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  1. The Literalist Fallacy & the Free Energy Principle: Model Building, Scientific Realism and Instrumentalism.Michael David Kirchhoff, Julian Kiverstein & Ian Robertson - manuscript
    Disagreement about how best to think of the relation between theories and the realities they represent has a longstanding and venerable history. We take up this debate in relation to the free energy principle (FEP) - a contemporary framework in computational neuroscience, theoretical biology and the philosophy of cognitive science. The FEP is very ambitious, extending from the brain sciences to the biology of self-organisation. In this context, some find apparent discrepancies between the map (the FEP) and the territory (target (...)
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  2. Toward a Philosophy of Scientific Discovery.Jan G. Michel - 2022 - In Making Scientific Discoveries: Interdisciplinary Reflections. Paderborn, Deutschland: pp. 9-53.
    Jan G. Michel argues that we need a philosophy of scientific discovery. Before turning to the question of what such a philosophy might look like, he addresses two questions: Don’t we have a philosophy of scientific discovery yet? And do we need one at all? To answer the first question, he takes a closer look at history and finds that we have not had a systematic philosophy of scientific discovery worthy of the name for over 150 years. To answer the (...)
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  3. Free Energy: A User's Guide.Stephen Francis Mann, Ross Alexander Pain & Michael Kirchhoff - manuscript
    Over the last fifteen years, an ambitious explanatory framework has been proposed to unify explanations across biology and cognitive science. Active inference, whose most famous tenet is the free energy principle, has inspired excitement and confusion in equal measure. Here, we lay the ground for proper critical analysis of active inference, in three ways. First, we give simplified versions of its core mathematical models. Second, we outline the historical development of active inference and its relationship to other theoretical approaches. Third, (...)
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  4. Mechanistic Trends in Chemistry.Louis Caruana - 2018 - Substantia 2 (1):29-40.
    During the twentieth century, the mechanistic worldview came under attack mainly because of the rise of quantum mechanics but some of its basic characteristics survived and are still evident within current science in some form or other. Many scholars have produced interesting studies of such significant mechanistic trends within current physics and biology but very few have bothered to explore the effects of this worldview on current chemistry. This paper makes a contribution to fill this gap. It presents first a (...)
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  5. Théorie des modèles, de la simulation et représentation scientifique chez Mario Bunge.Jean Robillard - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:à par. aux Éd. Matériologiques.
    On entend généralement par « théorie des modèles » autant la métamathématique (ou sémantique formelle) que la sémantique des modèles des sciences non formelles. Cet article a pour objet la théorie des modèles scientifiques que Mario Bunge a développée dans Method, Models and Matter (1973). J’y analyse l’intégration théorique qu’opère Bunge des sciences formelles et des sciences expérimentales ou observationnelles, laquelle prend appui sur sa philosophie des sciences. Je la compare sommairement à la théorie des modèles de Gilles-Gaston Granger dans (...)
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  6. Philosophy of Modeling in the 1870s: A Tribute to Hans Vaihinger.Karlis Podnieks - 2021 - Baltic Journal of Modern Computing 9 (1):67-110.
    This paper contains a detailed exposition and analysis of The Philosophy of “As If“ proposed by Hans Vaihinger in his book published in 1911. However, the principal chapters of the book (Part I) reproduce Vaihinger’s Habilitationsschrift, which was written during the autumn and winter of 1876. Part I is extended by Part II based on texts written during 1877–1878, when Vaihinger began preparing the book. The project was interrupted, resuming only in the 1900s. My conclusion is based exclusively on the (...)
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  7. Non-Ideal Epistemology in a Social World.Catharine Saint-Croix - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Idealization is a necessity. Stripping away levels of complexity makes questions tractable, focuses our attention, and lets us develop comprehensible, testable models. Applying such models, however, requires care and attention to how the idealizations incorporated into their development affect their predictions. In epistemology, we tend to focus on idealizations concerning individual agents' capacities, such as memory, mathematical ability, and so on, when addressing this concern. By contrast, this dissertation focuses on social idealizations, particularly those pertaining to salient social categories like (...)
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  8. Value Management and Model Pluralism in Climate Science.Julie Jebeile & Michel Crucifix - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (August 2021):120-127.
    Non-epistemic values pervade climate modelling, as is now well documented and widely discussed in the philosophy of climate science. Recently, Parker and Winsberg have drawn attention to what can be termed “epistemic inequality”: this is the risk that climate models might more accurately represent the future climates of the geographical regions prioritised by the values of the modellers. In this paper, we promote value management as a way of overcoming epistemic inequality. We argue that value management can be seriously considered (...)
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  9. MODIFIED STRUCTURE-NOMINATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF PRACTICAL PHYSICAL THEORIES AS A FRAME FOR THE PHILOSOPHY OF PHYSICS.Vladimir Kuznetsov - forthcoming2021 - Epistemological studies in Philosophy, Social and Political Sciences 4 (1):20-28.
    Physical theories are complex and necessary tools for gaining new knowledge about their areas of application. A distinction is made between abstract and practical theories. The last are constantly being improved in the cognitive activity of professional physicists and studied by future physicists. A variant of the philosophy of physics based on a modified structural-nominative reconstruction of practical theories is proposed. Readers should decide whether this option is useful for their understanding of the philosophy of physics, as well as other (...)
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  10. Chomsky in the Playground: Idealization in Generative Linguistics.Giulia Terzian - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 87:1-12.
  11. How Stable is Democracy?Patrick Grim, Mengzhen Liu, Krishna Bathina, Naijia Liu & Jake William Gordon - 2018 - Journal on Policy and Complex Systems 4:87-108.
    The structure of communication networks can be more or less “democratic”: networks are less democratic if (a) communication is more limited in terms of characteristic degree and (b) is more tightly channeled to a few specifc nodes. Together those measures give us a two-dimensional landscape of more and less democratic networks. We track opinion volatility across that landscape: the extent to which random changes in a small percentage of binary opinions at network nodes result in wide changes across the network (...)
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  12. Understanding Polarization: Meaning, Measures, and Model Evaluation.Aaron Bramson, Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, William Berger, Graham Sack, Steven Fisher, Carissa Flocken & Bennett Holman - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84:115-159.
    Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish nine phenomena that may be considered polarization, with suggestions of appropriate measures for each. In the second part of the article, we apply this analysis to evaluate (...)
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  13. A Pragmatic Approach to the Ontology of Models.Antonis Antoniou - 2021 - Synthese (3-4):1-20.
    What are scientific models? Philosophers of science have been trying to answer this question during the last three decades by putting forward a number of different proposals. Some say that models are best understood as abstract Platonic objects or fictional entities akin to Sherlock Holmes, while others focus on their mathematical nature and see them as set theoretical structures. Although each account has its own strengths in offering various insights on the nature of models, several objections have been raised against (...)
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  14. Philosophy of Nature, Written by Feyerabend, P., Edited by Heit, H. & Oberheim, E. And Translated by Lotter, D. [REVIEW]Diego Morales - 2020 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 23 (2):515-522.
    Book review of Paul Feyerabend's "Philosophy of Nature". || Reseña del libro "Philosophy of Nature", escrito por Paul Feyerabend.
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  15. What is Bitcoin?Craig Warmke - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Many want to know what bitcoin is and how it works. But bitcoin is as complex as it is controversial, and relatively few have the technical background to understand it. In this paper, I offer an accessible on-ramp for understanding bitcoin in the form of a model. My model reveals both what bitcoin is and how it works. More specifically, it reveals that bitcoin is a fictional substance in a massively coauthored story on a network that automates and distributes jobs (...)
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  16. Learning as Hypothesis Testing: Learning Conditional and Probabilistic Information.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Complex constraints like conditionals ('If A, then B') and probabilistic constraints ('The probability that A is p') pose problems for Bayesian theories of learning. Since these propositions do not express constraints on outcomes, agents cannot simply conditionalize on the new information. Furthermore, a natural extension of conditionalization, relative information minimization, leads to many counterintuitive predictions, evidenced by the sundowners problem and the Judy Benjamin problem. Building on the notion of a `paradigm shift' and empirical research in psychology and economics, I (...)
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  17. El Realismo Pictórico de los modelos económicos. [REVIEW]Agustina Borella - 2016 - Revista Perspectivas de Las Ciencias Económicas y Jurídicas 6:99-105.
    En su reciente obra Tony Lawson nos invita a recorrer una vez más un análisis detallado de los problemas de la economía como ciencia, y en particular del modelar matemático. Intenta responder a preguntas como ¿qué hacen los economistas académicos modernos?, ¿qué es actualmente la economía mainstream?, ¿qué esla economía neoclásica y qué la heterodoxa?, ¿cómo se relacionan las preocupaciones de los economistas modernos con aquellas que tradicionalmente consideraba la disciplina? y ¿cómo llegó la economía a su estado actual?
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  18. How Thin Rational Choice Theory Explains Choices.Roberto Fumagalli - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:63-74.
    The critics of rational choice theory (RCT) frequently build on the contrast between so-called thick and thin applications of RCT to argue that thin RCT lacks the potential to explain the choices of real-world agents. In this paper, I draw on often-cited RCT applications in several decision sciences to demonstrate that despite this prominent critique there are at least two different senses in which thin RCT can explain real-world agents’ choices. I then defend this thesis against the most influential objections (...)
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  19. Avicenna and the Contest of Healing: Medical Crises and the Body Politic Metaphor in the Canon of Medicine.Glen Cooper - forthcoming - In Kadircan H. Keskinbora (ed.), Revisiting Ibn Sina’s Heritage. Bern, Switzerland:
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  20. On Morita Equivalence and Interpretability.Paul Anh Mceldowney - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (2):388-415.
    In a recent article, Barrett & Halvorson define a notion of equivalence for first-order theories, which they call “Morita equivalence.” To argue that Morita equivalence is a reasonable measure of “theoretical equivalence,” they make use of the claim that Morita extensions “say no more” than the theories they are extending. The goal of this article is to challenge this central claim by raising objections to their argument for it and by showing why there is good reason to think that the (...)
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  21. Against Neuroscience Imperialism.Roberto Fumagalli - 2017 - In Uskali Mäki, Adrian Walsh & Manuela Fernández Pinto (eds.), Scientific Imperialism: Exploring the Boundaries of Interdisciplinarity. pp. 205-223.
    In recent years, several authors advocated neuroscience imperialism, an instance of scientific imperialism whereby neuroscience methods and findings are systematically applied to model and explain phenomena investigated by other disciplines. Calls for neuroscience imperialism target a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, economics, and philosophy. To date, however, neuroscience imperialism has not received detailed attention by philosophers, and the debate concerning its identification and normative assessment is relatively underdeveloped. In this paper, I aim to remedy this situation by making some (...)
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  22. Knowledge Transfer in Theoretical Ecology: Implications for Incommensurability, Voluntarism, and Pluralism.Justin Donhauser & Jamie Shaw - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 77:11-20.
    Well-known epistemologies of science have implications for how best to understand knowledge transfer (KT). Yet, to date, no serious attempt has been made explicate these particular implications. This paper infers views about KT from two popular epistemologies; what we characterize as incommensurabilitist views (after Devitt 2001; Bird 2002, 2008; Sankey and Hoyningen-Huene 2013) and voluntarist views (after van Fraassen 1984; Dupré 2001; Chakravartty 2015). We argue views of the former sort define the methodological, ontological, and social conditions under which research (...)
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  23. In Defence of Armchair Expertise.Theodore Bach - 2019 - Theoria 85 (5):350-382.
    In domains like stock brokerage, clinical psychiatry, and long‐term political forecasting, experts generally fail to outperform novices. Empirical researchers agree on why this is: experts must receive direct or environmental learning feedback during training to develop reliable expertise, and these domains are deficient in this type of feedback. A growing number of philosophers resource this consensus view to argue that, given the absence of direct or environmental philosophical feedback, we should not give the philosophical intuitions or theories of expert philosophers (...)
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  24. Capturing the Scientific Imagination.Fiora Salis & Roman Frigg - 2016 - In Peter Godfrey-Smith & Arnon Levy (eds.), The Scientific Imagination. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
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  25. In Search of Space: Fourier Spectroscopy, 1950-1970.Sean F. Johnston - 2001 - In B. Joerges & T. Shinn (eds.), Instrumentation: Between Science, State and Industry, Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 121-141.
    In the large grey area between science and technology, specialisms emerge with associated specialists. But some specialisms remain ‘peripheral sciences’, never attaining the status of disciplines ensconced in universities, and their specialists do not become recognised professionals. A major social component of such side-lined sciences – one important grouping of techno-scientific workers – is the research-technology community. An important question concerning research-technology is to explain how the grouping survives without specialised disciplinary and professional affiliations. The case discussed illustrates the dynamics (...)
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  26. J. R. Shoenheld. Applications of Model Theory to Degrees of Unsolvability. The Theory of Models, Proceedings of the 1963 International Symposium at Berkeley, Edited by J. W. Addison, Leon Henkin, and Alfred Tarski, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam1965, Pp. 359–363. [REVIEW]Gerald E. Sacks - 1972 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):610-611.
  27. Infinity and the Foundations of Linguistics.Ryan Nefdt - 2019 - Synthese 196 (5):1671-1711.
    The concept of linguistic infinity has had a central role to play in foundational debates within theoretical linguistics since its more formal inception in the mid-twentieth century. The conceptualist tradition, marshalled in by Chomsky and others, holds that infinity is a core explanandum and a link to the formal sciences. Realism/Platonism takes this further to argue that linguistics is in fact a formal science with an abstract ontology. In this paper, I argue that a central misconstrual of formal apparatus of (...)
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  28. Radical Pluralism, Classificatory Norms and the Legitimacy of Species Classifications.Stijn Conix - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 73:27-34.
    Moderate pluralism is a popular position in contemporary philosophy of biology. Despite its popularity, various authors have argued that it tends to slide off off into a radical form of pluralism that is both normatively and descriptively ueptable. This paper looks at at the case of biological species classification, and evaluates a popular way of avoiding radical pluralism by relying on the shared aims and norms of a discipline. The main contention is that while these aims and norms may play (...)
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  29. Keeping Globally Inconsistent Scientific Theories Locally Consistent.Michele Friend & María del Rosario Martínez-Ordaz - 2018 - In Walter Carnielli & Jacek Malinowski (eds.), Contradictions, from Consistency to Inconsistency. pp. 53-88.
    Most scientific theories are globally inconsistent. Chunk and Permeate is a method of rational reconstruction that can be used to separate, and identify, locally consistent chunks of reasoning or explanation. This then allows us to justify reasoning in a globally inconsistent theory. We extend chunk and permeate by adding a visually transparent way of guiding the individuation of chunks and deciding on what information permeates from one chunk to the next. The visual representation is in the form of bundle diagrams. (...)
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  30. Modeling Epistemic Communities.Samuli Reijula & Jaakko Kuorikoski - forthcoming - In Miranda Fricker, Peter J. Graham, David Henderson & Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. Routledge.
    We review the most prominent modeling approaches in social epistemology aimed at understand- ing the functioning of epistemic communities and provide a philosophy of science perspective on the use and interpretation of such simple toy models, thereby suggesting how they could be integrated with conceptual and empirical work. We highlight the need for better integration of such models with relevant findings from disciplines such as social psychology and organization studies.
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  31. What Distinguishes Data From Models?Sabina Leonelli - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9 (2):22.
    I propose a framework that explicates and distinguishes the epistemic roles of data and models within empirical inquiry through consideration of their use in scientific practice. After arguing that Suppes’ characterization of data models falls short in this respect, I discuss a case of data processing within exploratory research in plant phenotyping and use it to highlight the difference between practices aimed to make data usable as evidence and practices aimed to use data to represent a specific phenomenon. I then (...)
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  32. From Galileo to Hubble: Copernican Principle as a Philosophical Dogma Defining Modern Astronomy.Spyridon Kakos - 2018 - International Journal of Theology, Philosophy and Science 2 (3):13-37.
    For centuries the case of Galileo Galilei has been the cornerstone of every major argument against the church and its supposedly unscientific dogmatism. The church seems to have condemned Galileo for his heresies, just because it couldn’t and wouldn’t handle the truth. Galileo was a hero of science wrongfully accused and now – at last – everyone knows that. But is that true? This paper tries to examine the case from the point of modern physics and the conclusions drawn are (...)
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  33. Metaphor in Science.Hossein Dabbagh - 2014 - Tehran, Tehran Province, Iran: Hermes Publisher.
    In this thesis I am going to explain the role of metaphor in articulation of new scientific theories, explicitly speaking, indeed, I have not a word about metaphorical thinking in theory invention, implicitly speaking. In fact, I talk about conceptual metaphor instead of linguistic metaphor. As another classification, this investigation belongs to “justification context”, rather than “discovery context”. Employing Boyd’ ideas on metaphor in science can lend a hand for acquiring this point. In Boyd’ set of beliefs; we need another (...)
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  34. Modelling Inequality.Karim P. Y. Thebault, Seamus Bradley & Alexander Reutlinger - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (3):691-718.
    Econophysics is a new and exciting cross-disciplinary research field that applies models and modelling techniques from statistical physics to economic systems. It is not, however, without its critics: prominent figures in more mainstream economic theory have criticized some elements of the methodology of econophysics. One of the main lines of criticism concerns the nature of the modelling assumptions and idealizations involved, and a particular target are ‘kinetic exchange’ approaches used to model the emergence of inequality within the distribution of individual (...)
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  35. What Do Symmetries Tell Us About Structure?Thomas William Barrett - 2017 - Philosophy of Science (4):617-639.
    Mathematicians, physicists, and philosophers of physics often look to the symmetries of an object for insight into the structure and constitution of the object. My aim in this paper is to explain why this practice is successful. In order to do so, I present a collection of results that are closely related to (and in a sense, generalizations of) Beth’s and Svenonius’ theorems.
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  36. Which is the Best Model of the Universe?Martin Sahlén - 2016 - Culture and Dialogue 4 (1):152-169.
    Modern scientific cosmology pushes the boundaries of knowledge and the knowable. This is prompting questions on the nature of scientific knowledge, and the emergence of the new field “Philosophy of Cosmology.” One central issue is what defines a “good” model. I discuss how “good” models are conventionally chosen, and how those methods operate in data-sparse situations: enabling the implicit introduction of value judgments, which can determine inference and lead to inferential polarization, e.g., on the question of ultimate explanation. Additional dimensions (...)
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  37. Philosophy of Science A to Z, Arabic Translation فلسفة العلم من الألف إلى الياء.Salah Osman - 2018 - Cairo, Cairo Governorate, Egypt: Ministry of Culture, National Center for Translation.
    دليل مُرتَّب أبجديًا للمصطلحات الأساسية، وكذلك لأشهر الأعلام، في المجالات المختلفة لفلسفة العلم. يُغطي الكتاب أبرز المشكلات، والمواقف، والتصورات، والحجج التي كانت مثار مناقشات واسعة بين الفلاسفة. والهدف الأساسي له هو فهم المناقشات الحالية من خلال تتبع وتفسير تطوراتها التاريخية وارتباطاتها بالمسائل الفلسفية الأبعد. ومع أن الكتاب يفترض مسبقًا وجود خلفية معرفية بفلسفة العلم لدى القارئ، إلا أنه مفيد بالقدر ذاته لكل من المبتدئين من دارسي فلسفة العلم، والمتخصصين ذوي الخبرات الواسعة، فضلاً عن عامة القُراء. وسوف يجد القارئ من خلال (...)
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  38. Modelling in Applied Physics: The Case of Polymers.Towfic Shomar - 2006 - Dirasat, Pure Science 33 (2):241-250.
    Until recently philosophy of physics has been overshadowed by the idea that the important philosophical issues that can be derived from physics are related only to fundamental theories, such as quantum mechanics and relativity. Applied fields of physics were deemed as unimportant. The argument for such a position lays in thinking that these applied fields of physics depend in their theoretical representations on fundamental theories and hence are reducible to these fundamental theories. It would be hard to defend such a (...)
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  39. An Architectonic for Science. Wolfgang Balzer, C. Ulises Moulines, Joseph D. Sneed.Peter Kroes - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (2):349-350.
  40. The Structure of Scientific Theories. Frederick R. Suppe.C. A. Hooker - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (1):107-107.
  41. Black Holes, Black Scholes, and Prairie Voles: An Essay Review of Simulation and Similarity by Michael Weisberg. [REVIEW]Cailin O'Connor & James Owen Weatherall - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (4):613-626.
    An essay review of Michael Weisberg's Simulation and Similarity.
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  42. The Model-Based View of Scientific Theories and the Structuring of School Science Programmes.Maria Develaki - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):725-749.
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  43. The Relation Between Idealisation and Approximation in Scientific Model Construction.Demetris P. Portides - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):699-724.
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  44. The Role of Models and Analogies in the Electromagnetic Theory: A Historical Case Study.Cibelle Celestino Silva - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):835-848.
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  45. Models and Modelling in Physics Education: A Critical Re-Analysis of Philosophical Underpinnings and Suggestions for Revisions.Ismo Tapio Koponen - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):751-773.
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  46. González, Ed. 2014. Bas van Fraassen’s Approach to Representation and Models in Science.Xavier de Donato - 2015 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 30 (3):467-470.
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  47. SECCIÓN MONOGRÁFICA: Scientific Representation. Introduction.José DÍEZ & Roman Frigg - 2010 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 21 (1):49-65.
    Models represent their target systems in one way or another. But what does it mean for a model to represent something beyond itself? This paper details different aspects of this problem and argues that the semantic view of theories does not provide us with an adequate response to any of these.
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  48. Modelling as Indirect Representation? The Lotka–Volterra Model Revisited.Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):1007-1036.
    ABSTRACT Is there something specific about modelling that distinguishes it from many other theoretical endeavours? We consider Michael Weisberg’s thesis that modelling is a form of indirect representation through a close examination of the historical roots of the Lotka–Volterra model. While Weisberg discusses only Volterra’s work, we also study Lotka’s very different design of the Lotka–Volterra model. We will argue that while there are elements of indirect representation in both Volterra’s and Lotka’s modelling approaches, they are largely due to two (...)
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  49. The Rise of General Theories in Contemporary Science.Ervin Laszlo - 1973 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 4 (2):335-344.
    The developmental trend in many fields of contemporary science is toward integrated general theories. These trends are viewed as essential components of the nature of science rather than expressions of arbitrary preferences of scientists. The law-like factors which lead science toward reliance on general theories include empirical as well as rational components. A model is proposed which exhibits the balance of the relevant factors as calling for increasing use of theories the primitive terms of which are progressively more abstract and (...)
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  50. Finalization and Completed Theories.Stig Alstrup Rasmussen - 1982 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 13 (2):359-369.
    Summary According to the so-called Starnberger Group1, the amenability of a science to science policy measures, conceptualised by the Group in terms of finalization , depends crucially on conditions intrinsic to the science not invariably present at every stage of its development. Finalization is possible only at junctures where the science in question faces methodologically divergent alternative lines of development. The most significant kind of case depends on the presence of completed , or classical , theories.
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