Metaontology

Edited by Frederique Janssen-Lauret (University of Manchester)
Assistant editor: Zili Dong (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

Whereas ontology is concerned with the nature of reality in general, metaontology is concerned with the nature of ontology— whether its questions have substantive and tractable answers, and if so, how best to answer them. More broadly, what we might call ‘metametaphysics’ investigates the prospects and methodology of metaphysics.

Key works Classic works include Ayer 1936Carnap 1950, and Quine 1953. A collection of more recent work can be found in Wasserman et al 2009
Introductions Eklund 2006, Manley 2009, Thomasson 2012
Related categories

2023 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 2023
Material to categorize
  1. Twenty-one Theories of Rationality Assessed for Which Is the Best: An Addendum to Chapter 3 of the 2023 book The Rationality Project: Across the Millennia.Lantz Fleming Miller - manuscript
    This article serves as either an addendum or as an expansion of ideas and work developed in my 2023 book, The Rationality Project: Across the Millennia, issued by Palgrave Macmillan. The book explores 21 potential theories for explaining rationality in terms of why and how one among these can serve in the position of explanatory power. The book does not fully explain all of these candidate theories, assigning that complete role to this addendum or work-in-progress. The main reason for this (...)
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  2. The Import of Integral Pluralism in Striving Towards an Integral Metatheory of Addiction.Guy Pierre du Plessis - 2014 - The Third International Integral Theory Conference.
    ABSTRACT In my previous work I explored how Integral Theory can be applied as a meta‐theoretical and transdisciplinary framework, in an attempt to arrive at integrally informed metatheory of addiction, yet indispensable aspects were overlooked. Moreover, an overemphasis was placed on Integral Methodological Pluralism, without clarifying the ontological pluralism of addiction as a multiple object enacted by various methodologies. I believe what is needed in an attempt at a comprehensive integral metatheory of addiction is to include Sean Esbjörn‐Hargens and Michael (...)
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Metaontology, Misc
  1. Metaphysical Character of Metaontological Disputes.Stevan Rakonjac - 2018 - Theoria: Beograd 61 (3):71-91.
    This paper will, to a large extent, be concerned with the meatontological position of David Chalmers. Chapters 1, 2, and 4 will respectively present Chalmers’ terminology, his argument based on a thought experiment and his classification of metaontological positions. In chapter 3 attempt will be made to show that there are some unjustified steps in Chalmers’ argumentation, because the conclusion that egzistential ontological claims are not supstantive is built into the definitions of the terms he uses. Chapter 5 will present (...)
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  2. Reference to Properties in Natural Language.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Anthony Fisher & Anna Sofia Maurin (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Properties. Routlledge.
    This paper gives a perspectival overview of the semantics of potential property-referring terms and presents new and surprising generalizations about explicit property-referring terms like 'the property of being wise', which raise fundamental issues regarding ontology and learnability and a core-periphery distinction in natural language ontology.
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  3. Hyperintensionality and Ontological Categories.James Miller - 2022 - Erkenntnis:1–19.
    In this paper, I discuss how to distinguish between ontological categories and ordinary categories. Using an argument against van Inwagen’s proposed account of what makes a category ontological as a springboard, I argue that if ontological categories are modally robust, then ontological categories need to be understood hyperintensionally. This conclusion opens up a wide range of new ways to define ‘ontological category’, and I close by briefly outlining one such way in order to illustrate the advantages of embracing hyperintensionality in (...)
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  4. The Integrated Metatheoretical Model of Addiction.Guy Pierre du Plessis - 2022 - Qeios 1 (1):1-25.
    In “The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction” Robert West highlights a pervasive challenge for more conceptual clarity and consensus within the field of addiction studies. In an attempt to address the challenge I provide the conceptual building blocks or architectonic of a metatheory of addiction, referred to as the Integrated Metatheoretical Model of Addiction (IMMA). The IMMA is not a general theory of addiction, but rather an exploratory attempt at providing the architectonic of an metaparadigmatic heuristic, that (...)
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  5. A Thousand Flowers on the Road to Epistemic Anarchy: Comments on Chakravartty's Scientific Ontology.Amanda Bryant - 2021 - Dialogue 60 (1):1-13.
    I introduce the symposium on Anjan Chakravartty’s Scientific Ontology by summarizing the book’s main claims. In my commentary, I first challenge Chakravartty’s claim that naturalized metaphysics cannot be indexed to science simpliciter. Second, I argue that there are objective truths regarding what conduces to particular epistemic aims, and that Chakravartty is therefore too permissive regarding epistemic stances and their resultant ontologies. Third, I argue that it is unclear what stops epistemic stances from having unlimited influence. Finally, I argue that Chakravartty’s (...)
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  6. Ontological disagreements, reference, and charity: A challenge for Hirsch's deflationism.Delia Belleri - 2022 - Theoria 88 (5):982-996.
    Eli Hirsch argues that certain ontological disputes involve a conflict between “equivalent” languages, and that the principle of charity compels each disputant to interpret the other as speaking truly in their own language. For Hirsch, a language’s semantics maps sentences (in context) onto sets of possible worlds but assigns no role to reference. I argue that this method leads to an overly uncharitable portrayal of the disputes at issue – whereby ontologists who speak “equivalent” languages can only argue about syntax. (...)
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  7. The Essence of the Mental.Ray Buchanan & Alex Grzankowski - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    Your belief that Obama is a Democrat wouldn’t be the belief that it is if it didn't represent Obama, nor would the pain in your ankle be the state that is if, say, it felt like an itch. Accordingly, it is tempting to hold that phenomenal and representational properties are essential to the mental states that have them. But, as several theorists have forcefully argued (including Kripke (1980) and Burge (1979, 1982)) this attractive idea is seemingly in tension with another (...)
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  8. Seppo Albert Kivinen universaalien identiteetti- ja eksistenssiehdoista.Markku Keinänen - 2022 - Ajatus 79: 53-71.
    This article (in Finnish) discusses Seppo Albert Kivinen's (1933-2021) views on identity and existence conditions of universals. Moreover, the article puts the views to larger context.
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  9. Ontology Generator.Alik Pelman - 2022 - Metaphysica:1-20.
    The paper proposes a simple method for constructing ontological theories—an ‘ontology generator’. It shows that such a generator manages to produce major existing ontological theories, e.g., Realism, Nominalism, Trope theory, Bundle theory, Perdurantism, Endurantism, Possibilism, Actualism and more. It thus turns out, surprisingly, that all these seemingly unrelated different ontological theories that were designed by thinkers hundreds of years apart, can all be generated using the same simple mechanism. Moreover, this same generator manages to produce entirely novel ontological theories, that (...)
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  10. To be or not to be informed, that is the question of O/ontology.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (3):3-49.
    The relations between ontology and information are many and fundamental, and they help us to understand the present gulf between (formal) ontology and (philosophical) Ontology: We can speak of respectively ontology-driven information and information-driven ontology as the focus on being informed vs. informed being. The question of whether these two (can) coincide is relevant to both fields, and in this article I elaborate on what needs to be addressed first of all to provide us with an answer: The form. This (...)
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  11. O/ontology.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (3):1-2.
    The gulf between philosophical and formal ontology can and should be bridged. In this Editorial, I elaborate briefly on this subject.
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  12. All that is Intelligible, Ontology, and Charts: A Brief Assessment of the Birth of Ontology.J. S. Freedman - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (2):57-60.
    Abstract In this commentary motivated by Øhrstrøm & Uckelman (2022), I provide important remarks concerning All that is Intelligible and Ontology – and how both concepts evolved.
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  13. Foundations of Information Technology Based on Bunge’s Systemist Philosophy of Reality.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2022 - Mεtascience: Scientific General Discourse 2:140-181.
    General ontology is a prominent theoretical foundation for information technology analysis, design, and development. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which studies what exists in reality. A widely used ontology in information systems, especially for conceptual modeling, is the BWW (Bunge–Wand–Weber), which is based on ideas of the philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge, as synthesized by Wand and Weber. The ontology was founded on an early subset of Bunge’s philosophy; however, many of Bunge’s ideas have evolved since then. An important (...)
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  14. Quantifier Variance.Rohan Sud & David Manley - 2021 - In Ricki Leigh Bliss & J. T. M. Miller (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metametaphysics. New York: Routledge. pp. 100-17.
    We provide an overview of the meta-ontological position known as "Quantifier Variance".
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  15. Metafysiikka valistuksena.Jani Hakkarainen - 2022 - In Hemmo Laiho (ed.), Valistuksen perinnöt: Suomen Filosofisen Yhdistyksen kollokvion esitelmiä. Turku: University of Turku. pp. 37-48.
    Kirjoituksessa argumentoin, että metafysiikka on ollut valistusta, vaikka se edelleen kaipaa lisää valistumista, kun valistus ymmärretään avoimena prosessina, joka ei ole ajasta ja paikasta riippuvaista. Käsittelen ensin sitä, mitä metafysiikka ja valistus ovat. Sitten lausun länsimaisen metafysiikan historiasta hyvin lyhyesti. Päätän esseen argumentoimalla, että metafysiikka on valistunutta siinä mielessä, että klassisen substanssi-ominaisuus-skeeman sokeasta seuraamisesta on pitkälti päästy eroon. Metafysiikka kaipaa kuitenkin lisää valistusta ja kriittistä tarkastelua, jotta vapaudumme täysin kyseisen skeeman ja modernin predikaatti-logiikan johdatuksen aiheuttamasta kolmesta ongelmallisesta suositusta (tausta)oletuksesta: (1) (...)
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  16. Métaphysique analytique, métaphysique naturalisée et ontologie appliquée.Baptiste Le Bihan & Adrien Barton - 2022 - In Raphaël Künstler (ed.), Métaphysique et Sciences, Nouveaux problèmes. Paris: Hermann.
    La pertinence de la métaphysique analytique a fait l'objet de critiques : Ladyman et Ross, par exemple, ont suggéré d'abandonner ce domaine. French et McKenzie ont défendu la métaphysique analytique en affirmant qu'elle développe des outils qui pourraient s'avérer utiles pour la philosophie de la physique. Dans cet article, nous montrons dans un premier temps que cette défense heuristique de la métaphysique peut être étendue au domaine scientifique de l'ontologie appliquée, qui utilise des théories et outils issus de la métaphysique (...)
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  17. Quantum Circularity.Ilexa Yardley - 2019 - Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Technological (Einsteinian) relativity is zero entangled with one. Explaining philosophical, physical, and psychological, fusion.
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  18. Quantifier variance, semantic collapse, and “genuine” quantifiers.Jared Warren - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (3):745-757.
    Quantifier variance holds that different languages can have unrestricted quantifier expressions that differ in meaning, where an expression is a “quantifier” just in case it plays the right inferential role. Several critics argued that J.H. Harris’s “collapse” argument refutes variance by showing that identity of inferential role is incompatible with meaning variance. This standard, syntactic collapse argument has generated several responses. More recently, Cian Dorr proved semantic collapse theorems to generate a semantic collapse argument against variance. The argument is significantly (...)
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  19. Presentation: Metascientific Ontology.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience: Scientific General Discourse 2:10-18.
    Debates about the links between science and ontology are very active in contemporary philosophy, and, in fact, they have always been present. Despite the various philosophical positions on the subject, they all admit the existence of a metaphysical reality. In contrast, metascience holds that such a reality does not exist. This second issue of Mɛtascience presents seven out of twelve articles that have as a common thread either the metascientific ontology or the Bungean ontology.
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  20. Expanding Speculative Realism & Speculative Materialism Meillassoux, and Correlationism.Irfan Ajvazi -
    This relationship between human and Cosmos, is what Meillassoux refers as “correlationism”. Humans can only establish a correlation with the world through representational structures, but never can they access the in itself. But if one can only experience the world from their own perspective and understand it through synthetic categories via languages, then what is reality “as such”? This is part of what a speculative realist attempts to answer. It is also here, as what pertains to this “real”, where Meillassoux (...)
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  21. A Better A-theory.Alexander Jackson - manuscript
    I present a new kind of A-theory. On this proposal, time’s passing is a metaphysically fundamental aspect of reality. I take this to mean that there are fundamental facts like: four hours passed from 8am today until noon. This A-theory also posits fundamental facts about the state of the universe at a given time, and about cross-temporal relationships. The proposed metaphysical package attractively articulates our pre-relativistic conception of time. I defend the proposal from a number of orthodox objections: fundamental facts (...)
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  22. The Epistemic Consequences of Paradox.Bryan Frances - 2022 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    By pooling together exhaustive analyses of certain philosophical paradoxes, we can prove a series of fascinating results regarding philosophical progress, agreement on substantive philosophical claims, knockdown arguments in philosophy, the wisdom of philosophical belief, the epistemic status of metaphysics, and the power of philosophy to refute common sense. As examples, this Element examines the Sorites Paradox, the Liar Paradox, and the Problem of the Many – although many other paradoxes can do the trick too.
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  23. The Key to Complexity.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Complexity is dependent on the circular-linear relationship between an individual and a group, meaning we cannot use 'observation' to tell us what we need to know (to explain complexity).
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  24. Meta-Ethical Quietism? Wittgenstein, Relaxed Realism, and Countercultures in Meta-Ethics.Farbod Akhlaghi - forthcoming - In Jonathan Beale & Richard Rowland (eds.), Wittgenstein and Contemporary Moral Philosophy.
    Ludwig Wittgenstein has often been called a quietist. His work has inspired a rich and varied array of theories in moral philosophy. Some prominent meta-ethicists have also been called quietists, or ‘relaxed’ as opposed to ‘robust’ realists, sometimes with explicit reference to Wittgenstein in attempts to clarify their views. In this chapter, I compare and contrast these groups of theories and draw out their importance for contemporary meta-ethical debate. They represent countercultures to contemporary meta-ethics. That is, they reject in different (...)
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  25. We Still Do Not Know What a Body Can Do: Rereading Deleuze's Spinozist Ethology Toward a Non-Ontological Interpretation of Transcendental Empiricism.Kyle Novak - 2021 - Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 25 (2):75-97.
    Throughout much of his career, Deleuze repeats a problem he attributes to Spinoza: “we do not even know what a body can do.” The problem is closely associated with Deleuze’s parallelist reading of Spinoza and what he calls ethology. In this article, I argue that Deleuze takes ethology to be a new model for philosophy which he intends to replace ontology. I ground my claim in Deleuze’s suggestion that Spinoza offers philosophers the means of thinking “with AND rather than thinking (...)
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  26. Théorie générale des objets chez Bunge et Harman.Martín Orensanz - 2022 - Mεtascience: Discours Général Scientifique 2:75-93.
    Bien qu'il existe des différences significatives entre la philosophie de Mario Bunge et celle de Graham Harman, il existe également des similitudes fonda-mentales entre elles. Ces penseurs affirment tous deux qu'il est possible de dé-velopper une théorie générale des objets. Le premier estime que la théorie en question est logico-mathématique, tandis que le second suggère qu'elle est on-tologique. Quoi qu’il en soit, ils conviennent que tous les objets doivent être con-sidérés, qu’ils soient réels ou non. En outre, ils suggèrent que (...)
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  27. Fondements des technologies de l’information d’après la philosophie systémiste de la réalité de Bunge.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2022 - Mεtascience: Discours Général Scientifique 2:173-217.
    L’ontologie générale constitue un fondement théorique important pour l’analyse, la conception et le développement dans les technologies de l’information. L’ontologie est une branche de la philosophie qui étudie ce qui existe dans la réalité. Une ontologie largement utilisée dans les systèmes d’information, en particulier pour la modélisation conceptuelle, est l’ontologie BWW (Bunge-Wand-Weber), fondée sur les idées du philosophe et physicien Mario Bunge, telles que synthétisées par Wand et Weber. Cette ontologie a été élaborée à partir d’une ancienne version de la (...)
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  28. An ontology of weak entity realism for HPC kinds.Reuben Sass - 2021 - Synthese 198 (12):11861-11880.
    This paper defends an ontology of weak entity realism for homeostatic property cluster (HPC) theories of natural kinds, adapted from Bird’s (Synthese 195(4):1397–1426, 2018) taxonomy of such theories. Weak entity realism about HPC kinds accepts the existence of natural kinds. Weak entity realism denies two theses: that (1) HPC kinds have mind-independent essences, and that (2) HPC kinds reduce to entities, such as complex universals, posited only by metaphysical theories. Strong entity realism accepts (1) and (2), whereas moderate entity realism (...)
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  29. Ontologie.Achille C. Varzi - 2010 - Paris: Ithaque.
    French translation of "Ontologia" (2005).
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  30. Collapse and the Varieties of Quantifier Variance.Matti Eklund - 2021 - In James Miller (ed.), The Language of Ontology.
    The aim of the paper is to bring clarity regarding the doctrine of quantifier variance (due to Eli Hirsch), and two prominent arguments against this doctrine, the collapse argument and the Eklund-Hawthorne argument. Different versions of the doctrine of quantifier variance are distinguished, and it is shown that the effectiveness of the arguments against it depends on what version of the doctrine is at issue. The metaontological significance of the different versions of the doctrine are also assessed. Roughly, quantifier variance (...)
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  31. The Lump and the Ledger: Material Coincidence at Little-to-No Cost.Jonah Goldwater - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (4):789-812.
    This paper aims to make headway on two related issues—one methodological, the other substantive. The former concerns cost–benefit analyses when applied to metaphysical theory choice. The latter concerns material coincidence, i.e., multiple objects occupying the same space at the same time, such as the statue and the clay from which it’s made. The issues are entwined as many reject coincidence on the grounds that it’s costly. I argue this judgment is unjustified. More generally, I set out and defend a framework (...)
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  32. Essence and Existence: Selected Essays by Bob Hale.Jessica Leech & Bob Hale (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    This book is a collection of essays written by Bob Hale (three co-authored), with a critical introduction from Kit Fine. They comprise Hale’s final years of work, adding to and extending beyond his landmark monograph Necessary Beings: An Essay on Ontology, Modality, and the Relations Between Them (OUP, 2013, 2nd edition 2015). The essays develop and consolidate several key themes in Hale’s work, most notably the notion of definition, especially as it extends beyond definition of a word to definition of (...)
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  33. Categorial Inference and Convert Realism: Structuring Ontology Via Nomological Axiomatics.Ekin Erkan - 2021 - Axiomathes 32:1-42.
    Following Sellars, this paper shows how ontological theorization becomes diachronically coordinated with and constrained by empirical science, and how the formal-quantitative kernel of scientific theories corresponds to qualitative-conceptual determinations at the structural level. To do this, we follow Johanna Seibt’s characterization of ontology as a theory of categorial inference, in which category construction and recategorization are seen relative to and modeled by the most general inferences and descriptive concepts of natural and scientific languages. This allows us to trace the preservation (...)
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  34. back to the question of ontology.Jonas Rafael Becker Arenhart & Raoni Wohnrath Arroyo - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (2):1-51.
    We articulate a distinction between ontology, understood as involving existence questions, and metaphysics, understood as either providing for metaphysical profiles of entities or else as dealing with fundamentality and/or grounding and dependence questions. The distinction, we argue, allows a better understanding of the roles of metaontology and metametaphysics when it comes to discussing the relations between ontology and science on the one hand, and metaphysics and science on the other. We argue that while ontology, as understood in this paper, may (...)
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  35. Ontological Expressivism.Vera Flocke - 2021 - In J. T. M. Miller (ed.), The Language of Ontology. Oxford, UK:
    Ontological expressivism is the view that ontological existence claims express non-cognitive mental states. I develop a version of ontological expressivism that is modeled after Gibbard’s (2003) norm-expressivism. I argue that, when speakers assess whether, say, composite objects exist, they rely on assumptions with regard to what is required for composition to occur. These assumptions guide their assessment, similar to how norms may guide the assessment of normative propositions. Against this backdrop, I argue that “some objects have parts”, uttered in the (...)
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  36. ‘Quantifier Variance’ Is Not Quantifier Variance.Poppy Mankowitz - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 99 (3):611-627.
    ABSTRACT There has been recent interest in the idea that, when metaphysicians disagree over the truth of ‘There are numbers’ or ‘Chairs exist’, their dispute is merely verbal. This idea has been taken to motivate quantifier variance, the view that the meanings of quantifier expressions vary across different ontological languages, and that each of these meanings is of equal metaphysical merit. I argue that quantifier variance cannot be upheld in light of natural language theorists’ analyses of quantifier expressions. The idea (...)
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  37. El nihilismo contemporáneo, ¿el lado oscuro de la Posmodernidad?Francisco Fernández Labastida & Juan Andrés Mercado - 2007 - México: Universidad Panamericana.
  38. Grounding and the Myth of Ontological Innocence.Jonathan Barker - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):303-318.
    According to the Ontological Innocence Thesis (OIT), grounded entities are ontologically innocent relative to their full grounds. I argue that OIT entails a contradiction, and therefore must be discarded. My argument turns on the notion of “groundmates,” two or more numerically distinct entities that share at least one of their full grounds. I argue that, if OIT is true, then it is both the case that there are groundmates and that there are no groundmates. Therefore, so I conclude, OIT is (...)
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  39. Ontology, Set Theory, and the Paraphrase Challenge.Jared Warren - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (6):1231-1248.
    In many ontological debates there is a familiar challenge. Consider a debate over X s. The “small” or anti-X side tries to show that they can paraphrase the pro-X or “big” side’s claims without any loss of expressive power. Typically though, when the big side adds whatever resources the small side used in their paraphrase, the symmetry breaks down. The big side plus small’s resources is a more expressively powerful and thus more theoretically fruitful theory. In this paper, I show (...)
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  40. Irrelevant ‘Philosophy’: What is Philosophy by Philosophers.Ulrich De Balbian - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Academic.
    The tools employed might appear appropriate, the reasoning sound and argumentation valid, but the subject-matter, well one wonders what that has to do with philosophy, if anything at all? Viewing some of the topics one really wonders of the notion of philosophy is not stretched too far? So much that is passed off as philosophy itself or some kind of so-called interdisciplinary issues really appear as irrelevant. Topics from the grievance studies especially fall under this. It seems as if individuals (...)
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  41. Experiential Metaphysics and Merleau-Ponty’s Intra-Ontology.Gregory M. Nixon - 2021 - Constructivist Foundations 16 (2):153-155.
    [This is a commentary article on Michel Bitbol's TA: "The Tangled Dialectic of Body and Consciousness: A Metaphysical Counterpart of Radical Neurophenomenology".] -/- A summary of the major metaphysical positions reveals them to be variable enough that they do not deny experience to the researcher. Further, Merleau-Ponty’s intra-ontology and related terms are fleshed out.
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  42. Pragmatist Quietism: A Metaethical System.Andrew Sepielli - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    The claim that there are objective ethical truths has attracted its share of doubters. Many have thought that such truths would require an extra-ethical foundation or vindication—in metaphysics, or the philosophy of language, or epistemology—and have worried that no such thing is available. Pragmatist Quietism argues that, on the contrary, there are objective ethical truths, and that these neither require nor admit of a foundation or vindication from outside of ethics. Recognizing that the idea of an ethical realm untethered from (...)
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  43. Fysis в работите на Хайдегер за Хьолдерлин.Vasil Penchev - 2004 - Философия 13 (3):14-18.
    Хайдегер има цикъл статии, посветени на немския поет Хьолдерлин и обсъждащи отношението на философия и поезия. Една често срещана "дума" в тях е 'природа'. Нейни рзлични конотации в произведения на философа за поета са предмет на изследване.
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  44. От "времевост и историчност" към "историчност и времевост".Vasil Penchev - 2006 - Философия 15 (6):22-30.
    "ОсноВният Въпрос, осноВната преgпостаВка за Всяка философия на историята е безспорно въпросът за значението на Времето, за прироgата на времето, защото историята е процес във времето, акт във времето, gВижение във времето. Ето защо значението, което се отgаВа на историята е непосреgно свързано със значението, което отgаваме на времето. Има ли времето метафизично значение? СВързано ли е то с нещо същестВено, gостигащо go най-gълбокото яgро на битието, или е само форма и услоВие за света на явленията, за света на феноменалното? (...)
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  45. Съдбата на битието (Синоптичен поглед към четири текста от Хайдегер).Vasil Penchev - 2005 - Философия 14 (3):23-30.
    "Въпросът, дали и как, и в какви граници е възможно твърдението "Бог е" като абсолютно поставяне, сега обаче става и остава за Кант тайната поgбуда, която подкарва цялото мислене на "Критика на чистия разум" и задвижва последващите главни работи" (Мартин Хайдегер). "Религиозният и философският абсолют, Deus и Esse не могат ga не бьgат взаимосвързани. Каква е тази взаимовръзка от гледна точка на битието и познанието? В простото твърдение "Бог е", тази връзка се достига; но нейният характер и представлява истинският проблем (...)
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  46. Sui criteri d'identità.Massimiliano Carrara - 2018 - Padova: Padova University Press.
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  47. Qu'est-ce que l'ontologie métascientifique?François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience: Discours Général Scientifique 2:19-43.
    L’ontologie métascientifique se distingue des ontologies philosophiques par ses objectifs, ses objets et ses méthodes. Par un examen des théories ontologiques de Mario Bunge, nous montrerons que leur principal objectif est l’élaboration d’une représentation unifiée du monde tel que connu via les sciences, que leurs objets d’étude sont les concepts scientifiques, et que leurs méthodes ne diffèrent pas de celles qu’on s’attend à trouver dans toute activité rationnelle. L’ontologie métascientifique n’est donc pas transcendante parce qu’elle ne cherche pas à représenter (...)
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  48. Philosophy: Origination and Destination.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    An uber-simple circle is the basis for (and explains) everything in philosophy.
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