Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1990 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are Van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1904, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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  1. The Metaphysics of Physics From the Perspective of Sri Aurobindo’s Cosmology.Marco Masi - manuscript
    The rationale of our study is to question whether the observation of the physical world from the standpoint of the mystic experience could furnish some ontological indications of the structure of the world itself. Taking perspectives from the states of consciousness described by mystics may furnish us with a deeper understanding of the material and metaphysical character of physical categories such as matter, energy, force, space, time and space-time. We chose as a particularly interesting case study the spiritual cosmology of (...)
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  2. El sentido de La docta ignorancia desde su reconstrucción crítica: la propuesta de un pluralismo religioso y la reestimación del cosmos.Daniel Caballero López - 2022 - Devenires 1 (45):9-40.
    El presente artículo tiene por propósito construir una interpretación de La docta ignorancia de Nicolás de Cusa que articula su contexto histórico-cultural con la obra para ofrecer un sentido: la limitación de la razón humana para aprehender una verdad absoluta y las propuestas de una armonía interreligiosa y una reestimación del cosmos como consecuencias. Ello implica (I) reconstruir el horizonte sobre el cual surge y con el cual dialoga Nicolás de Cusa; (II) elaborar una interpretación crítica de La docta ignorancia (...)
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  3. Fondamenti sonori del logos. Distribuzioni di senso all'interno dell'impero visuale.Elia Gonnella - 2020 - Illuminazioni. Rivista di Lingua, Letteratura E Comunicazione 54:48-74.
    The relationship between knowledge and vision seems really consolidated. It started in ancient Greece and we can found its basis in Plato. The history of logos as reason and as western foundation of culture gives us enormous examples in terms of metaphors and approaches in the knowledge-vision relationship. «I see it» is like «I know it». However if we look at the basis of logos we find the deep meaning of gathering, composition, bond and bind (lèghein), so as to we (...)
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  4. Aproximación a la ontología de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman.Manuel Ángel González Berruga - 2022 - Madrid: Apeirón Ediciones.
    El objetivo del presente trabajo es ofrecer una aproximación al modelo ontológico de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman, adheridos al movimiento del nuevo realismo o realismo especulativo, destacando los aciertos e insuficiencias que presentan los modelos. La tesis del trabajo defiende que los aportes de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman sobre ontología suponen un cambio de perspectiva que aporta elementos para la reflexión y crítica que permiten superar algunos de los elementos en los que se había anclado la filosofía continental, (...)
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  5. Striving (Conatus).Valtteri Viljanen - manuscript
    The entry on striving (conatus) for the Cambridge Spinoza Lexicon, edited by Karolina Hübner and Justin Steinberg. This is the October 2021 draft; please do not quote, but comments are very welcome.
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  6. Milet Okulu Doğa Filozofları Bağlamında Tanrının İmkânı.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2016 - Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (43):1329-1333.
    Bu makalede Milet Okulu Filozofları ve ilk materyalistler olarak anılan Thales, Anaksimandros ve Anaksimenes’in ontolojileriyle ilişkili olarak arkhe arayışı içerisinde tanrıyla ilgili görüşlerine yer verilecektir. Bazı düşünürler tarafından tanrı tanımaz olarak nitelendirilen Miletli filozofların evrenin ilk maddesi nedir sorusuna vermiş oldukları yanıtların aslında o dönemki Antik Yunan din anlayışıyla bazı önemli noktalarda bağdaştığı gösterilecektir. Makalenin sonunda bu düşünürlerin kendilerine ait bir teoloji ve tanrı düşüncesine sahip oldukları sonucuna varılacaktır. -/- In this article, ideas of the Milesian philosophers; Thales, Anaximandros and (...)
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  7. Ontologia del tra. Metamorfosi e incontro per un’antropologia fenomenologica.Elia Gonnella - 2021 - Itinera - Rivista di Filosofia E di Teoria Delle Arti 22:227-258.
    Metamorphosis seems problematic for our occidental point of view. Becoming in general is viewed as an error or exception by our classic standpoint. In fact, it is strongly against identity and law of non-contradiction: A is fundamentally something different from B and for A it is impossible to be at the same time B. We need to think A as what-becomes-B in order to make metamorphosis possible. Anyway, how can A become B? As a matter of fact, this very claim (...)
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  8. What You Are and Its Affects on Moral Status: Godman's Epistemology and Morality of Human Kinds, Gunkel's Robot Rights, and Schneider on Artificial You.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2021 - Human Rights Review 22 (4):525-531.
    Thanks to mounting discussion about projected technologies’ possibly altering the species mentally and physically, philosophical investigation of what human beings are proceeds robustly. Many thinkers contend that whatever we are has little to do with how we should behave. Yet, tampering with what the human being is may tread upon human rights to be whatever one is. Rights given in widely recognized documents such as the U.N. Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples assume what humans are and need depends (...)
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  9. Am Abgrund des Nichts und des Gotteswesens. Über das Problem einer angemessen fundierten Erklärung der Schöpfung und des Ursprungs des Universums.Luka Perušić - 2020 - In Damir Smiljanić (ed.), Gotteshinterfragungen. Philosophische Beiträge zur Religionskritik. Aschaffenburg, Germany: pp. 243-293.
    Die zentralen Fragestellungen bezüglich der wahren Beschaffenheit des Universums betreffen Folgendes: seinen Ursprung, seine Entstehung, die Existenz und Kontingenz seiner Gesetze, seine Intentionalität, Fassbarkeit, Transzendenz und die Anwendung erster Grundsätze, die diesen Phänomenen zugrunde liegen. Häufig sind die entsprechenden Untersuchungen jedoch belastet von (1) einer „semantischen Transmutation“ von Konzepten und Begriffen zwischen und innerhalb von drei allgemeinen Wissensfeldem - dem physikalischen, philosophischen und theologischen - sowie von (2) den Einschränkungen der anfänglichen Leitgedanken des Betrachters, die oft von skeptischen Annahmen geleitet (...)
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  10. Um estudo sobre os universais em Ideias I.Nathalie de la Cadena - 2017 - Aoristo International Journal of Phenomenology, Hermeneutics and Metaphysics 1 (2):43-62.
    A questão dos universais permanece tema na filosofia tanto na ontologia como na epistemologia. Em Husserl, há universais particulares, o ‘X’ noemático, o idêntico, e universais stricto sensu, nomes universais atemporais. Neste artigo, apresento o tema conforme analisado por Husserl em Ideias I. Na primeira seção, descrevo a trajetória até os universais destacando o paralelismo entre noese e noema. Na segunda seção, traço o reflexo para a filosofia da linguagem também afetada pela correspondência noético-noemática. Na terceira e última seção, mostro (...)
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  11. Prison Break? In Defense of Correlationism.Emanuel Rutten - manuscript
    A core presumption of object oriented ontology and other speculative realisms is that there is a world independent of the mind that can be successfully inquired and should take center stage in our reflections again. A profound case for this realist presumption is found in Meillassoux’s After Finitude. He aims to secure our access to reality as it is in itself by refuting correlationism according to which we cannot escape reality as it is thought by us. He presents three arguments: (...)
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  12. Spinoza’s Actualist Model of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2009 - In Juhani Pietarinen & Valtteri Viljanen (eds.), The World as Active Power: Studies in the History of European Reason. Leiden: Brill. pp. 213–228.
    In addition to the notion of power (potentia), Spinoza employs the notion of power of acting (agendi potentia), especially in the Ethics. This raises the question, if Spinoza uses both ‘power’ and ‘power of acting’, what is the difference between the two? What else could power be, for Spinoza, but power of acting? What is the relationship between power and activity in his system? This essays aims at giving answers to these questions; thereby emerges what may be called an actualist (...)
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  13. A Primer on Bartlett's CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON.Steven James Bartlett - 2021 - Willamette Univesity Faculty Research Website.
    This is a primer on Steven James Bartlett's book CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON: HORIZONS OF POSSIBILITY AND MEANING. ●●●●● -/- Some books are long and complex. The Critique of Impure Reason is such a book. It is long enough and complex enough so that it may be a service to some readers to offer a primer to introduce and partially summarize the book’s objectives and method. Here, the author of Critique of Impure Reason: Horizons of Possibility and Meaning provides such (...)
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  14. Spinoza’s Ontology Geometrically Illustrated: A Reading of Ethics IIP8S.Valtteri Viljanen - 2018 - In Spinoza’s Philosophy of Ratio. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 5-18.
    This essay offers an in-depth reading of the geometrical illustration of Ethics IIP8S and shows how it can be used to explicate the whole architecture of Spinoza’s system by specifying the way in which all the key structural features of his basic ontology find their analogies in the example. The illustration can also throw light on Spinoza’s ontology of finite things and inform us about what is at stake when we form universal ideas. In general, my reading of IIP8S thus (...)
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  15. Spinoza’s Essentialism in the Short Treatise.Valtteri Viljanen - 2015 - In The Young Spinoza: A Metaphysician in the Making. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–195.
    This essay traces the rather consistent essentialist thread that runs through the whole Short Treatise. This allows us not only to better understand the work itself but also to obtain a firmer grasp of the nature of Spinoza’s entire philosophical enterprise. In many ways, the essentialism we find in the Short Treatise is in line with Spinoza’s mature thought; but there are also significant differences, and discerning them throws light on the development of Spinoza’s philosophy.
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  16. Spirit Calls Nature: Bridging Science and Spirituality, Consciousness and Evolution in a Synthesis of Knowledge.Marco Masi - 2021 - Indy Edition.
    This is a technical treatise for the scientific-minded readers trying to expand their intellectual horizon beyond the straitjacket of materialism. It is dedicated to those scientists and philosophers who feel there is something more, but struggle with connecting the dots into a more coherent picture supported by a way of seeing that allows us to overcome the present paradigm and yet maintains a scientific and conceptual rigor, without falling into oversimplifications. Most of the topics discussed are unknown even to neuroscientists, (...)
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  17. O interpretacji z punktu widzenia ontologii bytu duchowego Nicolaia Hartmanna.Alicja Pietras - 2012 - In J. Jakubowska M. Brodnicki (ed.), Historia interpretacji. Interpretacja historii. Gdańsk, Polska: pp. 25-35.
  18. “Noema” and “Noesis” by Information After Husserl’s Phenomenology Interpreted Formally.Penchev Vasil - 2021 - Metaphysics eJournal, SSRN 14 (22):1-19.
    Along with “epoché” or his “reductions”, Husserl’s “noema” and “noesis”, being neologisms invented by him, are main concepts in phenomenology able to represent its originality. Following the trace of a recent paper (Penchev 2021 July 23), its formal and philosophical approach is extended to both correlative notions, in the present article. They are able to reveal the genesis of the world from consciousness in a transcendental method relevant to Husserl, but furthermore described formally as a process of how subjective temporality (...)
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  19. In Defense of Countabilism.David Builes & Jessica M. Wilson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-38.
    Inspired by Cantor's Theorem (CT), orthodoxy takes infinities to come in different sizes. The orthodox view has had enormous influence in mathematics, philosophy, and science. We will defend the contrary view---Countablism---according to which, necessarily, every infinite collection (set or plurality) is countable. We first argue that the potentialist or modal strategy for treating Russell's Paradox, first proposed by Parsons (2000) and developed by Linnebo (2010, 2013) and Linnebo and Shapiro (2019), should also be applied to CT, in a way that (...)
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  20. The Complexity of the Gene and the Precision of CRISPR : What is the Gene That is Being Edited?Esha Shah, David Ludwig & Phil Macnaghten - 2021 - Elementa: Science of Anthropocene 9.
    The rapid development of CRISPR-based gene editing has been accompanied by a polarized governance debate about the status of CRISPR-edited crops as genetically modified organisms. This article argues that the polarization around the governance of gene editing partly reflects a failure of public engagement with the current state of research in genomics and postgenomics. CRISPR-based gene-editing technology has become embedded in a narrow narrative about the ease and precision of the technique that presents the gene as a stable object under (...)
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  21. Entre a matéria e a forma: o problema da objetividade dos fenômenos quânticos em Werner Heisenberg.João Edson Gonçalves Cabral - 2019 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Norte
  22. Why We Are Almost Certainly *Not* in a Computer Simulation.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    I give a reason we are almost certainly *not* in a simulation. I also consider what happens if two simulators simulate each other.
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  23. Conception, Connotation, and Essential Predication: Peter Auriol’s Conceptualism to the Test in II Sententiarum, D. 9, Q. 2, Art. 1.Giacomo Fornasieri - 2021 - Analiza I Egzystencja 1 (54):81-126.
    This paper comprises two parts. The first part is an introduction to Auriol’s moderate conceptualism, as it is presented in his Commentary on Book II of the Sentences, distinction 9, question 2, article 1. The second part is an edition of the text. In the introduction, I focus on Auriol’s use of the noetic tool of connotation. My thesis, in particular, is that connotation is a necessary prerequisite to his moderate conceptu- alism. To this purpose, the first part of this (...)
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  24. Mitopoética: La Construcción Simbólica de la Identidad Humana. Oscar E. Muñoz.Oscar Enrique Muñoz - 2013 - Madrid, España: Mandala Editorial.
    Entiendo la acción filosófica como un proceso doble de crítica axiomática y construcción teórica. Cuando esta acción se aplica a las construcciones simbólicas de nuestra identidad, la llamo mitopoética. Por motivos evidentes, este libro no puede sino aspirar a ser el bosquejo de un mapa epistemológico a gran escala de las narraciones de la identidad humana, esquema que he dividido en tres partes. En las dos primeras, defino una estructura conceptual que será utilizada en la tercera para desarrollar una teoría (...)
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  25. Variationen und Implikationen der Frage ›Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht vielmehr nichts?‹.Jens Lemanski, Rico Hauswald & Daniel Schubbe - 2013 - In Daniel Schubbe, Jens Lemanski & Rico Hauswald (eds.), Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht nichts? Wandel und Variationen einer Frage. Hamburg, Deutschland: pp. 7-19.
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  26. Nominalism and Immutability.Daniel Berntson - manuscript
    Can we do science without numbers? How much contingency is there? These seemingly unrelated questions--one in the philosophy of math and science and the other in metaphysics--share an unexpectedly close connection. For as it turns out, a radical answer to the second leads to a breakthrough on the first. The radical answer is new view about modality called compossible immutabilism. The breakthrough is a new strategy for doing science without numbers. One of the chief benefits of the new strategy is (...)
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  27. Extended Modal Realism: A New Solution to Problems Related to Non-Existence.Andrew Thomas - 2021 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This thesis argues that we should consider extended modal realism as a new player in the debate about non-existence. The primary aim is to show that extended modal realism is a viable theory when it comes to solving problems of non-existence. At times I will argue that extended modal realism has advantages over Lewisian modal realism when it comes to examining the problems of non-existence, not only in the case of problems relating to thought but also problems concerning truth as (...)
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  28. The Constitution of Objects by Systems.David L. Thompson -
    Against the concept that objects are defined by their self-contained essence – “thing-in-themselves” – Husserl and Foucault claim they are defined by intersubjectivity or social institutions. I argue that biological and even physical (complex) systems can constitute the unity and meaning of objects.
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  29. Plotinus and Spinoza: A Comparative Analysis of Their Notion of Evil.Latif Kadri - manuscript
    The problem of evil has always haunted theologians and philosophers. Throughout the course of this paper I will peruse the concepts of evil put forth by Spinoza and Plotinus. These two notions of evil have many similarities, yet there are some vital distinctions between the two. Plotinus and Spinoza both had rather unique views on the concept of evil that seemed to be ahead of their time in many ways. These two philosophers’ outlook on the notion of evil departs from (...)
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  30. Sur quelques aspects de l’arrière-plan hyloréaliste scientifique de la chimie des cristaux.Matias Velázquez - 2021 - Mεtascience 2: à par. aux Éd. Matériologiques.
    Dans cet article, nous essayons de comprendre comment l’hyloréalisme scientifique de Bunge peut s’accommoder avec plusieurs objets de la chimie des cristaux et leurs propriétés. Nous montrons que plusieurs d’entre eux, constituant le cœur de la discipline, soutiennent l’émergentisme ontologique. Les unités de construction, comme les lacunes, leur potentiel chimique, le nombre quantique cristallographique et plusieurs aspects des propriétés spectroscopiques des électrons 4f dans les cristaux ioniques, sont présentés comme des exemples remarquables d’objets ou de propriétés émergents (ou submergents) rencontrés (...)
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  31. Théorie générale des objets chez Bunge et Harman.Martín Orensanz - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:à par. aux Éd. Matériologiques.
    Bien qu'il existe des différences significatives entre la philosophie de Mario Bunge et celle de Graham Harman, il existe également des similitudes fonda-mentales entre elles. Ces penseurs affirment tous deux qu'il est possible de dé-velopper une théorie générale des objets. Le premier estime que la théorie en question est logico-mathématique, tandis que le second suggère qu'elle est on-tologique. Quoi qu’il en soit, ils conviennent que tous les objets doivent être con-sidérés, qu’ils soient réels ou non. En outre, ils suggèrent que (...)
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  32. Fondements des technologies de l’information d’après la philosophie systémiste de la réalité de Bunge.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2021 - Mεtascience 2: à par. aux Éd. Matériologi.
    L’ontologie générale constitue un fondement théorique important pour l’analyse, la conception et le développement dans les technologies de l’information. L’ontologie est une branche de la philosophie qui étudie ce qui existe dans la réalité. Une ontologie largement utilisée dans les systèmes d’information, en particulier pour la modélisation conceptuelle, est l’ontologie BWW (Bunge-Wand-Weber), fondée sur les idées du philosophe et physicien Mario Bunge, telles que synthétisées par Wand et Weber. Cette ontologie a été élaborée à partir d’une ancienne version de la (...)
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  33. On Some Features of the Scientific Hylorealistic Background of Crystal Chemistry.Matias Velázquez - 2021 - Mεtascience 2.
    In this paper, we try to understand how Bunge’s scientific hylorealism can fit with several crystal chemistry’s objects and their properties. It is found that many of them, lying at the very core of this discipline, bring support to ontologi-cal emergentism. Building units, such as vacancies, their chemical potential, the crystal quantum number and many aspects of the spectroscopic properties of 4f electrons in ionic crystals, are presented as striking examples of emergent (or submergent) objects or properties encountered in the (...)
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  34. Jenny Pelletier et Magali Roques (eds.), The Language of Thought in Late Medieval Philosophy: essays in honor of Claude Panaccio, s.l. : Springer, 2017, 463 pages. [REVIEW]Aline Medeiros Ramos - 2020 - Studia Philosophica – Revue Suisse de Philosophie 79:216-219.
  35. Mental Fictionalism: A Foothold Amid Deflationary Collapse.Meg Wallace - forthcoming - In Tamas Demeter, Adam Toon & T. Parent (eds.), Mental Fictionalism: Philosophical Explorations.
    This paper examines three meta-ontological deflationary approaches – frameworks, verbal disputes, and metalinguistic negotiation – and applies them to ontological debates in philosophy of mind. An intriguing consequence of this application is that it reveals a deep, systematic problem for mental deflationism – specifically, a problem of cognitive collapse. This is surprising; cognitive collapse problems are usually reserved for serious ontological views such as eliminative materialism and mental fictionalism, not deflationism. This paper investigates why deflationism about the mental is particularly (...)
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  36. Persistence as a Four-Dimensionalist: Perdurantism Vs. Exdurantism.Richard Callais - 2021 - Dialogue 64 (1):24-29.
    The debate over persistence currently involves three competing theories—one three-dimensionalist theory called “endurantism” and two four-dimensionalist theories called “perdurantism” and “exdurantism.” This inner debate between the latter two persistence theories is what I aim to clarify, and ultimately, I argue that perdurantism is superior to exdurantism because exdurantism is too extravagant in counting ordinary objects in the world. Extravagant for the reason that objects in their entirety are bound to their momentary stages, and there is practically an interminable number of (...)
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  37. The Linguistic Approach to Ontology.Lee Walters - forthcoming - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society.
    What are the prospects for a linguistic approach to ontology? Given that it seems that there are true subject-predicate sentences containing empty names, traditional linguistic approaches to ontology appear to be flawed. I argue that in order to determine what there is we need to determine which sentences ascribe properties (and relations) to objects, and that there does not appear to be any formal criterion for this. This view is then committed to giving an account of what predicates do in (...)
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  38. The Spectricity of Humanness: Spectral Ontology and Being-in-the-World.Zachary Isrow - 2021 - Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
    The question of humanness requires a philosophical anthropology and we need a revision of what philosophical anthropology means in light of contemporary efforts in speculative realism and object-oriented ontology. This is the main claim of the book which expands into the smaller supporting claims that 1) contemporary work in speculative realism indicates that Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein needs to be rethought in consideration of certain Kantian values 2) recent philosophical anthropology offers an incomplete look at the central concern of philosophical (...)
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  39. What is Schizoanalysis? (An Introduction to Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari).Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    What is Schizoanalysis? (An Introduction to Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari) -Irfan Ajvazi.
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  40. On Blass Translation for Leśniewski’s Propositional Ontology and Modal Logics.Takao Inoué - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-25.
    In this paper, we shall give another proof of the faithfulness of Blass translation of the propositional fragment \ of Leśniewski’s ontology in the modal logic \ by means of Hintikka formula. And we extend the result to von Wright-type deontic logics, i.e., ten Smiley-Hanson systems of monadic deontic logic. As a result of observing the proofs we shall give general theorems on the faithfulness of B-translation with respect to normal modal logics complete to certain sets of well-known accessibility relations (...)
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  41. Deleuze and Mereology: Multiplicity, Structure and Composition.Yannis Chatzantonis - 2011 - Dissertation, Dundee University
    This investigation constitutes an attempt towards (1) understanding issues and problems relating to the notions of one, many, part and whole in Parmenides and Plato; (2) extracting conditions for a successful account of multiplicity and parthood; (3) surveying Deleuzian conceptions and uses of these notions; (4) appraising the extent to which Deleuze’s metaphysics can answer some of these ancient problems concerning the status of multiplicity and the nature of mereological composition, that is, of the relations that pertain between parts and (...)
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  42. Ontologie.Achille C. Varzi - 2010 - Paris: Ithaque.
    French translation of "Ontologia" (2005).
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  43. Against Nagel - In Favour of a Compound Human Ergon.Juliette Christie - 1996 - Dialogue 38 (2-3):77-82.
    Thomas Nagel argues that Aristotle identifies rationality as the ergon idion of the human being. Against Nagel, I defend a reading of Aristotle which depicts a complex human ergon. This complex identity involves desire. It is in Book X of the Nichomachean Ethics that my understanding of Aristotle's position is clinched.
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  44. Holiness in Excess: Between Holiness and Metaphysics in the Wake of Rowan Williams.Jonathan M. Platter - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (5):916-927.
    Rowan Williams has consistently given expression to Christian faith in surprising and genera-tive ways, especially through the language of ‘excess’ and through contemplating the excess in the narrative and identity of Christ. By attending to the grammar of excess, this essay draws out elements of the metaphysics of holiness in dialogue with Williams. I ask how creaturely being can be sustained by the holiness which generates all things without leaving holiness so ubiq-uitous as to be either trivial or hidden. I (...)
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  45. An epistemological challenge to ontological bruteness.Joshua Matthan Brown - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-19.
    It is often assumed that the first stage of many classical arguments for theism depends upon some version of the Principle of Sufficient Reason being true. Unfortunately for classical theists, PSR is a controversial thesis that has come under rather severe criticism in the contemporary literature. In this article, I grant for the sake of argument that every version of PSR is false. Thus, I concede with the critics of PSR, that it is possible that there is, at least, one (...)
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  46. Chinese Metaphysics as a Fruitful Subject of Study.Chenyang Li & Franklin Perkins - 2014 - Journal of East-West Thought 4 (4):71-86.
    The study of Chinese philosophy in the English-speaking world has largely focused on ethical and political theories. In comparison, Chinese metaphysics—here understood primarily as theories regarding the nature, components, and operating principles of reality—has been far less researched and recognized. In this essay, we examine various meanings of “metaphysics” as it has been used in denoting a branch of philosophy and make the case that metaphysics is an important part of Chinese philosophy. We argue for the need to study Chinese (...)
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  47. Being Necessary: Themes of Ontology and Modality From the Work of Bob Hale.Ivette Fred-Rivera & Jessica Leech (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    Edited by Ivette Fred-Rivera and Jessica Leech. What is the relationship between ontology and modality: between what there is, and what there could be, must be, or might have been? Throughout a distinguished career, Bob Hale’s work has addressed this question on a number of fronts, through the development of a Fregean approach to ontology, an essentialist theory of modality, and in his work on neo-logicism in the philosophy of mathematics. This collection of new essays engages with these themes in (...)
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  48. George Santayana. Eine materialistische Philosophie der Vita contemplativa.Guido Karl Tamponi - 2021 - Würzburg, Deutschland: Königshausen & Neumann.
    »Wer die Vergangenheit nicht kennt, ist dazu verurteilt, sie zu wiederholen.« – Ein aphoristisches Diktum, das besonders in Deutschland weit verbreitet als Mahnung nachhallt, dessen Autor George Santayana (1863–1952) aber in Vergessenheit geraten ist. Diese Studie geht erstmals im deutschsprachigen Raum der gesamten philosophischen Spannweite seines Werks und dessen zumeist hintergründiger Systematik nach. Darin fördert sie einen einst eminenten Philosophen des ›Golden Age of American Philosophy‹ zutage, der nicht nur in seinem in vielerlei Hinsicht ›unamerikanischen‹ Denken den Blick auf die (...)
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  49. Fragmental Presentism and Quantum Mechanics.Paul Merriam - 2021
    This paper develops a Fragmentalist theory of Presentism and shows how it can help to develop a interpretation of quantum mechanics. There are several fragmental interpretations of physics. In the interpretation of this paper, each quantum system forms a fragment, and fragment f1 makes a measurement on fragment f2 if and only if f2 makes a corresponding measurement on f1. The main idea is then that each fragment has its own present (or ‘now’) until a mutual quantum measurement—at which time (...)
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  50. ‘I Am that I Am’ (Ex. 3.14): from Augustine to Abhishiktānanda—Holy Ground Between Neoplatonism and Advaita Vedānta.Daniel Soars - 2020 - Sophia 60 (2):287-306.
    We shall revisit a debate which has been going on at least since pioneering British Indologists like William Jones first encountered the ‘Brahmanic theology’ we now know as Vedānta, namely, the nature of the relationship—if any—between certain forms of ‘western’ and ‘Indian’ idealisms, and how these metaphysical systems have influenced Christian theology. Specifically, we look at the question of possible thematic and conceptual convergences between Neoplatonism and Advaita Vedānta, and argue that significant parallels can be found in their common conception (...)
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