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  1. Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: From Algorithm to Curriculum.Michael W. Kibby & William J. Rapaport - 2014 - In Adriano Palma (ed.), Castañeda and His Guises: Essays on the Work of Hector-Neri Castañeda. De Gruyter. pp. 107-150.
    Deliberate contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is a reader’s ability to figure out a (not the) meaning for an unknown word from its “context”, without external sources of help such as dictionaries or people. The appropriate context for such CVA is the “belief-revised integration” of the reader’s prior knowledge with the reader’s “internalization” of the text. We discuss unwarranted assumptions behind some classic objections to CVA, and present and defend a computational theory of CVA that we have adapted to a new (...)
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  2. Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface.Tista Bagchi - manuscript
    Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface Tista Bagchi National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (NISTADS) and the University of Delhi Since the proposal of Logical Form (LF) was put forward by Robert May in his 1977 MIT doctoral dissertation and was subsequently adopted into the overall architecture of language as conceived under Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), there has been a steady research effort to determine the nature of LF in language in light of structurally (...)
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  3. Biblical Hebrew – Fossil of an Extinct Proto-Language.Edward G. Belaga - manuscript
    Scientific enterprise is a part and parcel of the contemporaneous to it general human cultural and, even more general, existential endeavor. Thus, the fundamental for us notion of evolution, in the modern sense of this characteristically Occidental term, appeared in the 19-th century, with its everything pervading, irreversible cultural and technological change and the existential turmoil. Similarly, a formerly relatively recherché word emergence, became a widely used scientific term only in the 20-th century, with its cultural, economical, political, and national (...)
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  4. Emergence and Evolution of Natural Languages: New Mathematical & Algorithmic Perspectives.Edward G. Belaga - manuscript
    In the search of new approaches to the problem of emergence and evolution of natural languages, Mathematics, Theoretical Computer Science, as well as Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, both deeply penetrated and profoundly inspired by concepts originated in Mathematics and Computer Science, represent today the richest pools of formal concepts, structures, and methods to borrow and to adapt.
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  5. Model of Intelligence.Miro Brada - manuscript
    Model of intelligence and new methods to assess IQ. MA thesis in 1998 (Comenius University). Art exhibitions "From Animation" London 2013, "Fading Memory" Weißenohe 2015, TAIF Tokyo 2017. Conferences in Santorini, Daejon 2016, Geneva 2017.
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  6. Choosing Short: An Explanation of the Similarities and Dissimilarities in the Distribution Patterns of Binding and Covaluation.Mihnea Capraru - manuscript
    Covaluation is the generalization of coreference introduced by Tanya Reinhart. Covaluation distributes in patterns that are very similar yet not entirely identical to those of binding. On a widespread view, covaluation and binding distribute similarly because binding is defined in terms of covaluation. Yet on Reinhart's view, binding and covaluation are not related that way: binding pertains to syntax, covaluation does not. Naturally, the widespread view can easily explain the similarities between binding and covaluation, whereas Reinhart can easily explain the (...)
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  7. Temporal Location of Events in Language and (Non) Persistence of the Past.Fabio Del Prete - manuscript
    The article reviews some analyses of temporal language in logical approaches to natural language semantics. It considers some asymmetries between past and future, manifested in language, which motivate the “standard view” of the non-reversibility of time and the persistence of the past. It concludes with a puzzle about the changing past which challenges the standard view.
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  8. Language Sophistication in the New Testament.Lascelles G. B. James - manuscript
    Language sophistication indicates the development of language that incorporates differentiation or diversity that is constrained by integration that facilitates organization or unity. This prelude provides the backdrop for discussing language sophistication. Of necessity, any language that was a part of the continuum of salvation history (Heilsgeschichte ) should: 1) possess the sophistication necessary to re-define OT terminology, 2) have the hegemony to launch the NT church, 3) enjoy the universality that allowed for translation into contemporary languages, and 4) retain the (...)
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  9. The Discovery of Subliminal Manifestation in Language.Thomas McGrath - manuscript
    This is just an initial finding and needs to be verified by a larger, more thorough study. Part 1 of this paper demonstrates that we unconsciously select words based on letter sounds that we like or dislike. Part 2 demonstrates that there may be harmony and dissonance in the pattern of frequency of letter usage, at least in the case of the vowels. To the best of my knowledge this is a new idea/discovery. The following paper contains graphs of the (...)
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  10. Language as Literature: Characters in Everyday Spoken Discourse.Sergeiy Sandler - manuscript
    There are several linguistic phenomena that, when examined closely, give evidence that people speak through characters, much like authors of literary works do, in everyday discourse. However, most approaches in linguistics and in the philosophy of language leave little theoretical room for the appearance of characters in discourse. In particular, there is no linguistic criterion found to date, which can mark precisely what stretch of discourse within an utterance belongs to a character, and to which character. And yet, without at (...)
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  11. The Logical Structure of Consciousness (Behavior, Personality, Rationality, Higher Order Thought, Intentionality).Michael Starks - manuscript
    After half a century in oblivion, the nature of consciousness is now the hottest topic in the behavioral sciences and philosophy. Beginning with the pioneering work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in the 1930’s (the Blue and Brown Books) and from the 50’s to the present by his logical successor John Searle, I have created the following table as an heuristic for furthering this study. The rows show various aspects or ways of studying and the columns show the involuntary processes and voluntary (...)
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  12. Modality, Presupposition and Discourse.Patrícia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete - forthcoming - In Ruth Lopes, Juanito Ornelas de Avelar & Sonia Cyrino (eds.), Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    This paper provides a semantic analysis of the particles afinal (European Portuguese) and alla fine (Italian) in terms of the notion of truth unpersistence, which can be situated at the intersection of epistemic modality and discourse structure. In the analysis proposed, the particles are propositional operators and require that the truth of a proposition p* fail to persist through a temporal succession of epistemic states, this proposition being incompatible with the prejacent, and that the interlocutors share knowledge of a previous (...)
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  13. Complex Imitation and the Language-Ready Brain.Michael A. Arbib - forthcoming - Language and Cognition.
  14. Lexical Innovation and the Periphery of Language.Luca Gasparri - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-25.
    Lexical innovations (e.g., zero-derivations coined on the fly by a speaker) seem to bear semantic content. Yet, such expressions cannot bear semantic content as a function of the conventions of meaning in force in the language, since they are not part of its lexicon. This is in tension with the commonplace view that the semantic content of lexical expressions is constituted by linguistic conventions. The conventionalist has two immediate ways out of the tension. The first is to preserve the conventionalist (...)
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  15. Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29).Hiroki Nomoto - forthcoming - In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Anual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29). University of Arizona Linguistics Circle.
    Dayal's (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare ``singular'' kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence of bare ``singular'' (...)
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  16. Spoken Communication Between Symbolics and Deixis.M. Pettorino, F. Albano Leoni, I. Chiari, F. M. Dovetto & A. Giannini (eds.) - forthcoming - Cambridge Scholars Press.
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  17. Une Méthode Linguistique d'Approche Contrastive.E. Pietri - forthcoming - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
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  18. Dialogue, Rationality, Formalism. Interdisciplinary Works in Logic, Epistemology, Psychology and Linguistics.Manuel Rebuschi, Martine Batt, Gerhard Heinzmann, Franck Lihoreau, Michel Musiol & Alain Trognon (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  19. Fictive Interaction and the Nature of Linguistic Meaning.Sergeiy Sandler - forthcoming - In Esther Pascual & Sergeiy Sandler (eds.), The conversation frame: Forms and functions of fictive interaction. John Benjamins.
    One may distinguish between three broad conceptions of linguistic meaning. One conception, which I will call “logical”, views meaning as given in reference (for words) and truth (for sentences). Another conception, the “monological” one, seeks meaning in the cognitive capacities of the single mind. A third, “dialogical”, conception attributes meaning to interaction between individuals and personal perspectives. In this chapter I directly contrast how well these three approaches deal with the evidence brought forth by fictive interaction. I examine instances of (...)
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  20. A Note on the Opposition Between the French Imparfait" de Rupture" and the Imparfait" De.Henry Wyld - forthcoming - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
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  21. OPUS-CAT: A State-of-the-Art Neural Machine Translation Engine on Your Local Computer. [REVIEW]Yuri Balashov - 2021 - The ATA Chronicle.
    Neural machine translation (NMT) is one of the success stories of deep learning and artificial intelligence. Revolutionary innovations in the computational architectures made in 2015–2017 have led to dramatic improvements in the quality of machine translation (MT) and changed the field forever. Some professional translators welcome these changes with enthusiasm, others less so. But everyone has to deal with them. Historically, the relationship between human translation and MT has been uneasy and complicated, but an increasing number of players in both (...)
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  22. How to Frame Understanding in Mathematics: A Case Study Using Extremal Proofs.Merlin Carl, Marcos Cramer, Bernhard Fisseni, Deniz Sarikaya & Bernhard Schröder - 2021 - Axiomathes 31 (5):649-676.
    The frame concept from linguistics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence is a theoretical tool to model how explicitly given information is combined with expectations deriving from background knowledge. In this paper, we show how the frame concept can be fruitfully applied to analyze the notion of mathematical understanding. Our analysis additionally integrates insights from the hermeneutic tradition of philosophy as well as Schmid’s ideal genetic model of narrative constitution. We illustrate the practical applicability of our theoretical analysis through a case (...)
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  23. The Refutation of Saussure’s Signification Theory as a Foundation for Interreligious Dialogue.Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2021 - Indian Catholic Matters.
    This paper questions the veracity of Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of the genitive absolute in Sanskrit as giving rise to his erroneous theories of language. The paper begins by reviewing the received opinions about the arbitrary relationship between a sign and what is signifies. Then engaging with the works of St. Augustine and Tantric texts and reading the works of Saussure, the paper shows how higher academia has bought into Saussure's polemics which have nearly destroyed authentic philosophizing. The first title (...)
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  24. Horizons de la signification.Luiz Francisco Dias - 2021 - Cours de Sémantique Argumentative.
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  25. Book Review: Neanderthal Language: Demystifying the Linguistic Powers of Our Extinct Cousins. [REVIEW]Petar Gabrić - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12:702361.
    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of studies and discussions claiming that Neanderthals engaged in a range of “symbolic” behaviors, including personal ornament use (Radovčić et al., 2015), funerary practices (Balzeau et al., 2020), visual arts (Hoffmann et al., 2018), body aesthetics (Roebroeks et al., 2012), etc. In Paleolithic archaeology, it has become mainstream to axiomatically infer from these putative behaviors that Neanderthals engaged in symbol use and that Neanderthals thus possessed some form of language. Rudolf Botha's bombastic title "Neanderthal (...)
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  26. Common Nouns as Modally Non-Rigid Restricted Variables.Peter Lasersohn - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (2):363-424.
    I argue that common nouns should be analyzed as variables, rather than as predicates which take variables as arguments. This necessitates several unusual features to the analysis, such as allowing variables to be modally non-rigid, and assigning their values compositionally. However, treating common nouns as variables offers a variety of theoretical and empirical advantages over a more traditional analysis: It predicts the conservativity of nominal quantification, simplifies the analysis of articleless languages, derives the weak reading of sentences with donkey anaphora, (...)
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  27. Soaked in Language.Carlo Pace - 2021 - Nóema 12:69-87.
    The evolution of language represents one of the main complex systems investigated by different scientific domains and philosophy. The phylogeny of the trait is analyzable from different perspectives, which make evident its weaved and multilayered nature. In the present essay it is presented the dialogue between some researchers from different disciplines who propose original views regarding the analysis of the evolutionary perspective, in an inclusive and hybrid horizon. Secondly, it is exposed the theoretical frontier which identifies in language not only (...)
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  28. Indicatives, Subjunctives, and the Falsity of the Antecedent.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen & Peter Collins - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (11):e13058.
    It is widely held that there are important differences between indicative conditionals (e.g. “If the authors are linguists, they have written a linguistics paper”) and subjunctive conditionals (e.g. “If the authors had been linguists, they would have written a linguistics paper”). A central difference is that indicatives and subjunctives convey different stances towards the truth of their antecedents. Indicatives (often) convey neutrality: for example, about whether the authors in question are linguists. Subjunctives (often) convey the falsity of the antecedent: for (...)
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  29. Obviation in Hungarian: What is its Scope, and is It Due to Competition?Anna Szabolcsi - 2021 - Glossa 6 (1, #57).
    According to the classical description of obviation, the subject of a subjunctive is disjoint in reference from the attitude-holder subject of the immediately higher clause. Inspired by Ruwet (1984/1991) and Farkas (1988; 1992), I present data from Hungarian where obviation in certain subjunctives is plainly lifted, and data where obviation occurs in indicatives. I argue that obviation is not the result of competition with another construction, and point to promising potential accounts in terms of semantics or pragmatics. My aim is (...)
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  30. To Believe is Not to Think: A Cross-Cultural Finding.Neil Van Leeuwen, Kara Weisman & Tanya Luhrmann - 2021 - Open Mind 5:91-99.
    Are religious beliefs psychologically different from matter-of-fact beliefs? Many scholars say no: that religious people, in a matter-of-fact way, simply think their deities exist. Others say yes: that religious beliefs are more compartmentalized, less certain, and less responsive to evidence. Little research to date has explored whether lay people themselves recognize such a difference. We addressed this question in a series of sentence completion tasks, conducted in five settings that differed both in religious traditions and in language: the US, Ghana, (...)
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  31. The Pronunciation of English Acronyms in Turkish.Emin Yas - 2021 - Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies 3 (17):1157-1174.
    Acronym is a very important word derivation mechanism usually applied to the new names of private or public institutions and they can be used to shorten the names of people, places, or institutions. This linguistic opportunity, which can be found in every language of the world, is quite useful in terms of its easiness and economic use of the languages. It provides the people ease of language use with reducing the length of some nouns and phrases and helping to memorize (...)
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  32. Linguistic Research in the Empirical Paradigm as Outlined by Mario Bunge.Dorota Zielińska - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    In view of the critique of the methodology of the dominant interdisciplinary re-search involving language studies as the main component, in particular clinical linguistics, Cummings (2014) proposes that “It is perhaps appropriate at this point to move the debate onto non-empirical grounds.” In Cummings (2014: 113) she starts such a debate on the grounds of the philosophy of language and pragmatics. In this article, I propose to expand that debate by including the input of the philosophy of science. I start (...)
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  33. La recherche linguistique dans le paradigme empirique proposé par Mario Bunge.Dorota Zielińska - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:à par. aux Éd. Matériologiques.
    Compte tenu de la critique de la méthodologie de la recherche interdisciplinaire dominante impliquant des études linguistiques comme élément principal, en particulier la linguistique clinique, Cummings (2014) propose qu’« il est peut-être approprié à ce stade de déplacer le débat sur des bases non empiriques ». Dans Cummings (2014), elle entame un tel débat sur la base de la philosophie de la langue et de la pragmatique. Dans cet article, je propose d’élargir ce débat en incluant l’apport de la philosophie (...)
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  34. Hedged Assertion.Matthew A. Benton & Peter Van Elswyk - 2020 - In Sanford Goldberg (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Assertion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 245-263.
    Surprisingly little has been written about hedged assertion. Linguists often focus on semantic or syntactic theorizing about, for example, grammatical evidentials or epistemic modals, but pay far less attention to what hedging does at the level of action. By contrast, philosophers have focused extensively on normative issues regarding what epistemic position is required for proper assertion, yet they have almost exclusively considered unqualified declaratives. This essay considers the linguistic and normative issues side-by-side. We aim to bring some order and clarity (...)
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  35. A Complex System Approach to Language Evolution.Francesca Colaiori & Francesca Tria - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (2):118-126.
    Regularities in natural language systems, despite their cognitive advantages in terms of storage and learnability, often coexist with exceptions, raising the question of whether and why irregularities survive. We offer a complex system perspective on this issue, focusing on the irregular past tense forms in English. Two separate processes affect the overall regularity: new verbs constantly entering the vocabulary in the regular form at low frequency, and transitions in both directions occurring in a narrow frequency range. The introduction of new (...)
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  36. Red Book, Middle Way: How Jung Parallels the Buddha's Method for Human Integration.Robert Michael Ellis - 2020 - Sheffield, UK: Equinox.
    Jung’s Red Book, finally published only in 2009, is a highly ambiguous text describing a succession of extraordinary visions, together with Jung’s interpretation of them. This book offers a new interpretation of Jung’s Red Book, in terms of the Middle Way, as a universal principle and embodied ethic, paralleled both in the Buddha’s teachings and elsewhere. Jung explicitly discusses the Middle Way in the Red Book (although this has been largely ignored by scholars so far) as well as offering lots (...)
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  37. Why Prefixes (Almost) Never Participate in Vowel Harmony.Antonio Fábregas & Martin Krämer - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (1):84-111.
    One of the most common ways of morphological marking is affixation, morphemes are classified according to their position. In languages with affixal morphology, suffixes and prefixes are the most common types of affixes. Despite several proposals, it has been impossible to identify solid generalisations about the behaviour of prefixes, in opposition to suffixes. This article argues that the reason is that our traditional definitions of suffix and prefix are based on pre-theoretical, surface criteria that have been given up in other (...)
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  38. Swahili Conditional Constructions in Embodied Frames of Reference: Modeling Semantics, Pragmatics, and Context-Sensitivity in UML Mental Spaces.Roderick Fish - 2020 - Dissertation, Trinity Western University
    Studies of several languages, including Swahili [swa], suggest that realis (actual, realizable) and irrealis (unlikely, counterfactual) meanings vary along a scale (e.g., 0.0–1.0). T-values (True, False) and P-values (probability) account for this pattern. However, logic cannot describe or explain (a) epistemic stances toward beliefs, (b) deontic and dynamic stances toward states-of-being and actions, and (c) context-sensitivity in conditional interpretations. (a)–(b) are deictic properties (positions, distance) of ‘embodied’ Frames of Reference (FoRs)—space-time loci in which agents perceive and from which they contextually (...)
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  39. Co-Evolution of Internalization and Externalization in the Emergence of the Human Lexicon.Haruka Fujita - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (2):195-215.
    There has been a long-standing controversy in the context of language evolution on whether the original function of human language was internal thought or external communication. However, given the fact that language clearly serves both functions, internalization and externalization must have been co-evolutionarily acted in the emergence of human language. This article proposes a theoretical hypothesis about this co-evolutionary relationship of internalization and externalization, which especially explains the emergence of the human lexicon. To discuss the evolution of language from a (...)
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  40. Introduction.Livio Gaeta - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (2):113-117.
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  41. Elaborating Motive and Psychological Impact of Sharenting in Millennial Parents.Eva Latipah, Hanif Cahyo Adi Kistoro, Fitria Fauziah Hasanah & Himawan Putranta - 2020 - Universal Journal of Educational Research 8 (10):4807-4817.
    The phenomenon of parental care shared through social media (sharenting) is increasingly widespread. This research aimed to elaborate on the motives, strategies, and psychological effects of sharenting by millennial parents. This research is qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. The subjects are millennial parents who have a habit of sharing parenting on social media and are members of the professional community. Determination of the sample uses purposive sampling so that as many as ten people consisted of five females and five (...)
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  42. Introduction.Andrea Padovan - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (1):1-4.
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  43. On the Nature of Roots.Phoevos Panagiotidis - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (1):56-83.
    This paper offers a review of a current understanding of the content and the form of linguistic roots. It first updates and buttresses the case against semantic content of uncategorised roots and for Late Insertion of roots; then it investigates how native speakers identify roots. More specifically, the idea that roots may be polysemous or may encode the shadow of a denotation, namely the common denominator of the denotations of words derived from it, is refuted on the basis of conceptual (...)
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  44. Construction Grammar for Monkeys?Michael Pleyer & Stefan Hartmann - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (2):153-194.
    In recent years, multiple researchers working on the evolution of language have put forward the idea that the theoretical framework of usage-based approaches and Construction Grammar is highly suitable for modelling the emergence of human language from pre-linguistic or proto-linguistic communication systems. This also raises the question of whether usage-based and constructionist approaches can be integrated with the analysis of animal communication systems. In this paper, we review possible avenues where usage-based, constructionist approaches can make contact with animal communication research, (...)
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  45. Элементарная основа языка.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Русский язык прошёл долгий путь становления, в ходе которого совершенствовался его алфавит, его понятийное и смысловое содержание, его культура речи. В 20-м веке русский язык стал и продолжает оставаться самым развитым языком современности, и в этом качестве он является своеобразным эталоном для оценки других языков.
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  46. On One Case of Condensation.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
  47. Dispositions and the verbal description of their manifestations: a case study on Emission Verbs.Tillmann Pross - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (2):149-191.
    The present paper argues that when thematic roles are restricted to judgments about causal properties of events, it falls short of accounting for cases where thematic roles reflect judgments about dispositional properties of objects. I develop my argument with a case study on a class of verbs that have been called ‘Emission Verbs’ and which are difficult to bring in line with the unaccusativity hypothesis put forward by Perlmutter. Reviewing two diametrically opposed accounts of Emission Verbs in the literature, I (...)
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  48. Reconsidering Subjectification From the Perspective of Animal Signalling.Nikolaus Ritt, Andreas Baumann, Eva Zehentner & Alexandra Zöpfl - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (2):138-152.
    This paper discusses the view that subjectifications are primarily motivated by speakers’ need for self-expression. Approaching the issue from the perspective of animal signalling, we propose that semantic subjectifications are at least equally likely to reflect evaluations and attitudes read into utterances by listeners who attempt to read speakers’ minds. We compare speaker-based and listener-based theories with regard to their predictions, sketch ways in which they can be tested and report findings from first attempts at doing so. First, we report (...)
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  49. Universality and Variation in Language.Halldór Ármann Sigurðsson - 2020 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (1):5-29.
    This article discusses language universality and language variation, and suggests that there is no feature variation in initial syntax, featural variation arising by metamorphosis under transfer from syntax to PF-morphology. In particular, it explores the Zero Hypothesis, stating that Universal Grammar, UG, only provides two building elements, Root Zero and Edge Feature Zero, zero, as they are purely structural/formal elements with no semantic content in UG. Their potential content is provided by the Concept Mine, a mind-internal but language-external department. UG (...)
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  50. Relevance and Conditionals: A Synopsis of Open Pragmatic and Semantic Issues.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen - 2020 - In S. Elqayam, Igor Douven, J. Evans & N. Cruz (eds.), Logic and Uncertainty in the Human Mind: A Tribute to David E. Over. Routledge.
    Recently several papers have reported relevance effects on the cognitive assessments of indicative conditionals, which pose an explanatory challenge to the Suppositional Theory of conditionals advanced by David Over, which is influential in the psychology of reasoning. Some of these results concern the “Equation” (P(if A, then C) = P(C|A)), others the de Finetti truth table, and yet others the uncertain and-to-inference task. The purpose of this chapter is to take a Birdseye view on the debate and investigate some of (...)
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