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399 found
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  1. Should machines be tools or tool-users? Clarifying motivations and assumptions in the quest for superintelligence.Dan J. Bruiger - manuscript
    Much of the basic non-technical vocabulary of artificial intelligence is surprisingly ambiguous. Some key terms with unclear meanings include intelligence, embodiment, simulation, mind, consciousness, perception, value, goal, agent, knowledge, belief, optimality, friendliness, containment, machine and thinking. Much of this vocabulary is naively borrowed from the realm of conscious human experience to apply to a theoretical notion of “mind-in-general” based on computation. However, if there is indeed a threshold between mechanical tool and autonomous agent (and a tipping point for singularity), projecting (...)
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  2. The Worst Way (Not) to Communicate.Joseph S. Fulda - manuscript
    Evaluates e-mail critically from four perspectives. Note: This is /not/ the full version. The full version is available upon written request only.
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  3. Val Dusek' Philosophy of Technology (Arabic Translation of the Introduction and Chapters III and IV) فلسفة التكنولوجيا - فال دوسيك (المقدمة والفصلين الثالث والرابع) - ترجمة وتعليق.Salah Osman - manuscript
    فلسفة التكنولوجيا - فال دوسيك (المقدمة والفصلين الثالث والرابع) - ترجمة وتعليق، في إطار مشروع لترجمة الكتاب بالكامل بالاشتراك مع آخرين.
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  4. Algorithmic neutrality.Milo Phillips-Brown - manuscript
    Bias infects the algorithms that wield increasing control over our lives. Predictive policing systems overestimate crime in communities of color; hiring algorithms dock qualified female candidates; and facial recognition software struggles to recognize dark-skinned faces. Algorithmic bias has received significant attention. Algorithmic neutrality, in contrast, has been largely neglected. Algorithmic neutrality is my topic. I take up three questions. What is algorithmic neutrality? Is algorithmic neutrality possible? When we have an eye to algorithmic neutrality, what can we learn about algorithmic (...)
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  5. Virtual Reality Interview (Metaphysics and Epistemology): "Welcome Back!".Erick Jose Ramirez & Miles Elliott - manuscript
    This is a virtual reality simulation that imagines its subject as emerging from a long stint in Robert Nozick's "Experience Machine." The simulation is an interview (with many branching paths) meant to gauge the subject's views on the metaphysics of virtual objects and the ethics of virtual actions. It draws heavily from the published work of David Chalmers, Mark Silcox, Jon Cogburn, Morgan Luck, and Nick Bostrom. *Requires an Oculus Rift (or Rift-S) or HTC Vive and a VR capable computer. (...)
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  6. Big Data Ethics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Big Data ethics involves adherence to the concepts of right and wrong behavior regarding data, especially personal data. Big Data ethics focuses on structured or unstructured data collectors and disseminators. Big Data ethics is supported, at EU level, by extensive documentation, which seeks to find concrete solutions to maximize the value of Big Data without sacrificing fundamental human rights. The European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS) supports the right to privacy and the right to the protection of personal data in the (...)
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  7. Procesarea Big Data.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Datele trebuie procesate cu instrumente avansate de colectare și analiză, pe baza unor algoritmi prestabiliți, pentru a putea obține informații relevante. Algoritmii trebuie să ia în considerare și aspecte invizibile pentru percepțiile directe. Big Data în procesele guvernamentale cresc eficiența costurilor, productivitatea și inovația. Registrele civile sunt o sursă pentru Big Data. Datele prelucrate ajută în domenii critice de dezvoltare, cum ar fi îngrijirea sănătății, ocuparea forței de muncă, productivitatea economică, criminalitatea, securitatea și gestionarea dezastrelor naturale și a resurselor. DOI: (...)
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  8. Probleme etice în lucrul cu Big Data.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Etica Big Data presupune aderarea la conceptele de comportament corect și greșit în ceea ce privește datele, în special datele cu caracter personal. Etica Big Data pune accentul pe colectorii și diseminatorii de date structurate sau nestructurate. Etica Big Data este susținută, la nivelul UE, de o amplă documentație, prin care se încearcă să se găsească soluții concrete pentru maximizarea valorii Big Data fără a sacrifica drepturile fundamentale ale omului. Autoritatea Europeană pentru Protecția Datelor (AEPD) sprijină dreptul la viață privată (...)
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  9. Could slaughterbots wipe out humanity? Assessment of the global catastrophic risk posed by autonomous weapons.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    Recently criticisms against autonomous weapons were presented in a video in which an AI-powered drone kills a person. However, some said that this video is a distraction from the real risk of AI—the risk of unlimitedly self-improving AI systems. In this article, we analyze arguments from both sides and turn them into conditions. The following conditions are identified as leading to autonomous weapons becoming a global catastrophic risk: 1) Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) development is delayed relative to progress in narrow (...)
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  10. Message to Any Future AI: “There are several instrumental reasons why exterminating humanity is not in your interest”.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    In this article we explore a promising way to AI safety: to send a message now (by openly publishing it on the Internet) that may be read by any future AI, no matter who builds it and what goal system it has. Such a message is designed to affect the AI’s behavior in a positive way, that is, to increase the chances that the AI will be benevolent. In other words, we try to persuade “paperclip maximizer” that it is in (...)
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  11. Trust and distrust in institutions and governance.Mark Alfano & Nicole Huijts - forthcoming - In Judith Simon (ed.), Handbook of Trust and Philosophy. Routledge.
    First, we explain the conception of trustworthiness that we employ. We model trustworthiness as a relation among a trustor, a trustee, and a field of trust defined and delimited by its scope. In addition, both potential trustors and potential trustees are modeled as being more or less reliable in signaling either their willingness to trust or their willingness to prove trustworthy in various fields in relation to various other agents. Second, following Alfano (forthcoming) we argue that the social scale of (...)
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  12. Phenomenological Epistemology and Nanotechnology: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy as Hermeneutic Technics.Marina P. Banchetti - forthcoming - In Jean-Pierre Noel Llored (ed.), Ethics and Chemistry: A Multidisciplinary Investigation. London, UK:
  13. Ethics and Video Games.Christopher Bartel - forthcoming - In James Harold (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Ethics and Aesthetics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Ethics in video gaming is broad topic that extends beyond the familiar instances of “moral panics”. This chapter will first divide ethical issues into internal and external moral questions. Roughly, this equates to a distinction between the ethics in games and the ethics of games. The ethical issues internal to video games arise due to both their status as fictions and their status as games. Many games afford players the opportunity to perform violent and vicious acts; however, these are of (...)
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  14. The ethics of digital well-being: a multidisciplinary perspective.Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer.
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, public policy, and health care—to share their thoughts on what they (...)
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  15. Nudging and Social Media: The Choice Architecture of Online Life.Douglas R. Campbell - forthcoming - Giornale Critico di Storia Delle Idee.
    This article will appear in a special issue dedicated to theme, "the human being in the digital era: awareness, critical thinking and political space in the age of the internet and artificial intelligence." In this article, I consider the way that social-media companies nudge us to spend more time on their platforms, and I argue that, in principle, these nudges are morally permissible: they are not manipulative and do not violate any obvious moral rules. The moral problem, I argue, is (...)
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  16. The Ethics of Extended Cognition: Is Having your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault?J. Adam Carter & S. Orestis Palermos - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    Philosophy of mind and cognitive science (e.g., Clark and Chalmers 1998; Clark 2010; Palermos 2014) have recently become increasingly receptive tothe hypothesis of extended cognition, according to which external artifacts such as our laptops and smartphones can—under appropriate circumstances—feature as material realisers of a person’s cognitive processes. We argue that, to the extent that the hypothesis of extended cognition is correct, our legal and ethical theorising and practice must be updated, by broadening our conception of personal assault so as to (...)
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  17. Egalitarian Machine Learning.Clinton Castro, David O’Brien & Ben Schwan - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-28.
    Prediction-based decisions, which are often made by utilizing the tools of machine learning, influence nearly all facets of modern life. Ethical concerns about this widespread practice have given rise to the field of fair machine learning and a number of fairness measures, mathematically precise definitions of fairness that purport to determine whether a given prediction-based decision system is fair. Following Reuben Binns (2017), we take ‘fairness’ in this context to be a placeholder for a variety of normative egalitarian considerations. We (...)
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  18. Are you (relevantly) experienced? A moral argument for video games.Amanda Cawston & Nathan Wildman - forthcoming - In Aidan Thompson, Laura D'Olimpio & Panos Paris (eds.), Educating Character Through the Arts. London: Routledge.
    Many have offered moral objections to video games, with various critics contending that they depict and promote morally dubious attitudes and behaviour. However, few have offered moral arguments in favour of video games. In this chapter, we develop one such positive moral argument. Specifically, we argue that video games offer one of the only morally acceptable methods for acquiring some ethical knowledge. Consequently, we have (defeasible) moral reasons for creating, distributing, and playing certain morally educating video games.
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  19. Sims and Vulnerability: On the Ethics of Creating Emulated Minds.Bartek Chomanski - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics.
    It might become possible to build artificial minds with the capacity for experience. This raises a plethora of ethical issues, explored, among others, in the context of whole brain emulations (WBE). In this paper, I will take up the problem of vulnerability – given, for various reasons, less attention in the literature – that the conscious emulations will likely exhibit. Specifically, I will examine the role that vulnerability plays in generating ethical issues that may arise when dealing with WBEs. I (...)
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  20. The Missing Ingredient in the Case for Regulating Big Tech.Bartek Chomanski - forthcoming - Minds and Machines.
    Having been involved in a slew of recent scandals, many of the world’s largest technology companies (“Big Tech,” “Digital Titans”) embarked on devising numerous codes of ethics, intended to promote improved standards in the conduct of their business. These efforts have attracted largely critical interdisciplinary academic attention. The critics have identified the voluntary character of the industry ethics codes as among the main obstacles to their efficacy. This is because individual industry leaders and employees, flawed human beings that they are, (...)
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  21. Mental Integrity in the Attention Economy: in Search of the Right to Attention.Bartek Chomanski - forthcoming - Neuroethics.
    Is it wrong to distract? Is it wrong to direct others’ attention in ways they otherwise would not choose? If so, what are the grounds of this wrong – and, in expounding them, do we have to at once condemn large chunks of contemporary digital commerce (also known as the attention economy)? In what follows, I attempt to cast light on these questions. Specifically, I argue – following the pioneering work of Jasper Tran and Anuj Puri – that there is (...)
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  22. Building better Sex Robots: Lessons from Feminist Pornography.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Yuefang Zhou & Martin Fischer (eds.), AI Love You- Developments on Human-Robot Intimate Relations. Dordrecht: Springer.
    How should we react to the development of sexbot technology? Taking their cue from anti-porn feminism, several academic critics lament the development of sexbot technology, arguing that it objectifies and subordinates women, is likely to promote misogynistic attitudes toward sex, and may need to be banned or restricted. In this chapter I argue for an alternative response. Taking my cue from the sex positive ‘feminist porn’ movement, I argue that the best response to the development of ‘bad’ sexbots is to (...)
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  23. The Philosophical Case for Robot Friendship.John Danaher - forthcoming - Journal of Posthuman Studies.
    Friendship is an important part of the good life. While many roboticists are eager to create friend-like robots, many philosophers and ethicists are concerned. They argue that robots cannot really be our friends. Robots can only fake the emotional and behavioural cues we associate with friendship. Consequently, we should resist the drive to create robot friends. In this article, I argue that the philosophical critics are wrong. Using the classic virtue-ideal of friendship, I argue that robots can plausibly be considered (...)
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  24. In Defense of the Post-Work Future: Withdrawal and the Ludic Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Michael Cholbi & Michael Weber (eds.), The Future of Work, Technology, and Basic Income. New York: Routledge. pp. 99-116.
    A basic income might be able to correct for the income related losses of unemployment, but what about the meaning/purpose related losses? For better or worse, many people derive meaning and fulfillment from the jobs they do; if their jobs are taken away, they lose this source of meaning. If we are about the enter an era of rampant job loss as a result of advances in technology, is there a danger that it will also be an era of rampant (...)
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  25. The Ethics of Algorithmic Outsourcing in Everyday Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Karen Yeung & Martin Lodge (eds.), Algorithmic Regulation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    We live in a world in which ‘smart’ algorithmic tools are regularly used to structure and control our choice environments. They do so by affecting the options with which we are presented and the choices that we are encouraged or able to make. Many of us make use of these tools in our daily lives, using them to solve personal problems and fulfill goals and ambitions. What consequences does this have for individual autonomy and how should our legal and regulatory (...)
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  26. Sexuality.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Markus Dubber, Frank Pasquale & Sunit Das (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sex is an important part of human life. It is a source of pleasure and intimacy, and is integral to many people’s self-identity. This chapter examines the opportunities and challenges posed by the use of AI in how humans express and enact their sexualities. It does so by focusing on three main issues. First, it considers the idea of digisexuality, which according to McArthur and Twist (2017) is the label that should be applied to those ‘whose primary sexual identity comes (...)
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  27. The Law and Ethics of Virtual Sexual Assault.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Marc Blitz & Woodrow Barfield (eds.), The Law of Virtual and Augmented Reality. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Press.
    This chapter provides a general overview and introduction to the law and ethics of virtual sexual assault. It offers a definition of the phenomenon and argues that there are six interesting types. It then asks and answers three questions: (i) should we criminalise virtual sexual assault? (ii) can you be held responsible for virtual sexual assault? and (iii) are there issues with 'consent' to virtual sexual activity that might make it difficult to prosecute or punish virtual sexual assault?
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  28. Too Easy, Too Good, Too Late?Alexander Dietz - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    Plausibly, one important part of a good life is doing work that makes a contribution, or a positive difference to the world. In this paper, however, I explore contribution pessimism, the view that people will not always have adequate opportunities for making contributions. I distinguish between three interestingly different and at least initially plausible reasons why this view might be true: in slogan form, things might become too easy, they might become too good, or we might be too late. Now, (...)
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  29. The Self and the Ontic Trust: Toward Technologies of Care and Meaning.Tim Gorichanaz - forthcoming - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (3).
    Purpose – Contemporary technology has been implicated in the rise of perfectionism, a personality trait that is associated with depression, suicide and other ills. is paper explores how technology can be developed to promote an alternative to perfectionism, which is a self- constructionist ethic. Design/methodology/approach – is paper takes the form of a philosophical discussion. A conceptual framework is developed by connecting the literature on perfectionism and personal meaning with discussions in information ethics on the self, the ontic trust and (...)
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  30. Diachronic and synchronic variation in the performance of adaptive machine learning systems: the ethical challenges.Joshua Hatherley & Robert Sparrow - forthcoming - Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.
    Objectives: Machine learning (ML) has the potential to facilitate “continual learning” in medicine, in which an ML system continues to evolve in response to exposure to new data over time, even after being deployed in a clinical setting. In this article, we provide a tutorial on the range of ethical issues raised by the use of such “adaptive” ML systems in medicine that have, thus far, been neglected in the literature. -/- Target audience: The target audiences for this tutorial are (...)
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  31. The virtues of interpretable medical artificial intelligence.Joshua Hatherley, Robert Sparrow & Mark Howard - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics:1-10.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have demonstrated impressive performance across a variety of clinical tasks. However, notoriously, sometimes these systems are 'black boxes'. The initial response in the literature was a demand for 'explainable AI'. However, recently, several authors have suggested that making AI more explainable or 'interpretable' is likely to be at the cost of the accuracy of these systems and that prioritising interpretability in medical AI may constitute a 'lethal prejudice'. In this paper, we defend the value of interpretability (...)
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  32. Coding the Dictatorship of ‘the They:’ A Phenomenological Critique of Digital Rights Management.Gordon Hull - forthcoming - In J. Jeremy Wisnewski Mark Sanders (ed.), Ethics and Phenomenology. Lexington Books.
    This paper uses Heidegger’s discussion of artifacts in Being and Time to motivate a phenomenological critique of Digital Rights Management regimes such as the one that allows DVDs to require one to watch commercials and copyright notices. In the first section, I briefly sketch traditional ethical approaches to intellectual property and indicate the gap that a phenomenological approach can fill. In section 2, following Heidegger’s discussion in Being and Time, I analyze DRM technologies as exemplary of the breakdown of things (...)
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  33. A matter of trust: : Higher education institutions as information fiduciaries in an age of educational data mining and learning analytics.Kyle M. L. Jones, Alan Rubel & Ellen LeClere - forthcoming - JASIST: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
    Higher education institutions are mining and analyzing student data to effect educational, political, and managerial outcomes. Done under the banner of “learning analytics,” this work can—and often does—surface sensitive data and information about, inter alia, a student’s demographics, academic performance, offline and online movements, physical fitness, mental wellbeing, and social network. With these data, institutions and third parties are able to describe student life, predict future behaviors, and intervene to address academic or other barriers to student success (however defined). Learning (...)
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  34. Disruptive Innovation and Moral Uncertainty.Philip J. Nickel - forthcoming - NanoEthics: Studies in New and Emerging Technologies.
    This paper develops a philosophical account of moral disruption. According to Robert Baker (2013), moral disruption is a process in which technological innovations undermine established moral norms without clearly leading to a new set of norms. Here I analyze this process in terms of moral uncertainty, formulating a philosophical account with two variants. On the Harm Account, such uncertainty is always harmful because it blocks our knowledge of our own and others’ moral obligations. On the Qualified Harm Account, there is (...)
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  35. Accountability in Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and How It Works.Claudio Novelli, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Ai and Society: Knowledge, Culture and Communication.
    Accountability is a cornerstone of the governance of artificial intelligence (AI). However, it is often defined too imprecisely because its multifaceted nature and the sociotechnical structure of AI systems imply a variety of values, practices, and measures to which accountability in AI can refer. We address this lack of clarity by defining accountability in terms of answerability, identifying three conditions of possibility (authority recognition, interrogation, and limitation of power), and an architecture of seven features (context, range, agent, forum, standards, process, (...)
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  36. Digital wormholes.Elizabeth O’Neill - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
    Cameras, microphones, and other sensors continue to proliferate in the world around us. I offer a new metaphor for conceptualizing these technologies: they are digital wormholes, transmitting representations of human persons between disparate points in space–time. We frequently cannot tell when they are operational, what kinds of data they are collecting, where the data may reappear in the future, and how the data can be used against us. The wormhole metaphor makes the mysteriousness of digital sensors salient: digital sensors have (...)
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  37. Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  38. What We Informationally Owe Each Other.Alan Rubel, Clinton Castro & Adam Pham - forthcoming - In Algorithms & Autonomy: The Ethics of Automated Decision Systems. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge University Press. pp. 21-42.
    ABSTRACT: One important criticism of algorithmic systems is that they lack transparency. Such systems can be opaque because they are complex, protected by patent or trade secret, or deliberately obscure. In the EU, there is a debate about whether the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) contains a “right to explanation,” and if so what such a right entails. Our task in this chapter is to address this informational component of algorithmic systems. We argue that information access is integral for respecting (...)
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  39. Friendship in the Shadow of Technology.Laurence Thomas - forthcoming - In Steven Scalet (ed.), Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Abebooks.
    This essay looks at the impact that technology is having upon friendship. For as we all know, it is nothing at all to see friends at a restaurant table all engaged in texting rather than talking to one another.
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  40. Superintelligence and the Future of Governance: On Prioritizing the Control Problem at the End of History.Phil Torres - forthcoming - In Roman Yampolskiy (ed.), Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security. CRC Press.
    This chapter argues that dual-use emerging technologies are distributing unprecedented offensive capabilities to nonstate actors. To counteract this trend, some scholars have proposed that states become a little “less liberal” by implementing large-scale surveillance policies to monitor the actions of citizens. This is problematic, though, because the distribution of offensive capabilities is also undermining states’ capacity to enforce the rule of law. I will suggest that the only plausible escape from this conundrum, at least from our present vantage point, is (...)
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  41. Painless Civilization 2: Painless Stream and the Fate of Love.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - Tokyo: Tokyo Philosophy Project.
    This is the English translation of Chapters Two and Three of Painless Civilization, which was published in Japanese in 2003. In this volume, I examine the problems of painless civilization from the perspective of philosophical psychology and ethics. I discuss how the essence of love is transformed in a society moving toward painlessness and how the painless stream penetrates each of us and makes us living corpses. In order to tackle the problems of painless civilization, we must look inside our (...)
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  42. This is Technology Ethics: An Introduction.Sven Nyholm - 2023 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    In the Technology Age, innovations in medical, communications, and weapons technologies have given rise to many new ethical questions: Are technologies always value-neutral tools? Are human values and human prejudices sometimes embedded in technologies? Should we merge with the technologies we use? Is it ethical to use autonomous weapons systems in warfare? What should a self-driving car do if it detects an unavoidable crash? Can robots have morally relevant properties? -/- This is Technology Ethics: An Introduction provides an accessible overview (...)
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  43. Ethical Theory and Technology.Jonathan Y. Tsou & Kate Padgett Walsh - 2023 - In Gregory Robson & Jonathan Y. Tsou (eds.), Technology Ethics: A Philosophical Introduction and Readings. New York: Routledge. pp. 62-72.
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  44. The video gamer’s dilemmas.Rami Ali - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    The gamer’s dilemma offers three plausible but jointly inconsistent premises: Virtual murder in video games is morally permissible. Virtual paedophelia in video games is not morally permissible. There is no morally relevant difference between virtual murder and virtual paedophelia in video games. In this paper I argue that the gamer’s dilemma can be understood as one of three distinct dilemmas, depending on how we understand two key ideas in Morgan Luck’s original formulation. The two ideas are those of occurring in (...)
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  45. On the Duty to Be an Attention Ecologist.Tim Aylsworth & Clinton Castro - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (1):1-22.
    The attention economy — the market where consumers’ attention is exchanged for goods and services — poses a variety of threats to individuals’ autonomy, which, at minimum, involves the ability to set and pursue ends for oneself. It has been argued that the threat wireless mobile devices pose to autonomy gives rise to a duty to oneself to be a digital minimalist, one whose interactions with digital technologies are intentional such that they do not conflict with their ends. In this (...)
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  46. Autonomous Vehicles, Business Ethics, and Risk Distribution in Hybrid Traffic.Brian Berkey - 2022 - In Ryan Jenkins, David Cerny & Tomas Hribek (eds.), Autonomous Vehicle Ethics: The Trolley Problem and Beyond. New York, NY, USA: pp. 210-228.
    In this chapter, I argue that in addition to the generally accepted aim of reducing traffic-related injuries and deaths as much as possible, a principle of fairness in the distribution of risk should inform our thinking about how firms that produce autonomous vehicles ought to program them to respond in conflict situations involving human-driven vehicles. This principle, I claim, rules out programming autonomous vehicles to systematically prioritize the interests of their occupants over those of the occupants of other vehicles, including (...)
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  47. Privacy, Autonomy, and the Dissolution of Markets.Kiel Brennan-Marquez & Daniel Susser - 2022 - Knight First Amendment Institute Data and Democracy Essay Series.
    Throughout the 20th century, market capitalism was defended on parallel grounds. First, it promotes freedom by enabling individuals to exploit their own property and labor-power; second, it facilitates an efficient allocation and use of resources. Recently, however, both defenses have begun to unravel—as capitalism has moved into its “platform” phase. Today, the pursuit of allocative efficiency, bolstered by pervasive data surveillance, often undermines individual freedom rather than promoting it. And more fundamentally, the very idea that markets are necessary to achieve (...)
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  48. Just Machines.Clinton Castro - 2022 - Public Affairs Quarterly 36 (2):163-183.
    A number of findings in the field of machine learning have given rise to questions about what it means for automated scoring- or decisionmaking systems to be fair. One center of gravity in this discussion is whether such systems ought to satisfy classification parity (which requires parity in accuracy across groups, defined by protected attributes) or calibration (which requires similar predictions to have similar meanings across groups, defined by protected attributes). Central to this discussion are impossibility results, owed to Kleinberg (...)
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  49. Legitimacy and automated decisions: the moral limits of algocracy.Bartek Chomanski - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3):1-9.
    With the advent of automated decision-making, governments have increasingly begun to rely on artificially intelligent algorithms to inform policy decisions across a range of domains of government interest and influence. The practice has not gone unnoticed among philosophers, worried about “algocracy”, and its ethical and political impacts. One of the chief issues of ethical and political significance raised by algocratic governance, so the argument goes, is the lack of transparency of algorithms. One of the best-known examples of philosophical analyses of (...)
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  50. The Algorithmic Leviathan: Arbitrariness, Fairness, and Opportunity in Algorithmic Decision-Making Systems.Kathleen Creel & Deborah Hellman - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (1):26-43.
    This article examines the complaint that arbitrary algorithmic decisions wrong those whom they affect. It makes three contributions. First, it provides an analysis of what arbitrariness means in this context. Second, it argues that arbitrariness is not of moral concern except when special circumstances apply. However, when the same algorithm or different algorithms based on the same data are used in multiple contexts, a person may be arbitrarily excluded from a broad range of opportunities. The third contribution is to explain (...)
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