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Summary Philosophical study of Ecology and Conservation Biology is a growing part of Philosophy of Science. Ecology and Conservation Biology are closely-related branches of biology. Ecology studies interactions between groups of organisms and among those groups and their environments. The questions of Conservation Biology arise from efforts to preserve groups of organisms or other biological units like ecosystems. Many of the questions in this area arise from more general questions in philosophy of science like the role of laws, the structure of explanations, the challenges of representation. The specific kinds of complexity arising from the interactions of so many and such different living organisms as are typical of ecological research make Ecology and Conservation Biology fruitful terrain for examining how scientists can represent complexity in a manageable way. Moreover, these biological disciplines are also appealed to in decision making, at scales from the management of a wetland to the development of international climate-change agreements. Some philosophers of science address biologists' capacities to answer the questions arising in these contexts, given the achievements and limitations of these complex sciences.
Key works An early monograph connecting ecology and conservation was Shrader-Frechette 1993. Cooper 2003 was the first monograph in philosophy of science focused on ecology.
Introductions Justus 2013 is an introduction to problems and debates in Philosophy of Ecology written for Biology instructors and other educators, but more generally useful for non-specialists. Colyvan et al 2009 surveys major issues in Philosophy of Ecology. Justus 2002 discusses prominent problems in Conservation Biology, and Sarkar 2004 is an introductory encyclopedia article on the same.
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  1. On the forms of harm stemming from the instrumentalization of large-scale ecosystems.Sarah Espinosa & S. I. Espinosa Flor - 2022 - Transforming Food Systems: Ethics, Innovation and Responsibility.
    One could argue that the use, extraction, and development of natural resources for human purposes, i.e. resource exploitation, constitutes a form of instrumentalization of the ecosystems from which these resources are derived. Moreover, that such instrumentalization may be carried out in a way that has adverse social and environmental impacts. Given that a number of ecosystems are indispensable for the satisfaction of human interests and needs, their instrumentalization may nevertheless be justified. In this context, if the amount and rate of (...)
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  2. Connection to Nature and the Case for Deep Ecology.Christian Diehm - 2022 - Ethics and the Environment 27 (2):59-81.
    Abstract:This essay argues for the continuing import and relevance of deep ecological philosophy by reading it together with explorations of connection to nature in the social sciences. It begins by clarifying deep ecological concepts of "identification" with nature. It then argues that these conceptualizations align with notions of human-nature connectedness employed by social scientists, and that empirical research largely corroborates deep ecologists' claims about the practical significance of a sense of connection to the natural world. Finally, it reviews literature discussing (...)
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  3. A Studies of Deep Ecology Thoughts.Yi Lei - unknown
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  4. Politics and Ecology among Calvino’s Trees.Serenella Iovino - 2022 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 29:55-67.
    This article examines one of Italo Calvino’s most beloved novels, (1957), contextualizing it in its landscape and exploring the multifaceted strands of its environmental creativity. Unsuspected paths of political ecology, environmental history, and even biosemiotics and plant neurophysiology will emerge, thus showing the timeliness and clairvoyance of his books vis-à-vis our planetary crises. Written in a seminarrative form, this piece is an invitation to read literary works not only along with their landscapes, but their landscapes, and to consider the potential (...)
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  5. Ecology, labor, politics: Violence in Arendt’s Vita Activa.Dawn Herrera - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-23.
    Hannah Arendt famously argued that acts of violence are corrosive to a free and plural politics. However, the broader implications of her critique of violence are less well known. Reading her concept of violence comprehensively, with regard to (ostensibly non-political) labor and work as well as action, this article reveals its broader relevance for contemporary political thought: the political question of violence lies at the heart of our ecological crisis and is crucial for the social structure of labor domination. While (...)
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  6. FUCHS, THOMAS, Ecology of the Brain. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2017, 370 pp. [REVIEW]José Ignacio Murillo - 2018 - Anuario Filosófico 51 (3):598-601.
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  7. The Katu spirit landscape: forests, ecology, and cosmology in the central Annamites.Nikolas Århem - 2022 - In Chris Coggins & Bixia Chen (eds.), Sacred Forests of Asia: Spiritual Ecology and the Politics of Nature Conservation. Routledge.
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  8. Sacred Forests of Asia: Spiritual Ecology and the Politics of Nature Conservation.Chris Coggins & Bixia Chen (eds.) - 2022 - New York: Routledge.
    Presenting a thorough examination of the sacred forests of Asia, this volume engages with dynamic new scholarly dialogues on the nature of sacred space, place, landscape, and ecology in the context of the sharply contested ideas of the Anthropocene. Given the vast geographic range of sacred groves in Asia, this volume discusses the diversity of associated cosmologies, ecologies, traditional local resource management practices, and environmental governance systems developed during the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial periods. Adopting theoretical perspectives from political ecology, (...)
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  9. Introduction - The political ecology of resource and energy management beyond the state.Jennifer Mateer, Simon Springer & Martin Locret-Collet - 2021 - In Jennifer Mateer, Simon Springer, Martin Locret-Collet & Maleea Acker (eds.), Energies Beyond the State: Anarchist Political Ecology and the Liberation of Nature. Rowman & Littlefield.
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  10. Energies Beyond the State: Anarchist Political Ecology and the Liberation of Nature.Jennifer Mateer, Simon Springer, Martin Locret-Collet & Maleea Acker (eds.) - 2021 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
    This volume contributes to advancing an 'ecology of freedom,' which can critique current anthropocentric environmental destruction, as well as focusing on environmental justice and decentralized ecological governance.
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  11. The synthetic thesis of truth helps mitigate the reproducibility crisis and is an inspiration for predictive ecology.Luis Marone, Javier Lopez de Casenave & Rafael González del Solar - 2019 - Revista de Humanidades de Valparaíso 14:363-376.
    There are currently serious concerns that published scientific findings often fail to be reproducible, and that some solutions may be gleaned by attending the several methodological and sociological recommendations that could be found in the literature. However, researchers would also arrive at some answers by considering the advice of the philosophy of science, particularly semantics, about theses on truth related to scientific realism. Sometimes scientists understand the correspondence thesis of truth as asserting that the next unique empirical confirmation of a (...)
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  12. Open Data requirements for applied ecology and conservation: case study of a wide-ranging marine vertebrate.Gail Schofield - 2017 - Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics 17:19-27.
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  13. Climate Change and Conservation Biology as it Relates to Urban Environments.Samantha Noll & Michael Goldsby - 2020 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 25 (2).
    Climate change continues to have recognizable impacts across the globe, as weather patterns shift and impacts accumulate and intensify. In this wider context, urban areas face significant challenges as they attempt to mitigate dynamic changes at the local level — changes such as those caused by intensifying weather events, the disruption of critical supplies, and the deterioration of local ecosystems. One field that could help urban areas address these challenges is conservation biology. However, this paper presents the argument that work (...)
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  14. 1 Ecology.Mireille Rosello & Timothy Saunders - 2022 - In Johan Schimanski & Stephen F. Wolfe (eds.), Border Aesthetics: Concepts and Intersections. Berghahn Books. pp. 25-49.
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  15. The Unconstructable Earth: An Ecology of Separation by Frédéric Neyrat.David Utsler - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (2):404-406.
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  16. The Call of the Hoatzin: Ecology, Evolution, and Eugenics at the Bronx Zoo.Katherine McLeod - 2022 - Centaurus 64 (3):683-704.
    From 1908 to 1922, William Beebe, the curator of birds at the Bronx Zoo, tried unsuccessfully to bring tropical birds known as hoatzin to the zoological park in the Bronx run by the New York Zoological Society. Beebe was committed to bringing hoatzin to the zoo because he thought they could reveal scientific truths about ecology and evolution to him and the visiting public. While contemporary scholarship about zoo science in the United States has focused on how environmental conservation shaped (...)
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  17. Martin Heidegger’s ‘Dasein’ in an Emerging Digital Ecology.Ben van Lier - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-24.
    We are currently in the middle of the transformation from Martin Heidegger’s modern society to a society based on digital technology. In the developing digital society, humans in their current state of ‘Being’ are increasingly surrounded by systems that are networked and run based on algorithms, software, and data. These interconnected systems function, communicate, and interact in networks and driven by these algorithms, software, and data, which give them the ability to connect, calculate, and reveal. Jointly, these systems thus create (...)
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  18. Zhongguo huan jing wen ti de wen hua guan sheng si yu jue ze.Fengzi Jia - 2013 - Dalian: Dalian hai shi da xue chu ban she.
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  19. Linking Ecology and Ethics for a Changing World: Values, Philosophy, and Action.Juan J. Armesto, J. Baird Callicott, Clare Palmer, S. T. A. Pickett & Ricardo Rozzi (eds.) - 2013 - Dordrecht: Imprint: Springer.
    Ecological sciences have informed environmental ethics from its inception as a scholarly pursuit in the 1970s-so much so that we now have ecological ethics, Deep Ecology, and ecofeminism. Throughout the 20th century, however, most ecologists remained enthralled by the myth that science is value-free. Closer study of science by philosophers reveals that metaphors are inescapable and cognitively indispensable to science, but that metaphors are value-laden. As we confront the enormous challenges of the 21st century-the prospect of a 6th mass extinction, (...)
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  20. Environmental Philosophy: the Art of Life in a World of Limits.Liam Leonard, John Barry, Marius de Geus, Peter Doran & Graham Parkes (eds.) - 2013 - United Kingdom: Emerald.
    What impact are we having on the environment around us? How can we limit the effect of human life on the natural world? These questions and more are considered in 'Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice' volume 13, which looks at environmental philosophy, humanity's place in the world, and how we can live in harmony with our planet.
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  21. The ecology of others.Philippe Descola - 2013 - Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.
    Since the end of the nineteenth century, the division between nature and culture has been fundamental to Western thought. In this groundbreaking work, renowned anthropologist Philippe Descola seeks to break down this divide, arguing for a departure from the anthropocentric model and its rigid dualistic conception of nature and culture as distinct phenomena. In its stead, Descola proposes a radical new worldview, in which beings and objects, human and nonhuman, are understood through the complex relationships that they possess with one (...)
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  22. Lewin’s “Psychological Ecology” and the Boundary of the Psychological Domain.Harry Heft - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiae:189-210.
    The Gestalt psychologist Kurt Lewin called for a “psychological ecology” that would bring to light the social structures serving as the context for individual action and choice in everyday life. He envisioned social and physical environmental structures affecting the individual at a “boundary” within psychological experience (“the life space”). But how are we to conceptualize the manner in which such environmental structures influence individual experience and action? After all, the “nonpsychological” and the psychological domains are typically framed in quite different (...)
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  23. Huan jing zhe xue: huan jing lun li de kua xue ke yan jiu = ENVIRONMENTAL PHILOSOPHY.Zhengping Wang - 2014 - Shanghai Shi: Shanghai jiao yu chu ban she.
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  24. Ecology and the origin of species.D. Schluter - 2014 - In Francisco José Ayala & John C. Avise (eds.), Essential readings in evolutionary biology. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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  25. Para uma filosofia ecológica.Graciano António Manuel Kalukango - 2014 - Luanda: Qualifica Editora.
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  26. Lewin’s “Psychological Ecology” and the Boundary of the Psychological Domain.Harry Heft - 2022 - Philosophia Scientiae 26:189-210.
    The Gestalt psychologist Kurt Lewin called for a “psychological ecology” that would bring to light the social structures serving as the context for individual action and choice in everyday life. He envisioned social and physical environmental structures affecting the individual at a “boundary” within psychological experience. But how are we to conceptualize the manner in which such environmental structures influence individual experience and action? After all, the “nonpsychological” and the psychological domains are typically framed in quite different conceptual language, and, (...)
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  27. What Has Hybridity Got to Do with Ecology? What Christian-Buddhist Hybridity-as-Hermeneutical-Lens Can Suggest to the Theological Conversation on Ecology.Julius-Kei Kato - 2022 - Buddhist-Christian Studies 42 (1):105-117.
    Abstractabstract:This essay offers some insights that "hybridity" utilized as a hermeneutical paradigm might contribute to the wider theological conversations going on about the global ecological crisis. The hybridity in question here is—what can be expressed as a—"Christian-Buddhist hybridity." That refers to a sensibility that seriously takes into consideration the two spiritual–religious traditions of Christianity and Buddhism as a "hybrid way" to view the world in general and spiritual–religious–theological themes in particular.This study will argue that, despite the significant gains in the (...)
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  28. Sheng tai hua zong he: yi zhong xin de shi jie guan = Eco-synthesis: a new worldview.Daixing Tang - 2015 - Beijing Shi: Zhong yang bian yi chu ban she.
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  29. Vittorio Hösles Umweltphilosophie im Kontext der Nachhaltigkeitsidee: Wege eines suffizienzorientierten Paradigmenwechsels für ein erneuertes Naturverhältnis.Mathias Schneider - 2015 - Berlin: Lit.
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  30. L'âme de la nature.Jean-Marie Pelt - 2015 - [Bruxelles]: Genèse édition.
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  31. Radikale Ökologie.Christof Mackinger - 2015 - Münster: Unrast.
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  32. Scienza infelice: filosofia ed ecologia, oggi.Edvige Di Ronza - 2015 - Roma: Aracne editrice S.r.l..
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  33. Toward a unified ecology.T. F. H. Allen - 2015 - New York: Columbia University Press.
    The principles of ecological integration -- The landscape criterion -- The ecosystem criterion -- The community criterion -- The organism criterion -- The population criterion -- The biome and biosphere criteria -- Narratives for complexity -- Management of ecological systems -- A unified approach to basic research.
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  34. Balancing Food Security & Ecological Resilience in the Age of the Anthropocene.Samantha Noll - 2018 - In Sarah Kenehan & Erinn Gilson (eds.), Food, Environment, and Climate Change. New York, NY, USA:
    Climate change increasingly impacts the resilience of ecosystems and agricultural production. On the one hand, changing weather patterns negatively affect crop yields and thus global food security. Indeed, we live in an age where more than one billion people are going hungry, and this number is expected to rise as climate-induced change continues to displace communities and thus separate them from their means of food production (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 2015). In this context, if one accepts a humancentric ethic, then (...)
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  35. Theory-based ecology: a Darwinian approach.Liz Pásztor - 2016 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
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  36. Applied natural science: environmental issues and global perspectives.Mark D. Goldfein - 2016 - Waretown, NJ, USA: Apple Academic Press.
    Applied Natural Science: Environmental Issues and Global Perspectives will provide the reader with a complete insight into the natural-scientific pattern of the world, covering the most important historical stages of the development of various areas of science, methods of natural-scientific research, general scientific and philosophical concepts, and the fundamental laws of nature. The book analyzes the main scientific trends and developments of modern natural science and also discusses important aspects of environmental protection. Topics include: the problem of "the two cultures": (...)
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  37. Romantic Empiricism: Nature, Art, and Ecology From Herder to Humboldt.Dalia Nassar - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
    Nassar distinguishes an understudied philosophical tradition that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, traces its development, and argues for its continued significance. She shows how four key thinkers, whom she calls the 'romantic empiricists', developed a distinctive approach to the study of nature, which culminated in an ecological understanding of nature and the human place within it. Nassar contends that the romantic empiricist insights and approaches remain crucial for us today, as we seek to address (...)
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  38. Reflexe environmentální problematiky v dějinách české a slovenské filosofie.Petr Jemelka - 2016 - Praha: Filosofia.
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  39. Układy biotyczne w interpretacji fizyków.Mirosław Twardowski - 2017 - Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego.
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  40. Politics and Ecology among Calvino’s Trees.Serenella Iovino - 2022 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 29:55-67.
    This article examines one of Italo Calvino’s most beloved novels, (1957), contextualizing it in its landscape and exploring the multifaceted strands of its environmental creativity. Unsuspected paths of political ecology, environmental history, and even biosemiotics and plant neurophysiology will emerge, thus showing the timeliness and clairvoyance of his books vis-à-vis our planetary crises. Written in a seminarrative form, this piece is an invitation to read literary works not only along with their landscapes, but their landscapes, and to consider the potential (...)
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  41. Complex ecology: foundational perspectives on dynamic approaches to ecology and conservation.Charles G. Curtin & T. F. H. Allen (eds.) - 2018 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Most of us came into ecology with memories of special personal places. A cliff top that Claude Monet might have painted. Allen as a youth spent his holidays on the Dorset Coast near Swanage; he can still smell the sea breeze of his childhood. Curtin grow up on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin, the dew of the grass and the bright green on a June morning remains vivid. The catching of reptiles and insects for him awakened a curiosity about the (...)
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  42. Ecology, ethics, and interdependence: the Dalai Lama in conversation with leading thinkers on climate change. Bstan-ʼdzin-Rgya-Mtsho - 2018 - Somerville, MA, USA: Wisdom Publications.
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  43. Décroissance, ou, Toujours plus?: penser l'écologie jusqu'au bout.Alain de Benoist - 2018 - Paris: Pierre-Guillaume de Roux.
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  44. Heidegger: phenomenology, ecology, politics.Michael Marder - 2018 - Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  45. Ecosophical aesthetics: art, ethics and ecology with Guattari.Patricia MacCormack & Colin Gardner (eds.) - 2018 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Inspired by the ecosophical writings of Felix Guattari, this book explores the many ways that aesthetics - in the forms of visual art, film, sculpture, painting, literature, and the screenplay - can act as catalysts, allowing us to see the world differently, beyond traditional modes of representation. This is in direct parallel to Guattari's own attempt to break down the 19th century Kantian dialectic between man, art, and world, in favour of a non-hierarchical, transversal approach, to produce a more ethical (...)
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  46. Eco-philosophy and harmony of nature: collected works of Dr Thomas Manickam, CMI.Thomas Manickam - 2019 - Bangalore, India: Dharmaram Publications.
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  47. Stranger, creature, thing, other: monstrous reflections on our ecostential crisis.Clint Jones - 2019 - Stevens Point, Wisconsin: Cornerstone Press.
    1. Marx's monstrous ecostential imagination -- 2. Stranger: consuming the nature of monstrosity -- 3. Creature: the nature of domination on the margins -- 4. Thing: hauntology as a study of inheritance -- 5. Other: disconnection and a critique of the natural self -- 6. Enchantment and the madness of science -- Final thoughts.
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  48. The unconstructable earth: an ecology of separation.Frédéric Neyrat - 2019 - New York, NY: Fordham University Press.
  49. Nature in the anthropocene : political science meets ecology debates.Susan Baker - 2019 - In Manuel Arias-Maldonado & Zev M. Trachtenberg (eds.), Rethinking the environment for the anthropocene: political theory and socionatural relations in the new geological epoch. Routledge.
  50. Bleak joys: aesthetics of ecology and impossibility.Matthew Fuller - 2019 - London: University of Minnesota Press.
    Devastation -- Anguish -- Irresolvability -- Luck -- Plant -- Home -- Coda.
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