然之氣 and “unperturbed mind-heart” 不動心 in Mencius 2A:2, but have failed to identify the common thread of this rather long chapter. This article argues that Mencius 2A:2 frequently alludes to Analects 2.4, and that this allusion is precisely the common thread holding 2A:2 together. According to Mencius’s interpretation, Confucius’s achievements in different ages as stated in Analects 2.4 are (...)
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  11. Moments of Reticence in the Analects and Wittgenstein.Thomas D. Carroll - 2020 - Philosophy East and West 70 (3):679-698.
    For perhaps obvious reasons, reticence is not likely to recommend itself as a category with which to perform cross-cultural studies in philosophy. Again, to risk stating the obvious, the theme of reticence would in this context concern what philosophical arguments and texts leave unsaid as well as explicitly advise an audience to leave unsaid. By fixing our attention to gaps, silences, and times where the subject is changed as well as when any of the advice above is explicitly recommended, new (...)
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  12. How Virtue Reforms Attachment to External Goods: The Transformation of Happiness in the Analects.Bradford Cokelet - 2020 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 33:9-39.
    After distinguishing three conceptions of virtue and its impact on ordinary attachments to external goods such as social status, power, friends, and wealth, this paper argues that the Confucian Analects is most charitably interpreted as endorsing the wholehearted internalization conception, on which virtue reforms but does not completely extinguish ordinary attachments to external goods. I begin by building on Amy Olberding’s attack on the extinguishing attachments conception, but go on to criticize her alternative, resolute sacrifice conception, on which the virtuous (...)
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  13. Trans-Cultural Journeys of East-Asian Educators: The Impact of the Three Teachings.Nguyen Hoang Giang-Le, Chieh-Tai Hsiao & Youmi Heo - 2020 - International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education 11 (1):4201-4210.
    This paper presents the joint journeys, from the East to the West, of three emerging educators, who reflect on their lived experiences in an Asian educational context and their shaped identities through a connection between the motherland and the places to which they immigrated. They have grounded their identities in the inequities they experienced in Asian education and described their experiences through a cultural and social lens as Asian teachers studying in Canadian institutions. They story their lived experiences by using (...)
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  14. Love’s Extension: Confucian Familial Love and the Challenge of Impartiality.Andrew Lambert - 2020 - In Michael Kühler Rachel Fedock (ed.), Love, Justice, and Autonomy: Philosophical Perspectives. New York, NY, USA: pp. 364pp.
    The question of possible moral conflict between commitment to family and to impartiality is particularly relevant to traditional Confucian thought, given the importance of familial bonds in that tradition. Classical Confucian ethics also appears to lack any developed theoretical commitment to impartiality as a regulative ideal and a standpoint for ethical judgment, or to universal equality. The Confucian prioritizing of family has prompted criticism of Confucian ethics, and doubts about its continuing relevance in China and beyond. This chapter assesses how (...)
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  15. Confucius' village worthies: Hypocrites as thieves of virtue.H. C. Winnie Sung - 2020 - In Portraits of Integrity: 26 Case Studies from History, Literature and Philosophy. London:
    This paper discusses Confucius' conception of integrity by way of his view on hypocrites.
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  16. On how religions could accidentally incite lies and violence: folktales as a cultural transmitter.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Manh-Tung Ho, Hong-Kong T. Nguyen, Thu-Trang Vuong, Trung Tran, Khanh-Linh Hoang, Thi-Hanh Vu, Phuong-Hanh Hoang, Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Manh-Toan Ho & Viet-Phuong La - 2020 - Palgrave Communications 6 (1):82.
    Folklore has a critical role as a cultural transmitter, all the while being a socially accepted medium for the expressions of culturally contradicting wishes and conducts. In this study of Vietnamese folktales, through the use of Bayesian multilevel modeling and the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we offer empirical evidence for how the interplay between religious teachings (Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism) and deviant behaviors (lying and violence) could affect a folktale’s outcome. The findings indicate that characters who lie and/or commit (...)
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  17. Does Confucian Public Reason Depend on Confucian Civil Religion?Stephen C. Angle - 2019 - Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (2):177-191.
  18. Emotional Attachment and Its Limits: Mengzi, Gaozi and the Guodian Discussions.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 14 (1):132-151.
    Mengzi maintained that both benevolence (ren 仁) and rightness (yi 義) are naturally-given in human nature. This view has occupied a dominant place in Confucian intellectual history. In Mencius 6A, Mengzi's interlocutor, Gaozi, contests this view, arguing that rightness is determined by (doing what is fitting, in line with) external circumstances. I discuss here some passages from the excavated Guodian texts, which lend weight to Gaozi's view. The texts reveal nuanced considerations of relational proximity and its limits, setting up requirements (...)
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  19. Political Confucianism and Multivariate Democracy in East Asia.Zhuoyao Li - 2019 - The Review of Politics 3 (81):459-483.
    Sungmoon Kim’s pragmatic Confucian democracy tries to provide a mediating position between the instrumental model and the intrinsic model of democracy. However, this model of Confucian democracy is problematic because it fails to justify the unique role Confucianism plays in accommodating democracy when it is one among many comprehensive doctrines in East Asia. To be truly pragmatic about democracy is to hold a pluralistic attitude toward how people will come to terms with it. This article aims to push the pragmatic (...)
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  20. The Art of Convention: An Aesthetic Defense of Confucian Ritual.Irene Liu - 2019 - In Colin Marshall (ed.), Comparative Metaethics: Neglected Perspectives on the Foundations of Morality. New York, USA: Rutledge. pp. 119-138.
    This paper aims to produce a defense of the ethical significance of Confucian ritual. An adequate defense must explain how these conventions are based in a culturally-neutral, objective ground. After a brief account of how Confucians view the relationship between rituals and moral goodness, I consider three sorts of justification. Mencian naturalism appeals to a conception of flourishing that is grounded in human nature. Xunzian consequentialism looks to how ritual brings about social order. I argue that both of these approaches (...)
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  21. Confucianism and American Philosophy by Matthew A. Foust.Robert Smid - 2019 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 40 (1):79-81.
    What new points of connection can be forged between two traditions that will either enable us to learn more about one or the other tradition or enable us better to address the concerns underlying those connections when armed with the resources of both traditions? This is the main, underlying question of Foust's new book, Confucianism and American Philosophy. The perceived quality of his several answers to this question will likely depend on the comparative method that one takes into the pages (...)
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  22. Non-Impositional Rule in Confucius and Aristotle.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - In Alexus McLeod (ed.), The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Early Chinese Ethics and Political Philosophy. London, UK: pp. 187-204.
    I examine and compare Confucian wu-wei rule and Aristotelian non-imperative rule as two models of non-impositional rule. How exactly do non-impositional rulers, according to these thinkers, generate order? And how might a Confucian/Aristotelian dialogue concerning non-impositional rule in distinctively political contexts proceed? Are Confucians and Aristotelians in deep disagreement, or do they actually have more in common than they initially seem?
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  23. Punishment and Ethical Self-Cultivation in Confucius and Aristotle.Matthew D. Walker - 2019 - Law and Literature 31 (2):259-275.
    Confucius and Aristotle both put a primacy on the task of ethical self-cultivation. Unlike Aristotle, who emphasizes the instrumental value of legal punishment for cultivation’s sake, Confucius raises worries about the practice of punishment. Punishment, and the threat of punishment, Confucius suggests, actually threatens to warp human motivation and impede our ethical development. In this paper, I examine Confucius’ worries about legal punishment, and consider how a dialogue on punishment between Confucius and Aristotle might proceed. I explore how far apart (...)
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  24. A History of Classical Chinese Thought.Li Zehou & Andrew Lambert - 2019 - Routledge.
  25. Partial Values: A Comparative Study in the Limits of Objectivity.Kevin Michael DeLapp - 2018 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    An examination of the tensions between different conceptions of objectivity and subjectivity, and impartiality and partiality, as they arise in epistemology, ethical theory, and metaethics. Resources from classical Chinese philosophy are leveraged throughout the work to showcase new alternative ways of resolving these tensions.
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  26. A Confucian Perspective on Tertiary Education for the Common Good.Edmond Eh - 2018 - Journal of the Macau Ricci Institute 3:26-34.
    Confucian education is best captured by the programme described in the Great Learning. Education is presented first as the process of self-cultivation for the sake of developing virtuous character. Self-cultivation then allows for virtue to be cultivated in the familial, social and international dimensions. My central thesis is that Confucianism can serve as a universal framework of educating people for the common good in its promotion of personal cultivation for the sake of human progress. On this account the common good (...)
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  27. Adversity, Wisdom, and Exemplarism.Ian Kidd - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 52 (4):379-393.
    According to a venerable ideal, the core aim of philosophical practice is wisdom. The guiding concern of the ancient Greek, Indian, and Chinese traditions was the nature of the good life for human beings and the nature of reality. Central to these traditions is profound recognition of the subjection to adversities intrinsic to human life. I consider paradigmatic exemplars of wisdom, from ancient Western and Asian traditions, and the ways that experiences of adversity shaped their life. The suggestion is that (...)
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  28. Confucianism, Curiosity, and Moral Self-Cultivation.Ian James Kidd - 2018 - In Ilhan Inan, Lani Watson, Safiye Yigit & Dennis Whitcomb (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Curiosity. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 97-116.
    I propose that Confucianism incorporates a latent commitment to the closely related epistemic virtues of curiosity and inquisitiveness. Confucian praise of certain people, practices, and dispositions is only fully intelligible if these are seen as exercises and expressions of epistemic virtues, of which curiosity and inquisitiveness are the obvious candidates. My strategy is to take two core components of Confucian ethical and educational practice and argue that each presupposes a specific virtue. To have and to express a ‘love of learning’ (...)
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  29. Confucian Virtue Ethics and Business.Richard Kim, Javier Cuervo, Richard Roque & Reuben Mondejar - 2018 - In Ignacio Ferrero, Gregorio Guitian & Alejo Jose G. Sison (eds.), Business Ethics: A Virtue Ethics and Common Good Approach. New York, NY, USA:
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  30. Learning to be Reliable: Confucius' Analects.Karyn L. Lai - 2018 - In Karyn L. Lai, Rick Benitez & Hyun Jin Kim (eds.), Cultivating a Good Life in Early Chinese and Ancient Greek Philosophy Perspectives and Reverberations. Bloomsbury. pp. 193-207.
    In the Lunyu, Confucius remarks on the implausibility—or impossibility—of a life lacking in xin 信, reliability (2.22). In existing discussions of Confucian philosophy, this aspect of life is often eclipsed by greater emphasis on Confucian values such as ren 仁 (benevolence), li 禮 (propriety) and yi 義 (rightness). My discussion addresses this imbalance by focusing on reliability, extending current debates in two ways. First, it proposes that the common translation of xin as denoting coherence between a person’s words and deeds (...)
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  31. Power, Situation, and Character: A Confucian-Inspired Response to Indirect Situationist Critiques.Seth Robertson - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):341-358.
    Indirect situationist critiques of virtue ethics grant that virtue exists and is possible to acquire, but contend that given the low probability of success in acquiring it, a person genuinely interested in behaving as morally as possible would do better to rely on situationist strategies - or, in other words, strategies of environmental or ecological engineering or control. In this paper, I develop a partial answer to this critique drawn from work in early Confucian ethics and in contemporary philosophy and (...)
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  32. Confucius's Sayings Entombed: On Two Han Dynasty Bamboo Lunyu Manuscripts.Paul van Els - 2018 - In Michael Hunter & Martin Kern (eds.), Confucius and the Analects Revisited: New Perspectives on Composition, Dating, and Authorship. Leiden, Netherlands: pp. 152–86.
    This paper is intended as a gateway to two 2000-year-old manuscripts of the Analects. The first two sections discuss the archaeological context of the discoveries and analyse the manuscripts themselves, including characteristic features of the bamboo strips and the texts inked thereon and notable differences between these and other Analects versions. In these sections, I also critically evaluate present-day Analects studies and offer alternative hypotheses where there is room for debate. The third and final section of the paper discusses what (...)
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  33. Character, Culture, and Humean Virtue Ethics: Insights from Situationism and Confucianism.Rico Vitz - 2018 - In Philip Reed & Rico Vitz (eds.), Hume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Psychology. Routledge.
    For the past two decades, the empirical adequacy of virtue has ethics has been challenged by proponents of situationism and defended by a wide variety of virtue ethics, working both in Western and in Eastern philosophy. Advocates of Humean virtue ethics, however, have (rather surprisingly) had little to say in this debate. In this chapter, I attempt to help fill this gap in Hume scholarship in three ways. First, I elucidate insights both from Hume and from his commentators to explain (...)
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  34. Discourses of “Imperialism” in the Late Qing Dynasty.Hanhao Wang - 2018 - Cultura 15 (2):97-115.
    Imperialism, the key concept of modern politics and society, entered China via Japan in the late Qing Dynasty. This concept had been endowed with rich connotations before Lenin’s assertion that imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism gained a dominant position in China. Liang Qichao influenced by the Waseda University of Politics, regarded “imperialism” as the result of “nationalism”. He advocated the cultivation of nationals to cope with international competition. At the same time, Kotoku Shusui being influenced by the European (...)
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  35. Political participation as self-cultivation: Towards a participatory theory of Confucian democracy.Jingcai Ying - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 20 (2):290-311.
    Challenging the popular perception that Confucianism provides mostly a moral defense of political hierarchy, this article demonstrates that Confucianism is more than compatible with democracy and f...
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  36. Confucianism and American Philosophy.Mathew A. Foust - 2017 - Albany, USA: SUNY Press.
    In this highly original work, Mathew A. Foust breaks new ground in comparative studies through his exploration of the connections between Confucianism and the American Transcendentalist and Pragmatist movements. In his examination of a broad range of philosophers, including Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Charles Peirce, William James, and Josiah Royce, Foust traces direct lines of influence from early translations of Confucian texts and brings to light conceptual affinities that have been previously overlooked. Combining resources from (...)
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  37. Confucius Beyond the analects.Michael Hunter - 2017 - Brill.
    In _Confucius Beyond the_ Analects, Michael Hunter challenges the standard view of the _Analects_ as the earliest and most authoritative source of the teachings.
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  38. How should we use the Chinese past? Contemporary Confucianism, the ‘reorganization of the national heritage’ and non-Western histories of thought in a global age.Leigh Jenco - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (4):450-469.
    In this essay I argue that recent philosophical attempts to ‘modernise’ Confucianism rehearse problematic relationships to the past that – far from broadening Confucianism’s appeal beyond its typical borders – end up narrowing its scope as a source of scholarly knowledge. This is because the very attempt to modernise assumes a rupture with a past in which Confucianism was once alive and relevant, fixing its identity to a static historical place disconnected from the present. I go on to explore alternative (...)
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  39. Confucius: The Man and the Way of Gongfu by Peimin Ni. [REVIEW]Andrew Lambert Jr - 2017 - Philosophy East and West 68 (1):1-4.
    In Confucius: the Man and the Way of Gongfu, Peimin Ni offers an overview of the historical Confucius and his organic vision of how to live. Ni's motivation is that many comparable introductions are "simply repeating his life story and listing his main ideas". Ni insists that, "we have to get to the depth required by Confucius' thought", which will then explain why Confucius' influence has endured. The book is structured as six chapters, each focusing on one aspect of Confucius: (...)
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  40. Confucianism and American Philosophy. [REVIEW]Andrew Lambert - 2017 - Review of Metaphysics 71 (4).
  41. Wong on Three Confucian Metaphors for Ethical Development.Christian Miller - 2017 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 16 (4):551-558.
    This is my contribution to a symposium on David Wong’s paper, “Early Confucian Philosophy and the Development of Compassion.” I simply grant Wong his reading of the relevant texts and consider the merits of the ideas about ethical development on their own terms. In particular, my aim is to see how fruitful these ideas might be in the contemporary philosophical landscape.
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  42. Zhuangzi: Closet Confucian?Michael Nylan - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (4):411-429.
    Confucius and Zhuangzi are the two most famous thinkers in all of Chinese history, aside from Laozi, the Old Master. They occupy positions in the history of Chinese thinking roughly comparable to those held by Plato and Epicurus in the Western narrative of civilisation, in that they offer visions of the engaged political life and the engaged social self to which later political theorists and ethicists invariably return. For the last century or so, if not longer, Sinologists and comparative philosophers (...)
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  43. Confucius and Filial Piety.Thomas Radice - 2017 - In Paul R. Goldin (ed.), A Concise Companion to Confucius. John Wiley & Sons.
    Filial piety is a foundational concept in the thought of Confucius. Rooted in religious rituals from the Western Zhou Dynasty, filial piety in the Analects functions primarily a form of ritual, but based as much in the emotions of the performer as the formal behavior itself, especially in mourning rituals. This ritual foundation is critical for understanding not only the general form of filial piety in the text, but also famous problematic passages in which Confucius favors concealing the misdeeds of (...)
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  44. Jak „Chiny” stworzyły Europę: narodziny oświeceniowego sekularyzmu z ducha konfucjanizmu.Dawid Rogacz - 2017 - Diametros 54:138-160.
    The aim of the article is to demonstrate that the contact between European philosophy and Chinese culture in the 17 th and 18 th centuries had an influence on the emergence and development of secularism, which became a distinctive feature of the Western Enlightenment. In the first part, I examine in what way knowledge of the history of China and the Confucian ethics contested the Biblical chronology and undermined faith as a prerequisite for morality. Subsequently, I analyze the attempts to (...)
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  45. Zhong in the Analects with Insights into Loyalty.H. C. Winnie Sung - 2017 - In Roger T. Ames & Peter D. Hershock (eds.), Confucianisms for a Changing World Cultural Order.
    This chapter attempts to analyze the notion of zhong忠 in the Ana-lects. Since zhong is often translated as “loyalty” in the existing literature, it is tempting to read Confucius as placing emphasis on the importance of being loyal, and this will easily call to mind many negative connotations associated with loyalty such as blind submission, ungrounded favoritism, and the erosion of integrity. Such a strong association between zhong and loyalty might prevent us from fully understanding why zhong is valued. The (...)
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  46. Punishment and Autonomous Shame in Confucian Thought.Justin Tiwald - 2017 - Criminal Justice Ethics 36 (1):45-60.
    As recorded in the Analects, Kongzi (Confucius) held that using punishment to influence ordinary citizens will do little to develop a sense of shame (chi 恥) in them. This term is usually taken to refer to a sense of shame described here as “ autonomous,” understood as a predisposition to feel ashamed when one does something wrong because it seems wrong to oneself, and not because others regard it as wrong or shameful. Historically, Confucian philosophers have thought a great deal (...)
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  47. Virtues and Roles in Early Confucian Ethics.Tim Connolly - 2016 - Confluence 4.
    Many passages in early Confucian texts such as the Analects and Mengzi are focused on virtue, recommending qualities like humaneness (ren 仁), righteousness (yi 義), and trustworthiness (xin 信). Still others emphasize roles: what it means to be a good son, a good ruler, a good friend, a good teacher, or a good student. How are these teachings about virtues and roles related? In the past decade there has been a growing debate between two interpretations of early Confucian ethics, one (...)
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  48. Confucian reflective commitment and free expression.David Elstein - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 19 (3):314-333.
    As Confucian political thought is adapted to modern circumstances, the question of free expression merits more attention. Most contemporary Confucian political theorists accept a right to political...
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  49. Feminist Encounters with Confucius.Mathew Foust & Sor-Hoon Tan (eds.) - 2016 - Boston, USA: Brill.
    This collection contributes to current debates and explores new topics of engagement between Feminism and Confucius’s teachings, variously interpreted. Besides care ethics and role ethics, questions of gender oppression and education, it includes essays on epistemology and environmental ethics.
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  50. Filial Piety and Business Ethics: A Confucian Reflection.Richard Kim, Reuben Mondejar & Chris Chu - 2016 - In Alejo José G. Sison, Gregory Beabout & Ignacio Ferrero (eds.), Handbook on Virtue Ethics in Business and Management.
    Filial Piety and Business Ethics: A Confucian Reflection.
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