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  1.  9
    Kant’s Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic.Lorne Falkenstein - 1995 - University of Toronto Press.
    This book presents a paragraph-by-paragraph analysis of all of the major arguments and explanations in the "aesthetic" of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. The first part of the book aims to provide a clear analysis of the meanings of the terms Kant uses to name faculties and types of representation, the second offers a thorough account of the reasoning behind the "metaphysical" and "transcendental" expositions, and the third investigates the basis for Kant's major conclusions about space, time, appearances, things in (...)
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  2. Naturalism, Normativity, and Scepticism in Hume's Account of Belief.Lorne Falkenstein - 1997 - Hume Studies 23 (1):29-72.
    Hume's scepticism about the ability of demonstrative reasoning to justify many of our most common and important beliefs, such those concerning the connection between causes and effects, does not sit well with his tendency to make normative claims about which beliefs we ought to accept. I argue that Hume's naturalist account of the causes of belief is nonetheless rich enough to provide for normative assessments of belief and even for the modification of beliefs in light of these assessments. I argue, (...)
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  3.  50
    Étienne Bonnot de Condillac.Lorne Falkenstein & Giovanni B. Grandi - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  4.  20
    Reid's Critique of Berkely's Position on the Inverted Image.Lorne Falkenstein - 2018 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 16 (2):175-191.
    (Originally published in _Reid Studies_ 4 (2000-01): 35-51.) Reid and Berkeley disagreed over whether we directly perceive objects located outside of us in a surrounding space, commonly revealed by both vision and touch. Berkeley considered a successful account of erect vision to be crucial for deciding this dispute, at one point calling it ‘the principal point in the whole optic theory.’ Reid's critique of Berkeley's position on this topic is very brief, and appears to miss Berkeley's point. I argue that (...)
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  5.  38
    Space and Time.Lorne Falkenstein - 2006 - In Saul Traiger (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Hume's Treatise. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 59–76.
    This chapter contains section titled: Extension and Duration Hume's Reply to the Paradox of Composition Hume's Arguments for the Finite Divisibility of Perceptions (T 1.2.1) The Coherence of Hume's Account The Idea of Equality (T 1.2.4) The Infinite Divisibility of Objects (T 1.2.2) Manners of Disposition (T 1.2.3) The Simplicity of the Soul (T 1.4.5) The Idea of Vacuum (T 1.2.5) Hume's Account of Contiguity (T 1.1.5, 1.3.8, 2.3.7) Notes References Further reading.
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  6. Hume on Manners of Disposition and the Ideas of Space and Time.Lorne Falkenstein - 1997 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 79 (2):179-201.
    Scholars have almost universally agreed that Hume's account of space and time as manners of disposition of impressions is inconsistent with one of the most fundamental tenets of his empiricism: the thesis that all ideas are derived from simple impressions. This paper challenges that view and argues that Hume's position on the origin of our ideas of space and time is a profound, original, virtually unique, and even courageous approach to the problem of original space and time cognition, and a (...)
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  7.  62
    Was Kant a Nativist?Lorne Falkenstein - 1990 - Journal of the History of Ideas 51 (4):573-597.
    (This paper has since been republished in _Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Critical Essays_, edited by Patricia Kitcher [Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998], 21-44.) Kant's claim that space and time are "forms of intuition" is contrasted with the nativist claim that space is an innate idea or construct of the mind and with the empiricist claim that space is given in or learned from experience. It is argued that the nativism/empiricism debate masks a more fundamental disagreement between sensationism and constructivism. (...)
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  8.  57
    The Role of Material Impressions in Reid's Theory of Vision: A Critique of Gideon Yaffe's “Reid on the Perception of the Visible Figure”.Lorne Falkenstein & Giovanni B. Grandi - 2003 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 1 (2):117-133.
    Reid maintained that the perceptions that we obtain from the senses of smell, taste, hearing, and touch are ‘suggested’ by corresponding sensations. However, he made an exception for the sense of vision. According to Reid, our perceptions of the real figure, position, and magnitude of bodies are suggested by their visible appearances, which are not sensations but objects of perception in their own right. These visible appearances have figure, position, and magnitude, as well as ‘colour,’ and the standard view among (...)
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  9. Hume on 'Genuine,' 'True,' and 'Rational' Religion.Lorne Falkenstein - 2009 - Eighteenth Century Thought 4 (1):171-201.
    Hume appears to have sometimes taken religion to be founded on reason, at other times to have taken it to be founded on faith, and at yet other times to be based on authority. All of these views can be found in the different pieces collected together in the second volume of his Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects. By means of an analysis of what Hume meant by "genuine religion," "true religion," and "rational religion," I uncover a consistent, sincere (...)
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  10. Kant’s Account of Sensation.Lorne Falkenstein - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):63-88.
    Kant defined ‘sensation’as ‘the effect of an object on the representative capacity, so far as we are affected by it.’ This is, to put it mildly, not one among his more elegant, clear or helpful sayings. And it is merely an instance of a more general malaise. Kant did not say as much about sensation as he should have, and his account-or lack of it-can be seen at the root of many of the difficulties that have plagued his readers.
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  11.  97
    Reid’s Account of Localization.Lorne Falkenstein - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (2):305-328.
    This paper contrasts three different positions taken by 18th century British scholars on how sensations, particularly sensations of colour and touch, come to be localized in space: Berkeley’s view that we learn to localize ideas of colour by associating certain purely qualitative features of those ideas with ideas of touch and motion, Hume’s view that visual and tangible impressions are originally disposed in space, and Reid’s view that we are innately disposed to refer appearances of colour to the end of (...)
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  12.  83
    Kant’s Account of Intuition.Lorne Falkenstein - 1991 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):165-193.
    This paper outlines the history of the distinction between a higher and a lower cognitive function up to Kant. It is argued that Kant initially drew the distinction in Scholastic terms--as a distinction between a capacity to image particulars and a capacity to represent universals. However, features of his project in the Critique led him to reformulate the distinction in terms of immediacy and mediacy. Nonetheless, for certain purposes the older, Scholastic distinction retained its attractiveness, and this is the ground (...)
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  13.  55
    Hume and Reid on the Simplicity of the Soul.Lorne Falkenstein - 1995 - Hume Studies 21 (1):25-45.
    Reid is well known for rejecting the "philosophy of ideas"--a theory of mental representation that he claimed to find in its most vitriolic form in Hume. But there was another component of Hume's philosophy that exerted an equally powerful influence on Reid: Hume's attack on the notion of spiritual substance in _Treatise 1.4.5. I summarize this neglected aspect of Hume's philosophy and argue that much of Reid's epistemology can be explained as an attempt to buttress dualism against the effects of (...)
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  14.  56
    Hume on the Idea of a Vacuum.Lorne Falkenstein - 2014 - Hume Studies 39 (2):131-168.
    Hume had two principal arguments for denying that we can have an idea of a vacuum, an argument from the non-entity of unqualified points and an argument from the impossibility of forming abstract ideas of manners of disposition. He also made two serious concessions to the opposed view that we can indeed form ideas of vacua, namely, that bodies that have nothing sensible disposed between them may permit the interposition of other bodies without any apparent motion or occlusion and that (...)
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  15. Hume's answer to Kant.Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - Noûs 32 (3):331-360.
    Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense devotes more space to double vision than to any other topic. In what follows, I examine why this subject was so important to Reid and why he dealt with it as he did. I also consider whether his argument for his position begs the question against his main opponents, Berkeley and Robert Smith. I show that, as Reid presented it, it does, but that he could have said more (...)
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  16.  45
    Hume and Reid on the Perception of Hardness.Lorne Falkenstein - 2002 - Hume Studies 28 (1):27-48.
    This paper considers an objection to the Humean view that perception involves introspective acquaintance with representative images. The objection, originally raised by Thomas Reid and recently endorsed by Nicholas Wolterstorff, states that no representative image can be hard, and concludes that acquaintance with such images cannot therefore account for our perception of hardness. I argue in response that a case has not been made for denying that representative images can be hard. Hardness, as understood by Hume and Reid, is the (...)
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  17.  96
    Intuition and construction in Berkeley's account of visual space.Lorne Falkenstein - 1994 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (1):63-84.
    This paper examines Berkeley's attitude toward our perception of spatial relations on the two- dimensional visual field. This is a topic on which there has been some controversy. Historians of visual theory have tended to suppose that Berkeley took "all" spatial relations to be derived in the way our knowledge of depth is: from association of more primitive sensations which are themselves in no way spatial. But many philosophers commenting on Berkeley have supposed that he takes our awareness of two- (...)
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  18. Kant, Mendelssohn, Lambert, and the subjectivity of time.Lorne Falkenstein - 1991 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 29 (2):227-251.
    On the basis of an examination of Kant's correspondence with Mendelssohn, 1766-1770, I argue that already in 1770 Kant had before him a decisive refutation of the view that time is imposed by the mind on its representations, and that Kant did not hold any such view of the subjectivity of time in his later work. Kant's mature view is that time is subjective only in the sense that it is the manner in which the empirically observable subject receives sensory (...)
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  19. Kant’s Argument for the Non-Spatiotemporality of Things in Themselves.Lorne Falkenstein - 1989 - Kant Studien 80 (1-4):265-83.
    Kant's problematic conclusion, that we can know that things in themselves are not in space or time, is shown to follow directly from his claim that space and time are manners of disposition or forms of arrangement in which various items are presented to us in intuition. This argument is not strong enough to rule out certain well-defined senses in which things in themselves "could" possibly be spatio-temporal, but it does show that any sense in which things in themselves could (...)
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  20.  10
    Kant's Transcendental Aesthetic.Lorne Falkenstein - 2006 - In Graham Bird (ed.), A Companion to Kant. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell. pp. 140–153.
  21. Hume and the Contemporary 'Common Sense' Critique of Hume.Lorne Falkenstein - 2016 - In Paul Russell (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of David Hume. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 729-51.
    This paper reviews the principal objections that Hume's Scots "common sense" contemporaries had to his account of the understanding. In the absence of any but the most scant evidence of Hume's own reactions to these criticisms, it weighs what he might have said in his own defense.
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  22.  44
    Nativism and the Nature of Thought in Reid's Account of Our Knowledge of the External World.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - In Terence Cuneo Rene van Woudenberg (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 156--179.
    This is a wide ranging survey of the extent and nature of Reid's nativist commitments and of their implications for his account of perception and his realism.
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  23.  5
    Classical Empiricism.Lorne Falkenstein - 2013 - In Heather Dyke & Adrian Bardon (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Time. Chichester, UK: Wiley. pp. 102–119.
    This chapter on classical empiricism is divided into three sections, namely, absolutism, idealism, and memory. Presentism poses a particular problem for the empiricist view that the idea of time arises from people's experience of the succession of their ideas. The view that time passes independently of the succession of ideas was shared by canonically empiricist philosophers, such as Gassendi, Locke, and Newton. The idea of time arises from a compound impression that consists of successively disposed simple impressions – impressions that (...)
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  24.  89
    The psychology and epistemology of Hume's account of probable reasoning.Lorne Falkenstein - 2012 - In Alan Bailey & Dan O'Brien (eds.), The Continuum Companion to Hume. Continuum. pp. 104.
    This paper offers and account of the "system" of probable reasoning presented in Hume's Treatise and first Enquiry. The system is sceptical because it takes our beliefs to be the product of naturally occurring psychological mechanisms rather than logically sound judgment, and because it declares those beliefs to be ultimately unjustifiable. This paper explains how Hume was nonetheless able to provide for a logic of probable reasoning, grounded on natural, but unjustifiable beliefs.
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  25.  6
    Hume on Temporal Experience.Lorne Falkenstein - 2017 - In Ian Phillips (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Temporal Experience: Routledge Handbooks in Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 42-52.
    In Book 1, Part 2, Section 3 of his _Treatise of Human Nature_, David Hume argued that the idea of time arises from the experience of succession. In doing so, he raised a difficult question about the nature of that experience. The experience must be an experience had over time, not an experience of time. But how is that possible? This paper investigates how far mechanisms Hume appealed to when accounting for such related phenomena as causal inference, the understanding of (...)
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  26.  88
    Is perceptual space monadic?Lorne Falkenstein - 1989 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (June):709-713.
    Against the claims of Russell, Goodman, and Albert Casullo, this paper argues that the location of phenomena in visual space cannot be determined through reference to monadic local properties of the visual field.
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  27.  7
    11. Kant, Mendelssohn, Lambert, and the Subjectivity of Time.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - In Kant's Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic. University of Toronto Press. pp. 334-355.
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  28. Was Kant a Nativist?Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - In Patricia Kitcher (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Critical Essays. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 21-44.
    This paper was originally published in _Journal of the History of Ideas_ 51 (1990): 573-597. Kant's claim that space and time are "forms of intuition" is contrasted with the nativist claim that space is an innate idea or construct of the mind and with the empiricist claim that space is given in or learned from experience. It is argued that the nativism/empiricism debate masks a more fundamental disagreement between sensationism and constructivism. Kant's account of space- and time-cognition is shown to (...)
     
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  29.  11
    The Intellectual Powers of the Human Mind.Lorne Falkenstein - 2023 - In Aaron Garrett & James A. Harris (eds.), Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century II: Method, Metaphysics, Mind, Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 225-54.
    This chapter examines what Hume and Reid had to say about what Reid called our intellectual powers: sensation, conception, perception, memory, abstraction, judgement, and reasoning. In the process it examines their opposed views on the nature of mind, on the representation of space and the spatiality of mental content, on temporal experience and the metaphysics of time, on the conception of non-existent objects, and on conceivability and possibility. The chapter critically examines what each had to say in his own defence (...)
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  30.  8
    Demea's Departure Revisited.Lorne Falkenstein - 2023 - In Kenneth Williford (ed.), Hume's _Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion_: A Philosophical Apparaisal. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 155-69.
  31.  46
    Reid’s Account of the “Geometry of Visibles”: Some Lessons from Helmholtz.Lorne Falkenstein - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):485-510.
    Drawing on work done by Helmholtz, I argue that Reid was in no position to infer that objects appear as if projected on the inner surface of a sphere, or that they have the geometric properties of such projections even though they do not look concave towards the eye. A careful consideration of the phenomena of visual experience, as further illuminated by the practice of visual artists, should have led him to conclude that the sides of visible appearances either look (...)
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  32.  22
    Without Gallantry and Without Jealousy: The Development of Hume's Account of Sexual Virtues and Vices.Lorne Falkenstein - 2015 - Hume Studies 41 (2):137-170.
    In this paper I argue that Hume's thought on comportment between the sexes developed over time. In the Treatise he was interested in explaining why the world seeks to impose artificial virtues of chastity and modesty on women and girls, and how it manages to do this so successfully. But as time passed he became increasingly concerned with justice towards women and the role of free interactions between the sexes in facilitating sociability. While his later work continues to explain the (...)
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  33.  11
    Theories of Perception I: Berkeley and His Recent Predecessors.Lorne Falkenstein - 2014 - In Aaron Garrett (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 338-59.
    A survey of work on the philosophy of perception, mind, and mental representation by Berkeley and his early modern predecessors, notably Descartes, Hobbes, Malebranche, and Locke.
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  34.  99
    Condillac's paradox.Lorne Falkenstein - 2005 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 43 (4):403-435.
    : I argue that Condillac was committed to four mutually inconsistent propositions: that the mind is unextended, that sensations are modifications of the mind, that colours are sensations, and that colours are extended. I argue that this inconsistency was not just the blunder of a second-rate philosopher, but the consequence of a deep-seated tension in the views of early modern philosophers on the nature of the mind, sensation, and secondary qualities and that more widely studied figures, notably Condillac's contemporaries, Hume (...)
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  35.  9
    Hume's Project in 'The Natural History of Religion'.Lorne Falkenstein - 2003 - Religious Studies 39 (1):1-21.
    There are good reasons to think that at least a part of Hume's project in the ‘The natural history of religion’ was to buttress a philosophical critique of the reasonableness of religious belief undertaken in other works, and to attack a fundamentalist account of the history of religion and the foundations of morality. But there are also problems with supposing that Hume intended to achieve either of these goals. I argue that two problems in particular – accounting for Hume's neglect (...)
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  36.  9
    The Ideas of Space and Time and Spatial and Temporal Ideas in Treatise 1.2.Lorne Falkenstein - 2015 - In Donald C. Ainslie & Annemarie Butler (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Hume's _Treatise_. New York: Cambridge. pp. 31-68.
    This paper reviews Hume's arguments concerning space and time in the second part of the first book of the _Treatise_. It is argued that Hume's views on the finite divisibility of our ideas of space and time and on space and time as manners of disposition are coherent and well-defended. The same cannot be said about his views on vacuum and the impossibility of temporal passage in the absence of change.
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  37.  62
    Berkeley's Argument for Other Minds.Lorne Falkenstein - 1990 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 7 (4):431 - 440.
    The literature on Berkeley is almost unanimous in taking this claim to know the existence of other finite spirits to rest on an argument from analogy. I show that this is not so and that Berkeley uses a causal argument to prove that there are other minds. Questions of the degree to which it is legitimate for Berkeley to appeal to causes, particularly occasional causes, are addressed in the process.
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  38.  20
    Humean Contiguity.Lorne Falkenstein & David Welton - 2001 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 18 (3):279 - 296.
    We argue that Hume was wrong to identify constant conjunction in time as the sole associative principle responsible for belief. On principles that can be grounded on his own account, constant contiguity in space ought to produce the same effect. We close by examining some of the ways in which a recognition of the influence of contiguity relations might have assisted Hume in resolving problems that otherwise arise with his accounts of causality and objectivity.
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  39.  86
    Hume’s Finite Geometry: A Reply to Mark Pressman.Lorne Falkenstein - 2000 - Hume Studies 26 (1):183-185.
    In “Hume on Geometry and Infinite Divisibility in the Treatise”, H. Mark Pressman charges that “the geometry Hume presents in the Treatise faces a serious set of problems”. This may well be; however, at least one of the charges Pressman levels against Hume invokes a false dichotomy, and a second rests on a non sequitur.
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  40.  39
    Reid and Smith on Vision.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 2 (2):103-118.
    Reid's Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense devotes more space to double vision than to any other topic. In what follows, I examine why this subject was so important to Reid and why he dealt with it as he did. I also consider whether his argument for his position begs the question against his main opponents, Berkeley and Robert Smith. I show that, as Reid presented it, it does, but that he could have said more (...)
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  41. Reid's Critique of Berkeley's Position on the Inverted Image.Lorne Falkenstein - 2000 - Reid Studies 4 (1):35-51.
    (This article was republished in lightly re-edited form in _Journal of Scottish Philosophy_ 16 (2018) 175-91.) Reid and Berkeley disagreed over whether we directly perceive objects located outside of us in a surrounding space, commonly revealed by both vision and touch. Berkeley considered a successful account of erect vision to be crucial for deciding this dispute, at one point calling it ‘the principal point in the whole optic theory.’ Reid's critique of Berkeley's position on this topic is very brief, and (...)
     
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  42.  8
    Moral Disagreement.Lorne Falkenstein - 2021 - In Esther Engels Kroeker & Willem Lemmens (eds.), Hume's an Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals : A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 238-56.
    This paper argues that Hume was first and foremost a moral psychologist and a determinist, not a moralist. When confronting the fact of moral disagreement, notably in "A Dialogue" affixed to his moral enquiry, he maintained that it is not psychologically possible to approve of the conflicting norms of other cultures, except in the case of sometimes approving of individuals in other cultures for abiding by those objectionable norms rather than fomenting cultural upheaval. All cultures should nonetheless agree on the (...)
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  43.  6
    Theories of Perception II: After Berkeley.Lorne Falkenstein - 2014 - In Aaron Garrett (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Eighteenth Century Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 360-80.
    A survey of work on perception, mind, and mental representation by 18th century philosophers after Berkeley, notably Robert Smith, William Porterfield, David Hume, Etienne de Condillac, and Thomas Reid.
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  44.  87
    A Double Edged Sword? Kant's Refutation Of Mendelssohn's Proof Of The Immortality Of The Soul And Its Implications For His Theory Of Matter.Lorne Falkenstein - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):561-588.
    I argue that Kant's refutation of Mendelssohn's proof of the immortality of the soul also refutes his own proof of the permanence of material substance. To evade this result, Kant would have had to rely on premises that can only be established empirically. This difficulty brings up deep and disturbing difficulties with Kant's theory of matter and body in his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science and suggests that his early Physical Monadology offered a better account, one he was constrained by (...)
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  45.  24
    Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Critical Essays.Harry Allison, Karl Ameriks, Lewis White Beck, Lorne Falkenstein, Paul Guyer, Philip Kitcher, Charles Parsons, P. F. Strawson & Allen W. Wood - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The central project of the Critique of Pure Reason is to answer two sets of questions: What can we know and how can we know it? and What can't we know and why can't we know it? The essays in this collection are intended to help students read the Critique of Pure Reason with a greater understanding of its central themes and arguments, and with some awareness of important lines of criticism of those themes and arguments.
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  46.  2
    Afterword.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - In Kant's Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic. University of Toronto Press. pp. 359-362.
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  47.  1
    Acknowledgments.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - In Kant's Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic. University of Toronto Press.
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  48.  11
    An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.Lorne Falkenstein - 2011 - Peterborough, CA: Broadview Press. Edited by Lorne Falkenstein.
    An edition of David Hume's _Enquiry concerning Human Understanding_ featuring an introduction to its composition and reception by Hume's contemporaries together with responses from his most significant contemporary critics: George Campbell, Thomas Reid, James Beattie, and Immanuel Kant. This edition also keeps track of the major changes Hume made to his work between the first edition of 1748 and the posthumous edition of 1777.
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  49.  4
    Bibliographical Note.Lorne Falkenstein - 2004 - In Kant's Intuitionism: A Commentary on the Transcendental Aesthetic. University of Toronto Press.
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  50. Berkeley on Situation and Inversion.Lorne Falkenstein - 2015 - In Patricia Easton (ed.), The Battle of the Gods and Giands Redux: Papers Presented to Thomas M. Lennon. Leiden: Brill. pp. 300-23.
    Over _Principles_ 42-43, Berkeley worried that we might "in truth" see things existing at a distance from us, in which case they could not plausibly be supposed to exist independently of being perceived. He went on to say that he had developed his new theory of vision to address this worry. This paper argues that the worry is serious and that Berkeley was right to think that it would take nothing less than a theory of vision to address it. The (...)
     
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