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Summary

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the most influential thinker in modern western philosophy. 

The central doctrine of Kant’s theoretical philosophy is what he calls “transcendental idealism.”  This is, roughly, the view that there is a sharp distinction between things as they appear to us and things as they really are (in themselves). It is controversial what that distinction consists in or even how to characterize it, but it is clear that Kant wants to deny that things-in-themselves have spatio-temporal features.  Thus they are things that we can think about (‘noumena’) but not things that appear (‘phenomena’). 

Kant argues that we can only explain our knowledge of non-trivial (‘synthetic’) necessary principles -- including the principle according to which all events have causes --  if transcendental idealism is true.  He also thinks that distinguishing between phenomena and noumena leaves room for incompatibilist freedom, God, and the immortality of the soul (at the noumenal level). 

Kant places the notion of autonomy at the center of his moral and political philosophy, and argues that specific moral obligations are based in a very general principle called the Categorical Imperative.  This principle is fundamental to practical rationality and requires that we respect the autonomy of rational agents and refuse to make arbitrary exceptions for ourselves. 

In his early years, Kant was trained in the German rationalist tradition of Christian Wolff (1679–1750) and G. W. Leibniz (1646–1716). But he was influenced by the British Empiricists like John Locke (1632–1704), Isaac Newton (1642–1727), and David Hume (1711–1776). Later, Kant characterizes his Critical philosophy as a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism. 

Kant’s massive influence is felt across the continental and analytic traditions. He is typically regarded as the forefather of German Idealism, and a key figure in the development of Existentialism, NeoKantianism (obviously), Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and even Post-Modernism. 

In the analytic tradition, Kant’s views were in the background of many of the debates in 20th-century epistemology and philosophy of mind. Kantian moral philosophy is one of the main positions in contemporary ethics, and Kantian political philosophy dominated most of the discussion in 20th and early 21st century political philosophy. Kant’s views about aesthetic judgment are central to many developments in the philosophy of art and art criticism. Kant is not a major figure in contemporary analytic metaphysics, however.

Key works

The three Critiques are the central texts for Kant’s “critical system”: Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Power of Judgment (1790). His Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) is among the most influential works in modern ethics. Other major works include Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793)Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798)

The standard German edition of Kant’s works is Königlichen Preußischen (later Deutschen) Akademie der Wissenschaften (ed.), 1900–, Kants gesammelte Schriften, Berlin: Georg Reimer (later Walter De Gruyter). The standard English edition of Kant’s works is P. Guyer and A. Wood (eds.), 1992–, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Introductions Good overall introductions include Wood 2004, Höffe & Farrier 1994, and Guyer 2006Buroker 2006 offers a good introductory overview of Kant’s key text in theoretical philosophy. Cleve 1999 is a more advanced introduction for analytic philosophers. Gardner 1999 is an opinionated but very accessible introduction.  A good introduction to Kant's moral philosophy is Sedgwick 2008.
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Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (11,354 | 3,105)

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  1. The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant’s Metaphysics and Epistemology.Karl Schafer (ed.) - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
    The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds represents a new wave of interest in 'the metaphysical Kant'. In recent decades Kant scholars have increasingly become skeptical of interpreting Kant as a philosopher who wished to truly "leave metaphysics behind". The contributors to this volume share acommon commitment to the idea that Kant's philosophy cannot be properly understood without careful attention to its metaphysical presuppositions and, in particular, to how those metaphysical presuppositions are compatible with Kant's critique of more "dogmatic" forms of metaphysical (...)
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  2. Murderer at the Switch: Thomson, Kant, and the Trolley Problem.James Edwin Mahon - 2021 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti-Death, Volume 19: One Year After Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929-2020). Ann Arbor, MI, USA: pp. 153-187.
    In this book chapter I argue that, contrary to what is said by Paul Guyer in his book Kant (Routledge, 2006), Kant's moral philosophy prohibits the bystander from throwing the switch to divert the runaway trolley to a side track with an innocent person on it, in order to save more people who are in the path of the trolley, in the "Trolley Problem" case made famous by Judith Jarvis Thomson (1976; 1985). Furthermore, Thomson herself (2008) came to agree that (...)
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  3. Wittgenstein on the Limits of Language.Hans Sluga - forthcoming - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    The paper interprets Wittgenstein’s famous call to silence at the end of his Tractatus – that “whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent” – as a critique of philosophy itself. Wittgenstein was concerned throughout his philosophical life with finding a way to delineate the limits of language. These limits, once we have them clearly in view, rob our attempts to put forth philosophical theories of their legitimacy. In order to give a critical assessment of this Wittgensteinian critique of (...)
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  4. Metaphysical Dissatisfaction.Barry Stroud - forthcoming - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. London: Routledge.
    The article deals with the dissatisfaction we can fall into in reflecting on some of our indispensable ways of thinking. This dissatisfaction brings out where consistent thought reaches its limits: in trying to investigate some of our ways of thinking, we seem to have to step beyond them in order to properly assess them, and still find ourselves making use of those very ways of thinking in order to attain any understanding of them at all. Drawing from Kant, the article (...)
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  5. Critical Guide to Kant’s Lectures on Anthropology.Alix Cohen (ed.) - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
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  6. La dimensión cosmopolita de la protección jurídica en Kant: algunas consecuencias de la “posesión común de la tierra” en la Doctrina del derecho / The cosmopolitan dimension of legal protection in Kant: some consequences of the “common possession of the land” in the Doctrine of Law.Nuria Sánchez Madrid - forthcoming - Araucaria.
    Este artículo examina la protección jurídica resultante del derecho cosmopolita en Kant con el fin de arrojar luz sobre su articulación con la protección ofrecida por el derecho político estatal. En primer lugar, analizaré el tratamiento de la equidad en la Doctrina racional del Derecho, como un espacio normativo que, sin recurrir a la coacción legal, transmite al sujeto la obligación en que se encuentra con los individuos más desfavorecidos económicamente. En segundo lugar, comentaré algunos textos en que Kant se (...)
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  7. Kant on the Christian Religion.Chris L. Firestone & Nathan Jacobs - 2007 - Philosophia Christi 9 (1):63-72.
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  8. Kant and the Continental Tradition: Sensibility, Nature and Religion.Annapaola Varaschin - 2021 - Humana Mente 29 (3):426-432.
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  9. Kant’s Transcendental Deduction: A Cosmology of Experience.August Buholzer - 2021 - Humana Mente 29 (2):253-259.
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  10. La lógica trascendental de Emil Lask entre Platón y Kant. Teoría de los dos mundos y revolución copernicana.Stefano Cazzanelli - 2022 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 55 (2):219-235.
    En el presente artículo presentamos la filosofía trascendental de Emil Lask como el resultado de una mediación entre la teoría de los dos mundos de Platón y la revolución copernicana de Kant. Aprovechando el descubrimiento de Lotze según el cual los significados no son, sino valen, y ampliando el horizonte de la lógica más allá del ámbito del juicio, Lask elabora un platonismo trascendental que le ubica en un punto medio entre el neokantismo y la fenomenología. Su filosofía entremezcla el (...)
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  11. Reyna Fortes, Rafael. Unidad conceptual y síntesis objetiva en Kant: Un estudio sobre la función de los conceptos en la producción de conocimiento. Hildesheim - Zurich - New York: OLMS, 2021, pp. 216. [REVIEW]Gustavo Da Encarnação Galvão França - 2022 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 55 (2):435-438.
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  12. Physicotheology in Kant's Transition From Nature to Freedom.Nabeel Hamid - forthcoming - Kantian Review.
    This paper examines Kant’s treatment of the design argument for the existence of God, or physicotheology. It criticizes the interpretation that, for Kant, the assumption of intelligent design satisfies an internal demand of inquiry. It argues that Kant’s positive appraisal of physicotheology is instead better understood on account of its polemical utility for rebutting objections to practical belief in God upon which Kant’s ethicotheological argument rests, and thus as an instrument in the transition from theoretical to practical philosophy. Kantian physicotheology (...)
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  13. La relación entre la concepción de Kant acerca del origen de la maldad y la deducción de esta a partir de la sensibilidad.Julius Müller & Jorge Aurelio Díaz - 2021 - Ideas Y Valores 70 (175):163-170.
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  14. Fichte's Original Presentation of the Foundational Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre : The Question of Method.Marina F. Bykova - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  15. Hume and Kant on Utility, Freedom, and Justice.Paul Guyer - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
  16. Of Modal Concepts in Kant's Transcendental Discourse.Claude Piché - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  17. The Identity of Reason.Stephen Engstrom - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  18. Kant's 'as If' and Hume's 'Remote Analogy' : Deism and Theism in Prolegomena [Sections]57 and 58.Tim Jankowiak - 2021 - In Peter Thielke (ed.), Kant's Prolegomena: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  19. The Beach of Skepticism : Kant and Hume on the Practice of Philosophy and the Proper Bounds of Skepticism.Karl Schafer - 2021 - In Peter Thielke (ed.), Kant's Prolegomena: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  20. Between Kant and Hegel : Alexandre Kojève and the Absolute State.Jeff Love - 2022 - In Luis J. Pedrazuela (ed.), Alexandre Kojève: A Man of Influence. Lexington Books.
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  21. Limits of Intelligibility: Issues From Kant and Wittgenstein.Jens Pier (ed.) - 2023 - London: Routledge.
    The essays in this volume investigate the question of where, and in what sense, the bounds of intelligible thought, knowledge, and speech are to be drawn. Is there a way in which we are limited in what we think, know, and say? And if so, does this mean that we are constrained – that there is something beyond the ken of human intelligibility of which we fall short? Or is there another way to think about these limits of intelligibility – (...)
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  22. Kant’ın Aydınlanma Anlayışı: Tarihi Arka Planı ve Aydınlanmada Eğitimin Rolü.Saniye Vatansever - 2022 - Kaygı. Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Felsefe Dergisi 21 (2):838-880.
    Kant defines enlightenment of the individual as emergence of the individual from a self-imposed immaturity. In this definition, individuals who are not enlightened are held responsible for their failures. This is because Kant, in this text, implies that the only thing we need in order to be enlightened as individuals is to be able to use our capacity to think, which is present in every mentally fit individual. One can infer that Kant has an egalitarian understanding of enlightenment, since anyone (...)
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  23. Lotze : platoniser Kant?Charlotte Morel - 2019 - Philosophie 2:4.
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  24. En torno a la imaginación en Martha Nussbaum y Kant.Miguel Herszenbaun - 2021 - Tópicos 41:117-141.
    In her book Poetic Justice, Martha Nussbaum supports the thesis that the imagination plays a major role in the judicial decision-making. In this paper, I intend to defend that Nussbaum’s thesis is partially Kantian. However, by analyzing in detail how the imagination works in Kant and in Nussbaum, I will be able to show the main differences and similarities. I claim that the main problem that Nussbaum’s imagination is thought to solve is the articulation between singular and universal. This is (...)
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  25. Acerca del fundamento de la necesidad de las leyes empíricas de la ciencia en un sentido impropio en Kant. Una crítica de Michael Bennett McNulty.Martín Arias Albisu - 2019 - Tópicos 37:1-27.
    El objetivo de este trabajo es criticar un artículo de Michael B. McNulty publicado en 2015, a saber, “Rehabilitating the Regulative Use of Reason: Kant on Empirical and Chemical Laws”. En este artículo, McNulty examina la concepción kantiana de la necesidad de las leyes empíricas pertenecientes a lo que, en los Primeros principios metafísicos de la ciencia de la naturaleza, se denomina ciencia en un sentido “impropio”. McNulty considera la única ciencia en sentido impropio mencionada por Kant, a saber, la (...)
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  26. Intrascendencia del derecho: Fichte ad Kant.Max Maureira - 2011 - Tópicos 22:191-209.
    Que el derecho se deduce de la moral, entendida ella en sentido amplio, es evidente en Kant, pero no en Fichte. En efecto, según este último el derecho es, más bien, una condición del despliegue de la libertad. Aquello que se realiza libremente, y que, según Fichte, en esta medida constituye la realidad, se autodispone. Por lo tanto, reclama para sí la exigencia de su concreción. Ella es, por eso, un momento de lo mismo: la génesis de la propia libertad. (...)
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  27. Jens Eisfeld: Erkenntnis, Rechtserzeugung und Staat bei Kant und Fichte.Hermann Klenner - 2015 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 101 (3):459-460.
  28. Oliver Sensen: Kant on Human Dignity.Fiete Kalscheuer - 2013 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 99 (1):121-122.
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  29. Dietmar Von der pfordten. Menschenwürde, Recht Und Staat Bei Kant. Fünf Untersuchungen.Carsten Bäcker - 2011 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 97 (2):288-290.
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  30. Marco Haase. Grundnorm – Gemeinwille – Geist. Der Grund Des Rechts Nach Kelsen, Kant Und Hegel.Steffen Augsberg - 2008 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 94 (2):276-279.
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  31. Kant, das Recht zum Kriege und der rechtliche Zustand im Verhältnis der Staaten zueinander.B. Sharon Byrd & Joachim Hruschka - 2008 - Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie 94 (1):70-85.
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  32. Carbon Offsetting and Justice: A Kantian Response.Zachary Vereb - 2022 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 25 (3):253-257.
    In ‘Should I offset or should I do more good?’, H. Orri Stefansson defends an argument that calls into question the belief that we can discharge our duties to prevent harm by carbon offsetting. Stefansson suggests that other actions, such as donations, should be preferred. This paper questions aspects of that analysis by evaluating the normative assumptions underlying it. It does so from a broadly Kantian perspective. I begin by highlighting assumptions that could benefit from elaboration and defense. These concern (...)
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  33. Metafiziğin Temellendirilmesi Bakımından Ben-Zaman İlişkisi: Kant Ve Heidegger Ekseninde Bir Çözümleme.Sibel Kiraz - 2021 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 11 (11:1):403-417.
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  34. El problema antropológico-práctico de la felicidad en la filosofía moral de Kant.Francisco Javier Iracheta Fernández - 2022 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 64:417-456.
    Kant’s moral philosophy intends to be an articulated project between metaphysics of morals and practical anthropology. In the works in which he undertakes the task of grounding his metaphysics of morals, namely, The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant insists that he borrows nothing from anthropology to support this grounding, whereas in his two other most important practical writings, the Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason and the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant applies (...)
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  35. La Autoconciencia y la Cuestión de la Prioridad: Una Crítica de la Lectura de Kant de “la Sensibilidad Primero”.Addison Ellis - 2022 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 63 (63):11-49.
    This essay presents a critique of what Robert Hanna has recently called the “sensibility first” reading of Kant. I first spell out, in agreement with Hanna, why the contemporary debate among Kant scholars over conceptualism and non-conceptualism must be understood only from within the perspective of what I dub the “priority question”—that is, the question whether one or the other of our “two stems” of cognition may ground the objectivity and normativity of the other. I then spell out why the (...)
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  36. Il fatto della ragione e la conoscenza adeguata: Kant con Spinoza.Alessandra Campo - 2022 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 63 (63):89-129.
    Recently the literature dedicated to the Kantian reception of Spinoza has experienced a significant increase. There are several studies dedicated to mapping the presence of the latter in both pre-critical and critical writings of the former, and different are the results achieved by each. Yet, with the exception of a few references to the section in which Spinozism is presented as the only alternative to transcendental idealism, the Critique of Practical Reason is almost never mentioned nor, even less, is it (...)
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  37. “Razón y vida se llaman mutuamente”. Reflexiones sobre la imagen del organismo en Kant y en Hegel.Sandra Palermo - 2022 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 63 (63):51-88.
    The article aims to show the different declinations of the double conceptual movement—from reason to organism and from organism to reason—that can be found in Kant and Hegel, and the implications of such differences for their respective philosophical systems and for their conception of reason. Whereas in Kant the movement from reason to organism and from organism to reason turns out to be “interrupted”, so that the it is never completely fulfilled, Hegel, presenting the organism as “reason in sensible form”, (...)
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  38. Contra la ilusión religiosa fanática y la furia de la destrucción: tolerancia, respeto y reconocimiento en Kant y Hegel.Enzo Solari - 2021 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 62:121-164.
    This article reconstructs Kant’s and Hegel’s moral, political, and legal treatment of tolerance in the larger context of their philosophies of religion and freedom. Kant and Hegel have similar initial remarks on tolerance, religion, and fanaticism, then seem to separate when they resort respectively to respect and recognition—they agree in the end when the former defines intersubjective respect as recognition and the latter defines legal and political recognition as including respect. All of this allows us to better understand, first, the (...)
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  39. Herausgegeben von Bernd Dörflinger, Claudio La Rocca, Robert Louden y Ubirajara Rancan de Azevedo Marques (eds.) (2015). Kant´s Lectures/Kants Vorlesungen. Berlín-Boston: Walter de Gruyter. [REVIEW]Silvia del Luján Di Sanza - 2019 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 58:413-420.
    El libro Kants Vorlesungen/Kants Lectures reúne un conjunto de trabajos que fueron elaborados a partir de la presentación y discusión de los mismos en el VIII. Kant Kolloquium que tuvo lugar en Marilia, Brasil, entre el 18 al 21 de agosto de 2013. Tal como lo indica su título, su objeto de estudio está constituido por las Lecciones o clases dictadas por Kant, las que constituyen un testimonio de la actividad pública del filósofo y una fuente fundamental para el estudio (...)
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  40. Derecho y sanción. La noción de castigo jurídico en Kant y en Hegel.Eduardo Charpenel - 2018 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 55:163-188.
    In this article I compare the theories of legal punishment found in Kant’s and Hegel’s philosophy of right. The thesis I defend is that, at least in this subject matter, the positions of Kant and Hegel should not be read as standing in direct opposition, but rather as belonging to the family of retributivist penal theo-ries. The comparative analysis I put forward aims to shed light both on structural aspects of their philosophy of right as a whole and on some (...)
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  41. Principios precríticos y críticos del pensamiento de Emmanuel Kant.Juan Carlos Mansur - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 36 (1):67-84.
    This article shows the precritical principles of beauty in Kant’s thought, in order to understand his main contribution to the theory of beauty. This critical principles are not found in the Observations on the feeling of the beauty and sublime, but in the first and second critique which locate the feeling of pleasure and pain in the sensation faculty, instead of the Judgment, and in the Universal Nature History and the Theory of the Heavens, that considers beauty as the perfection (...)
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  42. Límites del conocimiento metafísico, según Kant y Tomás de Aquino.Lorenzo Vicente-Burgoa - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 37 (1):161-202.
    The comparative study between Kant and Thomas Aquinas regarding the limitations of metaphysical knowledge, yields notable coincidences, despite the clear differences between the systematic approach of each thinker. This makes it possible to appreciate in a better way the core of the question, and perhaps provides some help in the clarification of matters concerning the value of metaphysical knowledge. Despite appearances, our approach is not primarily historical, but systematic-philosophical. The cited authors will be used to the study a philosophical problem, (...)
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  43. Juan Carlos Mansur Garda: Kant: ontología y belleza, México:Herder 2010, 270 pp. [REVIEW]Vicente de Haro Romo - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 39 (1):181-185.
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  44. Kant contra el Leibizianismo.Gastón Robert Tocornal - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 39 (1):77-104.
    This paper analyzes and discusses the principle of Succession, formulated by Kant in 1755s Nova Dilucidatio. The principle, as we will see, shows that the kind of causally isolated substances invoked in pre-established harmony are incapable of undergoing change. After first analyzing Kant’s specific arguments in order to prove his principle, I shall argue that the Kantian critique against the leibnizians refers to the general bias consisting in putting on a level the logical and real realms, and consequently to confuse (...)
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  45. Kant ante la cuestión de la pneumatología.Rogelio Rovira - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 41 (1):281-311.
    Kant seldom uses the name «pneumatology» to designate the science of the immortality of the soul. But in many occasions he deals in an original way with the concept meant by the name. In this paper the four senses in which Kant understands this concept are distinguished and explained, namely: pneumatology as the idea of a possible science; pneumatology as a natural disposition; theoretical-dogmatic or doctrinal pneumatology; and practical-dogmatic or authentic pneumatology. The different cognitive value granted by Kant to the (...)
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  46. Tom Rockmore: Kant and Phenomenology, Chicago-Londres: University of Chicago Press 2011, 258 Pp. [REVIEW]David González Ginocchio - 2013 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 42 (1):251.
    Tom Rockmore: Kant and Phenomenology, Chicago-Londres: University of Chicago Press 2011, 258 pp.
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  47. The Phenomenalistic Interpretation of Kant's Theory of Knowledge.Paul Marhenke & Avrum Stroll - 1964 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 2 (1):47-59.
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  48. Kant's "An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind" and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime.Monique David-Ménard - 2000 - Hypatia 15 (4):82-98.
    David-Ménard examines the problem of the genesis of Kant's moral philosophy. The separation between Kantian practical reason and the inclinations of sense which it regulates is shown by the author to originate in Kant's attempt to regulate his own tendency to hypochondria. Her argument links the themes from two of Kant's pre-critical works which attest to this tendency—“An Essay on the Maladies of the Mind” and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime—to the final form of the (...)
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  49. Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics: The ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ Reconsidered.Corey W. Dyck - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (3):369-373.
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  50. Kant on Self-Knowledge and Self-Formation: The Nature of Inner Experience.Béatrice Longuenesse - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (3):365-369.
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