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  1. Toxic Warrior Identity, Accountability, and Moral Risk.Stoney Portis & Jessica Wolfendale - manuscript
    Academics working on military ethics and serving military personnel rarely have opportunities to talk to each other in ways that can inform and illuminate their respective experiences and approaches to the ethics of war. The workshop from which this paper evolved was a rare opportunity to remedy this problem. Our conversations about First Lieutenant (1LT) Portis’s experiences in combat provided a unique chance to explore questions about the relationship between oversight, accountability, and the idea of moral risk in military operations. (...)
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  2. Could slaughterbots wipe out humanity? Assessment of the global catastrophic risk posed by autonomous weapons.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    Recently criticisms against autonomous weapons were presented in a video in which an AI-powered drone kills a person. However, some said that this video is a distraction from the real risk of AI—the risk of unlimitedly self-improving AI systems. In this article, we analyze arguments from both sides and turn them into conditions. The following conditions are identified as leading to autonomous weapons becoming a global catastrophic risk: 1) Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) development is delayed relative to progress in narrow (...)
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  3. Target Acquired: The Ethics of Assassination.Nathan Gabriel Wood - manuscript
    In international law and the ethics of war, there are a variety of actions which are seen as particularly problematic and presumed to be always or inherently wrong, or in need of some overwhelmingly strong justification to override the presumption against them. One of these actions is assassination, in particular, assassination of heads of state. In this essay I argue that the presumption against assassination is incorrect. In particular, I argue that if in a given scenario war is justified, then (...)
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  4. Child soldiers: An ethical perspective.Jeff McMahon - manuscript
    in Scott Gates and Simon Reich, eds., Building Knowledge About Children in Armed Conflict (forthcoming in the University of Pittsburgh’s Ridgway/Ford security studies series).
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  5. Moral Injury: A Typology.Edward Barrett - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-10.
    This article offers suggestions for categorizing combat-related moral injuries, highlights possible causes of these injuries in veterans, and touches upon broadly-conceived measures to prevent and repair them. The first part identifies three prevailing definitions – lost trust, guilt, and harm to one’s capacity for right action and moral virtue – and argues for an emphasis on the latter. In service of highlighting areas for future empirical research and clinical awareness, the second part outlines possible veteran-related causes associated with these three (...)
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  6. Francis and the Bomb: On the Immorality of Nuclear Deterrence.Christian Nikolaus Braun - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-10.
    This essay investigates the change in the Catholic attitude toward nuclear weapons as articulated by Pope Francis. Francis has generally followed the position of his immediate predecessors with regard to the Catholic teaching on just war. While the resort to armed force remains a morally justifiable option if the principles of just war have been met, the pope forcefully emphasises the tools of nonviolent peacebuilding. Recently, however, Francis made an original just war argument when he broke with the Church’s established (...)
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  7. Strategic Humanism: Lessons on Leadership from the Ancient Greeks.Martin L. Cook - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-1.
    This small volume from Claudia Hauer results from an interesting and important intersection of her professional experiences. Trained in Classics, Hauer has spent most of her career at St. John’s Co...
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  8. Eight Arguments against Double Effect.Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - In Proceedings of the XXIII. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Philosophie.
    I offer eight arguments against the Doctrine of Double Effect, a normative principle according to which in pursuing the good it is sometimes morally permissible to bring about some evil as a side-effect or merely foreseen consequence: the same evil would not be morally justified as an intended means or end.
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  9. Teaching Virtues in the Military.Nancy E. Snow - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-15.
    In parts I and II, this article briefly sketches two approaches to virtue ethics – those taken by Aristotle and the contemporary exemplarist moral theory of Linda Zagzebski – with an eye to providing resources for miliary educators. Each section concludes with remarks about the pros and cons of the author’s experiences of teaching these theories to undergraduates. Part III deals with the social articulation of morality and its implications for war crimes. The social articulation of morality is the idea (...)
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  10. Ethics and Military Strategy in the 21st Century: Moving Beyond Clausewitz.Edward Erwin - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-5.
    George Lucas, an internationally renowned authority on military ethics, passionately and persuasively submits the argument in his latest book that military strategy must surpass the outdated Clause...
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  11. Responsibility and Restraint: James Turner Johnson and the Just War Tradition.Edward Erwin - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-6.
    A wide-ranging compendium of incisive essays, Responsibility and Restraint: James Turner Johnson and the Just War Tradition promises to be an important contribution to the just war dialogue. Writte...
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  12. The First Wave: The D-Day Warriors Who Led the Way to Victory in World War II, by Alex Kershaw.Claudia Hauer - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-2.
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  13. Kevlar for the Soul: Moral Theology and Force Protection.Marc LiVecche - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-15.
    This article is an examination of killing in war in its moral and normative dimension – with attention given to how killing affects the acting agent. The author argues against the commonplace belief – often tacitly held if not consciously asserted – among academics, the general public, and even – if surprisingly – military professionals, that killing, including in a justified war, is always morally wrong – even when legally sanctioned and necessary to avert a greater moral wrong. This critique (...)
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  14. Limited Force and the Fight for the Just War Tradition.George R. Lucas - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-3.
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  15. Realist Ethics: Just War Traditions and Power Politics, by Valerie Morkevicius.N. G. Melgaard - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-2.
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  16. Victory: The Triumph and Tragedy of Just War.Nicholas Melgaard - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-6.
    Cian O’Driscoll’s Victory: The Triumph and Tragedy of Just War covers a vast range of materials, discussing the idea of victory and its relationship to just war theory. The idea of victory raises s...
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  17. Virtue and Applied Military Ethics: Understanding Character-Based Approaches to Professional Military Ethics.C. Anthony Pfaff - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-17.
    Military ethics seeks to provide practical guidance for the resolution of real ethical problems associated with the conduct of military operations. In doing so, it must reflect how actual persons give and take-up reasons when deliberating what actions to take. The Just War Tradition, for example, provides deontological and consequentialist considerations soldiers should take up when considering how to conduct operations. Sometimes, unfortunately, soldiers may find themselves in tragic situations where principles and consequences provide no clear guidance. To fill that (...)
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  18. The Ashgate Research Companion to Military Ethics.Roger Mason PhD - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-3.
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  19. Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  20. No peaceful warriors.Ambrose Redmoon - forthcoming - Gnosis: Ajournal of Western Inner Traditions.
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  21. Emotion, Ethics, and Military Virtues.Mitt Regan & Kevin Mullaney - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-18.
    It is common to think of warfare as a setting in which emotion can lead combatants to engage in unethical behavior. On this view, it is natural to conceptualize the aim of military ethics training as quelling the influence of emotion in combat in order to reduce the risk that military personnel are vulnerable to its influence. Recent research, however, indicates that what is called “emotion processing” is connected in important ways with moral judgment and behavior. In this view, acting (...)
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  22. The Strategic Corporal Revisited: Challenges Facing Combatants in 21st-Century Warfare, edited by David W. Lovell and Deane-Peter Baker.Jeremy S. Stirm - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-3.
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  23. Why Military Conditioning Violates the Human Dignity of Soldiers.Regina Sibylle Https://Orcidorg Surber - forthcoming - Moral Philosophy and Politics.
    This article argues that military conditioning (MC) systematically violates the human dignity of soldiers. The argument relies on an absolute deontologist account of human dignity understood as a claim-right to live in self-respect, which is a right to decide on one’s own behalf about, and to be in control of, essential aspects of one’s own life. The article claims that MC violates soldiers’ dignity so understood because the largely automatic physical killing reflex that MC instills aims to remove their freedom (...)
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  24. Albert Einstein. The Roads to Pacifism.Henrik Syse - forthcoming - Journal of Military Ethics:1-2.
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  25. Warfare. Fourth International Conference of Cyber Conflict.Mariarosaria Taddeo - forthcoming - NATO CCD COE and IEEE Publication.
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  26. May 5, 2011 Argument: Final Paper Controlling Private Security Companies with Regulation On September 16, 2007, in Nisour Square, west of central Baghdad, Afghanistan. [REVIEW]Leah Tedesco - forthcoming - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal.
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  27. Political Action by the Military in the Developing Areas.Fred R. Von der Mehden & Charles W. Anderson - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  28. Conscientious objection in healthcare: the requirement of justification, the moral threshold, and military refusals.Tomasz Żuradzki - forthcoming - Journal of Religious Ethics.
    A dogma accepted in many ethical, religious, and legal frameworks is that the reasons behind conscientious objection (CO) in healthcare cannot be evaluated or judged by any institution because conscience is individual and autonomous. This paper shows that the background view is mistaken: the requirement to reveal and explain the reasons for conscientious objection in healthcare is ethically justified and legally desirable. Referring to real healthcare cases and legal regulations, the paper argues that these reasons should be evaluated either ex (...)
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  29. An Unethical War on Language Requires an Ethical Language of War.James L. Cook - 2024 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):88-88.
    At this writing, late in 2023 and on the eve of 2024, we are approaching the seventy-fifth anniversary of George Orwell’s 1984 and its many quotable passages such as “WAR IS PEACE.” Like 1949, the...
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  30. Review of Issues in Military Ethics Series. [REVIEW]Edward Erwin - 2024 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):145-154.
    Immanuel Kant adopted the imperative sapere aude (dare to reason, know, or be wise) as the guiding principle for his writings, and this maxim became recognized as the hallmark of the Enlightenment...
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  31. The Duty to Repatriate U.S. Military Personnel.Rodney C. Roberts - 2024 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):110-117.
    Tens of thousands of U.S. military personnel remain missing in action (MIA). U.S. law requires that our MIAs be accounted for and that the government maintain a comprehensive, coordinated, integrated and fully resourced program dedicated to accomplishing this enormous task. The aim of this paper is to show that there is also a moral requirement. There is a moral duty to repatriate U.S. military personnel, a duty that is grounded in our individual right to self-defense.
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  32. The Horrors of War – and the Need for Ethics.Henrik Syse - 2024 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):87-87.
    To be publishing this journal as the brutality of war is on display every night on our television screens may seem simultaneously futile and deeply meaningful. With the horrors of Gaza, Israel, and...
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  33. Jus in bello Necessity, The Requirement of Minimal Force, and Autonomous Weapons Systems.Alexander Blanchard & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 21 (3):286-303.
    In this article we focus on the jus in bello principle of necessity for guiding the use of autonomous weapons systems (AWS). We begin our analysis with an account of the principle of necessity as entailing the requirement of minimal force found in Just War Theory, before highlighting the absence of this principle in existing work on AWS. Overlooking this principle means discounting the obligations that combatants have towards one another in times of war. We argue that the requirement of (...)
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  34. A Moral Bind? — Autonomous Weapons, Moral Responsibility, and Institutional Reality.Bartek Chomanski - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36.
    In “Accepting Moral Responsibility for the Actions of Autonomous Weapons Systems—a Moral Gambit” (2022), Mariarosaria Taddeo and Alexander Blanchard answer one of the most vexing issues in current ethics of technology: how to close the so-called “responsibility gap”? Their solution is to require that autonomous weapons systems (AWSs) may only be used if there is some human being who accepts the ex ante responsibility for those actions of the AWS that could not have been predicted or intended (in such cases, (...)
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  35. War without Agreement: Thinking through Okeja's Jus ad Bellum Theory.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):129-139.
    In a recent article in this journal, Uchena Okeja, inspired by sources in African philosophy and military ethics, argued that war by agreement is the only morally justified war. The present piece is a response to Okeja's contention that agreement is both necessary and sufficient for waging war. Contrasting with Okeja, I contend that agreement is neither necessary nor sufficient for initiating a war. Regarding necessity, I contend that there may be overriding values at risk in a conflict and protecting (...)
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  36. Military Space Ethics, edited by Nikki Coleman.Darren Cronshaw - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (1):85-86.
    I was born in the middle of the manned Apollo moon missions and still remember where I was as a teenager viewing Space Shuttle Challenger exploding. I also grew up with interstellar war crimes on t...
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  37. Defusing the legal and ethical minefield of epigenetic applications in the military, defence and security context.Gratien Dalpe, Katherine Huerne, Charles Dupras, Katherine Cheung, Nicole Palmour, Eva Winkler, Karla Alex, Maxwell Mehlmann, John W. Holloway, Eline Bunnik, Harald König, Isabelle M. Mansuy, Marianne G. Rots, Cheryl Erwin, Alexandre Erler, Emanuele Libertini & Yann Joly - 2023 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 10 (2):1-32.
    Epigenetic research has brought several important technological achievements, including identifying epigenetic clocks and signatures, and developing epigenetic editing. The potential military applications of such technologies we discuss are stratifying soldiers’ health, exposure to trauma using epigenetic testing, information about biological clocks, confirming child soldiers’ minor status using epigenetic clocks, and inducing epigenetic modifications in soldiers. These uses could become a reality. This article presents a comprehensive literature review, and analysis by interdisciplinary experts of the scientific, legal, ethical, and societal issues (...)
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  38. Friedens- und Konfliktethik -- Buchbesprechung. [REVIEW]Florian Demont-Biaggi - 2023 - Stratos Digital 46.
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  39. Virtues for the Smallest Gang? A Contribution to the Leadership Ethics of Urban Warfare.Florian Demont-Biaggi - 2023 - In Dragan Stanar & Kristina Tonn (eds.), The Ethics of Urban Warfare. Leiden: Brill. pp. 46-68.
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  40. Introduction and Synopsis.Sheena M. Eagan & Daniel Messelken - 2023 - In Sheena M. Eagan & Daniel Messelken (eds.), Resource Scarcity in Austere Environments: An Ethical Examination of Triage and Medical Rules of Eligibility. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-16.
    Modern medicine consumes vast amounts of resources, ranging from human to technological and financial. In a well-functioning and well-equipped health system, resource allocation considerations rarely impact clinical decision-making as all patients that need care will (eventually) receive it. In light of this, health care providers (HCPs) are often taught to focus on the patient in front of them, driven by a type of patient-centred ethics (of care) that prioritizes the individual person’s well-being above the aggregate. Informed by the principle of (...)
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  41. Resource Scarcity in Austere Environments: An Ethical Examination of Triage and Medical Rules of Eligibility.Sheena M. Eagan & Daniel Messelken (eds.) - 2023 - Springer Verlag.
    This book focuses on resource allocation in military and humanitarian medicine during times of scarcity and austerity. It is in these times that health systems bend, break, and even collapse and where resource allocation becomes a paramount concern and directly impacts clinical decision-making. Such times are challenging and this book covers this very important, yet, scarcely researched topic within the field of bioethics. This work brings together experts and practitioners in the fields of military health care, philosophy, ethics, and other (...)
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  42. Pourquoi la guerre?Frédéric Gros - 2023 - Paris: Albin Michel.
    La guerre, pour reprendre l'expression du général Le Borgne, serait "morte à Hiroshima" il y a plus d'un demi-siècle. Et pourtant elle n'a jamais cessé. Actes terroristes, conflits israélo-palestiniens et moyen-orientaux, implosion de la Yougoslavie, pays déchirés par les factions, sans même parler des autres guerres : économiques, psychologiques, informatiques, guerres des sexes ou des générations... L'invasion de l'Ukraine par la Russie a pourtant rebattu les cartes. Cette fois, dit-on, c'est le retour de la vraie guerre, avec ses exactions, ses (...)
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  43. Autonomous Systems and Moral De-Skilling: Beyond Good and Evil in the Emergent Battlespaces of the Twenty-First Century.Manabrata Guha & Jai Galliott - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (1):51-71.
    This article investigates the question concerning moral deskilling in the context of autonomous weapon systems. To this end, it interrogates the appropriateness of deskilling as an analytical tool, the consequences of the conflation of the terms “the warrior” and “the soldier,” and the impact of the dominant, but commonplace, understanding of autonomous weapons that underwrites the concerns that have been expressed thus far. While affirming the critical importance of the question regarding moral deskilling in the context of advanced weapons and (...)
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  44. Moralities of Drone Violence Moralities of Drone Violence by Christian Enemark, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2023, 256 pp., open access (ebook), ISBN 978-1474490108. [REVIEW]Karia Hartung - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):140-144.
    “All war is violent, but not all violence is war, so not all drone violence will be drone warfare” (26).1 Based on this assumption, Christian Enemark’s Moralities of Drone Violence provides a detai...
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  45. Can Just Wars Be Fought Proportionately? A Critique of In Bello Proportionality.Michael C. Hawley - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (2):89-102.
    Proportionality has long been considered a pillar of just war theory, requiring that the goods achieved in an action outweigh the collateral harms it causes. In this article, I argue that the in bello principle of proportionality cannot serve its intended function of limiting the destructiveness of actions during war. I illustrate the features of war that make the in bello proportionality constraint not merely impossible to follow, but perhaps even self-defeating. I conclude by suggesting ways in which theorists and (...)
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  46. Suspending Voluntary Reserve Service: New Questions in Israeli Military Ethics.Asa Kasher - 2023 - Conatus 8 (2):241-256.
    Military activities with the framework of the IDF [Israel Defense Force] is carried out by citizens in a variety of positions. In addition to the ordinary positions of career officers and NCOs, the IDF consists of conscripted men and women as well as reservists. Some of the latter serve under an ordinary command to serve for a certain relatively short period. Other reservists, including pilots and special forces officers have served since they volunteered to serve. Facing the political clash between (...)
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  47. Proportionality, Defensive Alliance Formation, and Mearsheimer on Ukraine.Benjamin King - 2023 - Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 2:69-82.
    In this article, I consider the permissibility of forming defensive alliances, which is a neglected topic in the contemporary literature on the ethics of war and peace. Drawing on the jus ad bellum criterion of proportionality in just war theory, I argue that if permissible defensive force requires that its expected harms must be counterbalanced by its expected goods, then, permissible defensive alliance formation seems to also require that its expected harms must be counterbalanced by its expected goods, as the (...)
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  48. Psychological Defense Mechanisms of Military Service Members as a Personality Stabilization Regulatory System for Combat Mission Effectiveness.Kateryna Kravchenko, Oleg Khairulin, Serhii Danchevskyi, Stanislav Pavlushenko & Larysa Chernobai - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (1):72-84.
    This study's objective is to explore the psychological defense mechanisms of Ukrainian service members as a regulatory system for personality stabilization that influences combat mission effectiveness. The study was carried out during 2019–2020. The respondents were 270 military personnel of the ground forces, who had gained experience in the Anti-Terrorist Operation hostilities in the East of Ukraine in 2017–2020. We used psychodiagnostic methods such as the Lifestyle Index by Plutchik, Kellerman, and Conte; Lazarus’s Coping Test; and Leontiev’s Meaningful Life Orientations (...)
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  49. Exploring Enhanced Military Ethics and Legal Compliance through Automated Insights: An Experiment on Military Decision-making in Extremis.Ioanna Lekea, George Lekeas & Pavlos Topalnakos - 2023 - Conatus 8 (2):345-372.
    Numerous factors are known to impact human decision-making: fatigue, stress, fear, sleep deprivation, organizational culture, ethics, and even substances consumed, among others. Making decisions within the context of a military operation poses exceptional challenges. Time constraints are consistently tight, and military personnel often contend with physical and mental exhaustion, along with substantial stress and fear. Our proactive strategies for addressing these hurdles predominantly revolve around educating military personnel, incorporating both theoretical training and immersive simulations that may include different types of (...)
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  50. Proud Vermin: Modern Militias and the State.Colin J. Lewis & Jennifer Kling - 2023 - Journal of Military Ethics 22 (1):1-18.
    Contemporary arguments about private paramilitary organizations often focus on the threat of physical violence that they pose to the state: if such organizations garner enough physical power, then they can overtake the state via violent coup. Inspired by the legalist scholar Han Feizi’s position, we contend that such organizations also represent a sociopolitical, existential threat to the state. Specifically, their tendency for ideological expansion and subsequent gathering of political influence undermines state institutions, even without the use of overt physical force. (...)
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