About this topic
Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Mīmāṃsā ("Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors", from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the Cārvākas materialists. Given the diversity of views, theories, and doctrines espoused by philosophers on the Indian subcontinent, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of Indian Philosophy are those of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its countervailing notion of anatman ("not-self") in Buddhism, mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation), and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of philosophical speculation in India is concerned with establishing reliable sources of knowing (pramāṇas) such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued in isolation from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical concerns with Western philosophy, although philosophers in India have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Likewise, there are problems central to Western philosophy (e.g., whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason) that philosophers in India did not pursue, and important distinctions (such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments) they did not make.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. Gender in Indian Philosophy, Civilization, and Culture.Dr Krishna Kant Sharma - unknown
    This paper explores the foundations of gender in Indian philosophy, culture, and civilizations. What exactly gender is? Is this limited to humans’ male or female bodies or may be extended to other living, and nonliving beings? Such issues were expedited under the premises of ancient Indian texts in Sanskrit including Vedas, Upanishads, Grihyasutra, Smriti Granthas, Puranas, and the orthodox and unorthodox branches of Indian Philosophy. Therefore, the paper is based upon inferences drawn thereon, with the author being the key informant.
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  2. The jāti in the Mādhyamika – Different Approaches between Bhāviveka and Candrakīrti.Motoi Ono - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-35.
    Kajiyama has argued that the basis for the concept of _jāti_ (false rejoinder) as described in the _Nyāyasūtra_ is the concept _xiang ying_ (相応) as found in the _Fangbian xin lun_ (方便心論). Kajiyama has also shown that the sophistic arguments called _xiang ying_ are very similar to the _prasaṅga_ arguments of Nāgārjuna, the founder of the Madhyamaka school. It thus seems worthwhile to investigate how later Mādhyamika philosophers treated the concept of _jāti_ that originally appeared as the result of the (...)
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  3. Knowledge and Independent Checks in Mīmāṃsā.Nilanjan Das - 2022 - Oxford Studies in Epistemology 7:15-47.
    This chapter is about a classical Indian debate about the Independent Check Thesis, the thesis that, if an agent is to rationally believe (or judge) that she knows that p, she must rely on some source of information that provides her independent evidence about the truth or reliability of her belief (or judgement) that p. While some Buddhists and Nyāya philosophers defended this thesis, the Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsakas rejected it. Here, I reconstruct the Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsakas’ arguments against the Independent Check Thesis. (...)
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  4. The Search for Definitions in Early Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.Nilanjan Das - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-64.
    The search for definitions is ubiquitous in Sanskrit philosophy. In many texts across traditions, we find philosophers presenting their theories by laying down definitions of key theoretical categories, by testing those definitions, and by refuting competing definitions of the same theoretical categories. Call this the method of definitions. The aim of this essay is to explore a challenge that arises for this method: the paradox of definitions. It arises from the claim that the method of definitions is either (i) redundant (...)
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  5. Notes on the satipat.t.hānas in the Vibhan.ga Mūlat.īkā.Giuliano Giustarini - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-19.
    The Vibhaṅga Mūlaṭīkā, attributed to Ānanda, is a sub-commentary of one of the seven books of the Pāli Abhidhamma-piṭaka, the Vibhaṅga, and the direct commentary of its commentary, Buddhaghosa’s Sammohavinodanī. In the section on the _satipaṭṭhāna_ method, Ānanda proposes exegetical strategies to solve some seeming contradiction between Buddhaghosa’s interpretation of the Vibhaṅga and the Sutta’s framework that the Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅga refers to. An examination of exemplary passages from the Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅga of the Vibhaṅga Mūlaṭīkā will shed light upon the originality of Ānanda’s (...)
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  6. Classical Sanskrit for Everyone: A Guide for Absolute Beginners.Malcolm Keating - manuscript
    Thirteen lessons introducing novice language-learners to major grammatical concepts in classical Sanskrit, using example texts from actual philosophical, poetic, and epic texts. Includes lessons on reading commentaries, working with Sanskrit in translation, and poetic meter and figures of speech. -/- Under contract with Hackett Publishing. Estimated publication year: 2023.
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  7. A Grammarian’s View of Negation: Nāgeśa’s Paramalaghumañjūs.ā on Nañartha.John J. Lowe & James W. Benson - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-27.
    The theory of negation developed in the grammatical-philosophical system of later Vyākaraṇa remains almost entirely unstudied, despite its close links with the (widely studied) approaches to negation found in other philosophical schools such as Nyāya and Mīmāṃsā, and despite its consequent importance for a comprehensive understanding of the theory of negation in ancient India. In this paper we present an edition, translation and commentary of the relevant sections of Nāgeśa’s _Paramalaghumañjūṣā_, a concise presentation by the final authority of the Pāṇinian (...)
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  8. How to spiritualize your life. Yogananda - 2023 - Commerce, California: Crystal Clarity Publishers.
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  9. The making of contemporary Indian philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya.Daniel Raveh & Elise Coquereau-Saouma (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book engages in a dialogue with Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya (K.C. Bhattacharyya, KCB 1875-1949) and presents a vista of contemporary Indian philosophy. KCB is one of the founding fathers of contemporary Indian philosophy; a distinct genre of philosophy that draws both on classical Indian philosophical sources and on Western materials, old and new. His work offers both a new and different reading of classical Indian texts, and at the same time he is a unique commentator of Kant and Hegel. The book (...)
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  10. Action, Intention, and Negligence: Manu and Medhātithi on Mental States and Blame.Emily Baron & Elisa Freschi - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-23.
    This paper aims to offer a preliminary explication of the role of and the relation between mental states, action, and blame in Medhātithi’s commentary on the most influential juridical text of the Sanskrit world – the jurisprudential text attributed to Manu. In defining what it means to act and what constitutes engaging in intentional and unintentional action, this paper makes three claims. First, enjoined actions (e.g., sacrifices) require particular mental states to be performed. Notwithstanding the role of mental states in (...)
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  11. Ācārya (Muni) Nemicandra’s Dravyasamgraha – With Authentic Explanatory Notes (Thoroughly Revised Second Edition) आचार्य (मुनि) नेमिचन्द्र विरचित द्रव्यसंग्रह - प्रामाणिक व्याख्या सहित (आद्योपांत संशोधित द्वितीय संस्करण).Vijay K. Jain (ed.) - 2022 - Dehradun, India: Vijay Kumar Jain.
    The canonical text ‘Dravyasamgraha’ is believed to have been composed either by the Most Worshipful Ācārya Nemicandra ‘Siddhānta Cakravartī’ (circa 10th century CE) – the celebrated composer of Texts like Gommatasāra, Labdhisāra, and Trilokasāra – or by his later namesake Muni Nemicandra ‘Siddāntideva’ (circa the end of 11th century CE). Ācārya (Muni) Nemicandra’s Dravyasamgraha consists of just 58 verses. In 116 lines of 58 verses, the author has described the six substances (dravya), five with bodily-existence (pañcāstikāya), seven realities (tattva), nine (...)
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  12. Pātañjalayogapradīpa. Patañjali - 1967 - Gorakhapura: Gītāpresa.
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  13. Sāṅkhya darśana śāstram.Vakpatirāja Josī - 1967 - [Kāṭhamāḍauṃ]: Bāśudeva Śarmā Luīṭela.
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  14. Gorakṣapaddhati. Gorakhanātha - 1967
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  15. Logic and language in Indian religions.Johannes Bronkhorst - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (5):775-784.
    This article concentrates on certain beliefs that many Indian thinkers implicitly accepted and that show up in an analysis of reasoned arguments they presented. These beliefs concerned the relationship between language and reality. For Brahmanical thinkers, who owed their privileged position in society in great part to their mastery of texts — the Veda — that were deemed to be directly connected to reality, this relationship between language and reality was a matter of course. For reasons of their own, Buddhist (...)
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  16. Ret︠s︡ept︠s︡ii︠a︡ indiĭsʹkoï filosofiï v Ukraïni: linii︠a︡ Ved (1840-1930-ti rr.) = Perception of the Indian philosophy in Ukraine: the line of the Vedas (1840-1930-s). [REVIEW]I︠U︡ Zavhorodniĭ - 2013 - Kyïv: Instytut filosofiï im. H.S. Skovorody.
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  17. Maṇḍana Miśra: mithaka ā yathārtha.Tārānanda Viyogī - 2013 - Paṭanā, Bihāra: Maithilī Akādamī.
    On the life and works of Maṇḍanamiśra, philosopher of Saṅkarācārya tradition.
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  18. Śrī Śaṅkara's Bhāṣyagranthas: a synthesis of science and spirituality.V. Vasanthakumari - 2013 - Kochi: Sukr̥tīndra Oriental Research Institute.
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  19. Advaitavedānte Bhāmatīprasthānasya tulanātmakamadhyayanam =.Em Vasantā - 2013 - Dillī: Nāga Pabliśarsa.
    Exhaustive study of philosophy of Advaita Vedanta with reference to Bhāmatī of Vācaspatimiśra, active 976-1000.
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  20. Navyanyāyaparibhāṣayā pratyayarekhāṅkanapaddhatyā ca prameyanirūpaṇapraṇālī.Srinivasa Varakhedi - 2013 - Veliyanad, Ernakulam, Kerala: Chinmaya International Foundation Shodha Sansthan.
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  21. Prākr̥tika bhautikavāda.Gopīramaṇa Upādhyāya - 2013 - Kāṭhamāḍauṃ: Nepāla Prajñā-Pratishṭhāna.
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  22. Vāmadhvajavinirmitā Saṅketaṭīkā tayā sahitaḥ Udayanācāryanibaddhaḥ Nyāyakusumāñjaliḥ =. Udayanācārya - 2013 - Ahmedabad: L.D. Institute of Indology.
    Treatise, with commentary, on the basic tenets of the Nyaya school in Hindu philosophy.
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  23. Viśishṭādvaita Vedānta kā vistr̥ta vivecana. Tribhuvanadāsa - 2013 - Dillī: Caukhambā Saṃskr̥ta Pratishṭhāna.
    Study of Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedanta philosophy.
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  24. Dvāsuparṇeti śrutyarthanirṇayaḥ evaṃ Kạ̄yaśodhaśca.Bālabrahmānanda Sūri - 2013 - Beṅgalūru: Pūrṇaprajñasaṃśodhanamandiram.
    Work examines the interpretation of Dvaita Vedanta and explains the stand-point of Advaita Vedanta.
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  25. Yindu fei tan duo zhe xue shi =.Jing Sun - 2013 - Beijing: Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she.
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  26. Vaidika cintana rahasyavāda evaṃ anya darśana.Arcanā Śrīvāstava - 2013 - Kānapura: Āśīsha Prakāśana.
    Study of Advaita philosophy in Vedas and Upanishads.
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  27. Virodhoddhāraḥ.Tāmraparṇī Śrīnivāsācārya - 2013 - Bangalore: Śrībhāgavatāśramapratiṣṭhānam, Śrīmatsatyatīrthasaṃsthānam, Śrībhaṇḍārakerimaṭhaḥ.
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  28. Ānandatāratamyakhaṇḍanam. Śrīnivāsācārya - 2013 - Melukoṭe, Yādavādriḥ: Saṃskr̥ta-Saṃśodhana-Saṃsat.
    Work deals with disputing others' position on differentiated states of supreme bliss in Viśiṣṭādvaita philosophy of Ramanuja.
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  29. La question de la non-dualité dans la Jaiminīyasaṃhitā du Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa: Le Janakapraśna.Sandra Smets - 2013 - Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain, Institut orientaliste.
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  30. Bhedaparāṇyeva khalu Brahmasūtrāṇi. Satyadhyānatīrtha - 2013 - Bangalore: Vidyadhisha Post-Graduate Sanskrit Research Centre.
    Classical Dvaita interpretation of Brahmasūtra of Bādarāyaṇa.
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  31. Vedāntaprakriyāpratyabhijñā =.Satchidanandendra Saraswati - 2013 - Hoḷenarasīpuram: Adhyātmaprakāśakāryālayaḥ.
    A critical account of the the method of the Vedanta and the Advaita tradition; includes comprehensive introduction in English.
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  32. Mahāmunividyāraṇya-kr̥ta Śrībrahmavidāśirvāda meṃ Advaitatattva-cintana /c Ḍô. Jagata Bahādura Śarmā.Jagata Bahādura Śarmā - 2013 - Dillī: Je. Pī. Pabliśiṅga Hāusa.
    Study of Brahmavidāśiravāda of Mādhava, work on Advaita philosophy.
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  33. Swami Vivekananda and Rajarshi Rammohan Ray: two views on sacred authority, two visions of modern India.Bruce Carlisle Robertson - 2013 - New Delhi: Nehru Memorial Museum and Library.
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  34. Tārkika Cakracūḍāmaṇi-Ācārya Sarvadevasūri praṇīta Pramāṇa-mañjarī kā vivecanātmaka adhyayana.Bhūpendra Kumāra Rāthaura - 2013 - Jayapura: Jagadīśa Saṃskr̥ta Pustakālaya.
    Study of Pramāṇamañjarī of Sarvadeva, work on the fundamentals of Vaiśeṣika philosophy.
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  35. Reading Gandhi in the twenty-first century.Niranjan Ramakrishnan - 2013 - New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
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  36. An enquiry into the nature of liberation: Bhaṭṭa Rāmakaṇṭha's Paramokṣanirāsakārikāvr̥tti, a commentary on Sadyojyotiḥ's refutation of twenty conceptions of the liberated state (mokṣa), for the first time critically edited, translated into English and annotated. Rāmakaṇṭha - 2013 - Pondicherry: École Française D'extrême-Orient.
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  37. Divine self, human self: the philosophy of being in two Gita commentaries.Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad - 2013 - London ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
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  38. Ṭippanīsahitaḥ Ākhyātavādaḥ Nañvādaḥ ca.Raghunātha Śiromaṇi - 2013 - Naī Dillī: Rāṣṭrīya Pāṇḍulipi Miśana tathā Deva Pabliśarsa eṇḍa Ḍisṭrībyūṭarsa.
    Pt. 1. Raghunāthaśiromaṇikr̥taḥ Ākhyātavādaḥ Bhavānandasiddhāntavāgīśakr̥tā Ākhyātavādaṭippanī -- pt. 2. Raghunāthaśiromaṇikr̥taḥ Nañvādaḥ Bhavānandasiddhāntavāgīśakr̥tā Nañvādaṭippaṇī.
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  39. Advaitavāde Naiṣkarmyasiddhi-granthasyasthānam.Niranjan Purohit - 2013 - Kolkata: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar.
    Study on Naiṣkarmyasiddhi of Sureśvarācārya, compendium of Advaita philosophy.
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  40. Ādi Śaṅkara: finite to the infinite.Prema Nandakumar - 2013 - Veliyanad: Chinmaya International Foundation.
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  41. The nature of univerasal in Indian philosophy.Sulekha Poddar - 2013 - Kolkata: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar.
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  42. Aptavani -- 8: As expounded by the Ghani Purush Dada Bhagwan.A. M. Patel - 1984 - Gujarat, India: Dada Bhagwan Aradhana Trust.
    "Aptavani 8" is the eighth in a series of spiritual books titled "Aptavani". In this series, Gnani Purush (embodiment of Self knowledge) Dada Bhagwan addresses age-old unanswered questions of spiritual seekers. Dadashri offers in-depth answers to questions such as: "What does karma mean, and what is the law of karma?", "How was the world created, and what is the journey of souls?", and "Who am I, and who is the 'Doer' (ego definition)?"Dadashri also provides profound explanations on: "What is spirituality?", (...)
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  43. Aptavani -- 4: As expounded by the Gnani Purush Dada Bhagwan.A. M. Patel - 2013 - Gujarat, India: Mahavideh Foundation.
    "Aptavani 4" is the fourth in a series of spiritual books titled "Aptavani". In this series, Gnani Purush (embodiment of Self knowledge) Dada Bhagwan addresses age-old unanswered questions of spiritual seekers. Dadashri offers in-depth answers to questions such as: "What is the definition of self awareness, and what are the signs of lack of awareness?", "What is spirituality?", "What are the benefits of spirituality and practice?", "How can I experience a spiritual awakening, and what are the signs of spiritual awakening?", (...)
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  44. Aptavani -- 2: As expounded by the Ghani Purush Dada Bhagwan.A. M. Patel - 2007 - Gujarat, India: Mahavideh Foundation.
    "Aptavani 2" is the second in a series of spiritual books titled "Aptavani". In this series, Gnani Purush (embodiment of Self knowledge) Dada Bhagwan addresses age-old unanswered questions of spiritual seekers. Dadashri offers in-depth answers to questions such as: "What is religion?", "What are the benefits of the different types of religion?", "How do I understand spirituality vs. religion?", "What is spirituality?", "What are the different types of yoga, and how are they relevant to spirituality and practice?", "How can I (...)
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  45. Vaidikavāṅmaye jīvaḥ.Śatrughna Pāṇigrāhī - 2013 - Verāvalam, Jūnāgaḍhajanapadam, Gujarātam: Śrīsomanāthasaṃskr̥tayunivarsiṭī.
    On concept of Jīva in Hindu philosophy and Vedic literature.
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  46. Critical essays on Pūrvamīmāmsā.Ke Ti Pāṇḍuraṅgi - 2013 - Bangalore: Vidyadhisa Post Graduate Sanskrit Research Centre.
    Comprises 82 critical essays represent the lectures delivered in Andhra University, Karnataka University and other centres of studies.
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  47. Mānameyodayaḥ: Bhāṭṭa sampradāya kī eka mahatvapūrṇa racanā. Nārāyaṇabhaṭṭapāda - 2013 - Dillī: Parimala Pablikeśansa.
    Classical work on epistemology and metaphysics, according to the Mīmāṃsa school in Hindu philosophy.
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  48. Darśanasāhityakṣetre Karṇāṭakasya yogadānam.Nagaraja Rao & V. H. - 2013 - Beṅgalūru: Pūrṇaprajñasamśodhanamandiram, Pūrṇaprajñavidyāpīṭham.
    Contribution of philosophers from Karnataka to Indian philosophy; a study.
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  49. Darśanomeṣaḥ.Śivaśaṅkara Miśra - 2013 - Dillī: Īsṭarna Buka Liṅkarsa.
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  50. Pramānalakṣanam. Madhva - 2013 - Beṅgalūru: Pūrṇaprajñasaṃśodhanamandiram.
    13th century text on the definition of knowledge and delineation on the instruments of knowledge according to Dvaita philosophy by Madhva with two classical Sanskrit commentaries.
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