About this topic
Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Mīmāṃsā ("Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors", from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the Cārvākas materialists. Given the diversity of views, theories, and doctrines espoused by philosophers on the Indian subcontinent, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of Indian Philosophy are those of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its countervailing notion of anatman ("not-self") in Buddhism, mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation), and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of philosophical speculation in India is concerned with establishing reliable sources of knowing (pramāṇas) such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued in isolation from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical concerns with Western philosophy, although philosophers in India have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Likewise, there are problems central to Western philosophy (e.g., whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason) that philosophers in India did not pursue, and important distinctions (such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments) they did not make.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. The Increasing Importance of the Physical Body in Early Medieval Haṭhayoga: A Reflection on the Yogic Body in Liberation.Hagar Shalev - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-26.
    One defining feature of the Hindu religious worldviews is a belief in the impermanence of the body and its perception as a source of suffering due to a misguided attachment of the self to its corporeal manifestation. This view is expressed in several important traditions, including classical yoga, which perceives the physical body as an impediment to attaining liberation and irrelevant in the state of liberation.However, the perception of the physical body in liberation is going through ontological changes in early (...)
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  2. On the Early Buddhist Attitude Toward Metaphysics.Qian Lin - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-20.
    Buddhist scholars in the West broadly agree with the proposition that Buddhism has a philosophical tradition, in many respects comparable to Western ones, while many claim that it also has a practical or empirical dimension that Western philosophies, especially the analytic tradition, lack. There is also a scholarly consensus that an implicit metaphysical system serves as the foundation for the doctrines and practices of early Buddhism as represented in the Pāli suttas. However, Buddhist scholarship to date has not distinguished clearly (...)
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  3. Celebrating Heritage, Promoting Tourism, and Relocating Svāmī Vivekānanda: A Study of the Vivekananda Rock Memorial.Gwilym Beckerlegge - forthcoming - International Journal of Hindu Studies.
    Svāmī Vivekānanda’s relationship with his guru Śrī Rāmakṛṣṇa, and his role in the creation of the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission in the final decade of the nineteenth century, has attracted far more scholarly attention than the meanings invested in Vivekānanda after his death by devotees and admirers beyond the Math and Mission and by the various organizations that have disseminated these meanings. To redress this imbalance, this article examines the message embodied in, and projected by, the Vivekananda Rock Memorial (...)
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  4. The Gotra Theory in the Madhyāntavibhāgaṭīkā.Martin Delhey - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-18.
    The Yogācāra school of Buddhism is well known for maintaining that the sentient beings are divided by nature according to five different spiritual dispositions. These five spiritual dispositions are established as a pentad and explained in one of Xuanzang’s Chinese translations, but the Indian origin of the pertinent textual passage is debated. In the introductory part of this paper, it is argued that Xuanzang’s explanations of the five spiritual dispositions in themselves are, to a great extent, in line with the (...)
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  5. Comparative Hindu and Presocratic Philosophy.Ferdinand Tablan - 2002 - Filosophia 31 (1):16-31.
    This paper aims to synthesize two equally impressive systems of thought: Indian philosophy in the East and Presocratic philosophy in the West, which are separated not only by space and time but by our prejudices. It attempts to show the universality of philosophy by exploring the parallelisms and similarities, clarifying contrasts, and highlighting the common themes that are emphasized and de-emphasized in them. The study does not intend to give a complete account of the early Greek and Hindu thoughts. The (...)
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  6. The Dzokchen Apology: On the Limits of Logic, Language, & Epistemology in Early Great Perfection.Dominic Di Zinno Sur - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-46.
    This article examines the translator, Rongzom’s, scholastic philosophical defense of early Dzokchen or “Great Perfection.” As our earliest instance of religious apologia in Tibet, this examination contributes to a growing body of knowledge about the Tibetan assimilation of post-tenth century of Vajrayāna Buddhism and the indigenous response to the forces of cultural transformation shaping the late eleventh/early twelfth century Tibet. Traditional authorities and academics have identified Dzokchen as a Tibetan tradition of Buddhism that drew intense criticism at the time from (...)
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  7. Naming the Seventh Consciousness in Yogācāra.Yan Cao - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-22.
    The Yogācāra School presents the seventh consciousness as the internal mental faculty of the sixth consciousness. According to the Hīnayāna tradition, the internal faculty is called manas, so the complete compound word referring to the seventh consciousness is manovijñāna. Thus, in the Yogācāra system the seventh and sixth consciousnesses are both named manovijñāna. In order to resolve the confusion of the homonyms, one of them must be adjusted. Based on the Tibetan term, nyon yid rnam par shes pa, some scholars (...)
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  8. Intrauterine Dependent Origination: A Translation of the Indakasutta and its Commentaries.Giuliano Giustarini - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):895-912.
    The Indakasutta, its commentary, and sub-commentary describe and discuss the phases of intrauterine development. By adopting a terminology remarkably comparable to that of other Buddhist and non-Buddhist texts, they illustrate fundamental Buddhist teachings like the non-self view and the dependent arising. I here offer a translation of these three texts, preceded by an introductory outline of their contents.
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  9. The Changing Meanings of āśraya in Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakośa.Szilvia Szanyi - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):953-973.
    The term āśraya is used in manifold ways in the Abhidharmakośa and its bhāṣya. This comes from the fact that its basic meaning, indicating anything on which something else depends or rests, is quite generic. Despite the plasticity of its usage, we can find some recurring and distinct technical applications of the term in the AK, which I explore in my paper. First, I look at its usage of characterising a member of various asymmetric dependence relationships on which the arising (...)
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  10. The Nyāyabindu in Tangut Translation.Zhouyang Ma - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):779-825.
    This paper studies the Tangut translation of Dharmakīrti’s Nyāyabindu. The Tangut translation of the treatise from the Tibetan text provides opportunities for us to pursue two objectives: it is a source that allows us to probe into the history of the rise of Tibetan Buddhist scholasticism in the Tangut State; it also enables us to make sense of the Tangut Buddhist language used to translate Tibetan Buddhist doctrinal and philosophical texts. The paper argues that the Tangut translation was based on (...)
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  11. From Word Magic to Systematic Linguistic Inquiry: The Kautsa Controversy in Nirukta 1.15–16.Paolo Visigalli & Yūto Kawamura - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):931-951.
    Recorded in Nirukta 1.15–16, the controversy between Kautsa and Yāska on whether the Vedic mantras are meaningful or not represents a turning point in the traditional interpretation of the Veda. While references to this controversy are often found in literature, a systematic discussion of the whole episode has not to our knowledge been undertaken. This paper offers a detailed analysis of this controversy. We first review previous scholarship and elucidate the structure and rationale of the controversy. Then, we provide an (...)
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  12. Mala according to the Pauṣkaratantra: nature, function and elimination.Usha Colas-Chauhan - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):975-998.
    The dualist Śaiva doctrine considers that mala is that which obstructs the true nature of the self and sets in motion the operation of bondage. Though many dualist Śaiva tantras discuss the concept of mala, only the Pauṣkara presents a detailed exposition supported by numerous arguments. This article aims to closely report those arguments and to search within the Pauṣkara for answers to certain questions that the concept provokes.
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  13. Substantialism, Essentialism, Emptiness: Buddhist Critiques of Ontology.Rafal K. Stepien - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):871-893.
    This article seeks to introduce a greater degree of precision into our understanding of Madhyamaka Buddhist ontological non-foundationalism, focussing specifically on the Madhyamaka founder Nāgārjuna. It distinguishes four senses of what the ‘foundation’ whose existence Mādhyamikas deny means; that is, as ‘something that stands under or grounds things’ ; as ‘a particular kind of basic entity’ ; as ‘an individual essence by means of which it is identical to that very object, to itself’ ; and as ‘an essence in the (...)
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  14. The Concept of Manopavicāra in Vasubandhu’s Exposition of Pratītyasamutpāda in Chapter Three of the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya.Maxim Voroshilov - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):759-777.
    This paper examines the concept of manopavicāra, found within the exposition of dependent arising in chapter three of the Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma of Vasubandhu. According to Vasubandhu, the feeling link in the chain of dependent arising consists of body-related feeling and mind-related feeling. Mind-related feeling is divided into eighteen manopavicāras. Manopavicāras are the three modalities of feeling: satisfaction, dissatisfaction, equanimity. They are said to rely on the objects or to direct the mind toward the objects, which, in (...)
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  15. Pratibhā as Vākyārtha? Bhartr̥hari’s Theory of “Insight” as the Object of a Sentence and Its Early Interpretations.Hugo David - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):827-869.
    This essay offers a fresh interpretation of Bhartr̥hari’s concept of “insight”, and of its identification as the object of a sentence in the second kāṇḍa of the Vākyapadīya. Earlier scholars dealing with this topic disagreed on three main points: whether an epistemologically rigorous concept of insight can be found in Bhartr̥hari’s work, or if the notion remains irrevocably vague and equivocal; whether the concept of pratibhā primarily belongs to linguistics, or to action theory; whether Bhartr̥hari’s identification of insight as the (...)
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  16. From the Sequence of the Sun-Goddess (bhānavīkrama) to Time-Consumption (kālagrāsa): Some Notes on the Development of the Śākta Doctrine of the Twelve Kālīs.Aleksandra Wenta - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):725-757.
    The doctrine of the twelve Kālīs is one of the earliest developments of the Śākta tradition of the Kālīkula/Kālīkrama/Mahānaya and it is well known in the later exegetical works of Abhinavagupta, Kṣemarāja, and Maheśvarānanda. Although the twelve Kālīs have been treated to some extent in secondary literature, a systematic study of the development and reception of this doctrine has not been undertaken yet. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the Kālīkula scriptures are available in manuscript form, (...)
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  17. The Play of Formulas in the Early Buddhist Discourses.Eviatar Shulman - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-24.
    The play of formulas is a new theory designed to explain the manner in which discourses were composed in the early Buddhist tradition, focusing at present mainly on the Dīgha- and Majjhima- Nikāyas. This theory combats the commonly accepted views that texts are mainly an attempt to record and preserve the Buddha’s teachings and life events, and that the best way to understand their history is to compare parallel versions of them. By identifying the creative, mainly the literary, vectors alive (...)
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  18. Nietzsche on Greek and Indian Philosophy.Emma Syea - 2016 - In Universe and Inner Self in Early Indian and Early Greek Thought. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 265-278.
    Nietzsche was struck by the similarities between Greek and Indian philosophy. From the perspective elaborated in On the Genealogy of Morality - in which values are derived from the physiological, psychological, and social domains - we would expect the similarities of thought to derive from similarities in the conditions of the two cultures. A role is played here by the agonal spirit manifest in the Iliad, Hesiod, and Heraclitus as well as in Indian philosophy and in the Mahabharata and Ramayana. (...)
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  19. Daya Krishna and Twentieth-Century Indian Philosophy: A New Way of Thinking About Art, Freedom and Knowledge by Daniel Raveh.Elise Coquereau-Saouma - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (4):1-7.
    In a world where philosophy has become "global" and yet is mainly written by scholars educated and/or writing in "top" universities, where syllabi must become more "inclusive" yet conform to the same academic style, Daya Krishna's philosophy is distinctively refreshing and thought-provoking.1 Professor at the University of Rajasthan, prolific author, unremitting correspondent in journals, letters, and dialogues, anti-conformist regarding the norms of Western academia and irreverent toward the "inalterability" of the philosophical Indian traditions, Daya Krishna's creative and daring philosophical spirit (...)
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  20. The Missing God of Heidegger and Karl Jaspers: Too Late for God; Too Early for the Gods—with a Vignette From Indian Philosophy.Purushottama Bilimoria - 2021 - Sophia 60 (3):593-606.
    The essay explores how God is conceived—if only just—in the works of two existentialist philosophers: Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers, one considers the mutual convergence and disarming divergence of their respective positions. In 1919, Martin Heidegger announced his distancing of himself from the Catholic faith, apparently liberating himself to pursue philosophical research unfettered by theological allegiances. Thereafter, the last of the Western metaphysicians takes his hammer to the ‘destruktion of onto-theology’—the piety of Greek philosophy and of Hellenized Judaeo-Christianity. The essay (...)
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  21. Review of Realisms Interlinked by Arindam Chakrabarti. [REVIEW]Kurt Sylvan - forthcoming - Mind.
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  22. The Structure of the Sarvadarśanasaṃgraha.Johannes Bronkhorst - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):523-534.
    This article shows in detail that the widely held view according to which the Sarvadarśanasaṃgraha has a hierarchical structure is mistaken. It further argues that at least some parts of the texts were independent essays before being incorporated into the Sarvadarśanasaṃgraha.
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  23. Vedāntic Analogies Expressing Oneness and Multiplicity and their Bearing on the History of the Śaiva Corpus. Part I: Pariṇāmavāda.Andrea Acri - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):535-569.
    This article, divided into two parts, traces and discusses two pairs of analogies invoked in Sanskrit literature to articulate the paradox of God’s oneness and multiplicity vis-à-vis the souls and the manifest world, reflecting the philosophical positions of pariṇāmavāda and vivartavāda. These are, respectively, the analogies of fire in wood and dairy products in milk, and moon/sun in pools of water and space in pots. In Part I, having introduced prevalent ideas about the status of the supreme principle vis-à-vis creation (...)
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  24. Gaṅgeśa on Absence in Retrospect.Jack Beaulieu - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):603-639.
    Cases of past absence involve agents noticing in retrospect that an object or property was absent, such as when one notices later that a colleague was not at a talk. In Sanskrit philosophy, such cases are introduced by Kumārila as counterexamples to the claim that knowledge of absence is perceptual, but further take on a life of their own as a topic of inquiry among Kumārila’s commentators and their Nyāya interlocutors. In this essay, I examine the Nyāya philosopher Gaṅgeśa’s epistemology (...)
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  25. Vedāntic Analogies Expressing Oneness and Multiplicity and Their Bearing on the History of the Śaiva Corpus. Part II: Vivartavāda.Andrea Acri - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):571-601.
    This article, divided into two parts, traces and discusses two pairs of analogies invoked in Sanskrit literature to articulate the paradox of God’s oneness and multiplicity vis-à-vis the souls and the manifest world, reflecting the philosophical positions of pariṇāmavāda and vivartavāda. These are, respectively, the analogies of fire in wood and dairy products in milk, and moon/sun in pools of water and space in pots. Having introduced prevalent ideas about the status of the supreme principle vis-à-vis the souls and creation (...)
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  26. The Inferential Model of Meaning: An Abandoned Route.Nirmalya Guha - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):641-655.
    A speaker utters the grammatically correct phrase ‘x y’, and the hearer understands its meaning. The Naiyāyika claims that the only epistemic instrument that generates the semantic connection between the meaning of x and the meaning of y is testimony. This connection is essentially the phrase-meaning. The Vaiśeṣika wants inference to generate this connection. After presenting the Vaiśeṣika view on this topic, this paper will argue that, the hearer considers the generic categories of |x| and |y|, and infers their ontic (...)
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  27. Beginnings of Jaina Ontology and Its Models.Piotr Balcerowicz - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):657-697.
    The paper analyses the beginnings of systematic ontology in Jainism, which appears to have began after first century CE, albeit certain ontology-relevant terminology in a nascent form was present earlier. A clear expression of systematic ontological reflection is the existence of models that organize ideas and categories in a more consistent conceptual scheme. Jainism follows similar developments that had earlier taken shape in in the early Buddhist Abhidharma, proto-Sāṁkhya-Yoga and proto-Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika. In addition, the paper argues that the models, five in (...)
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  28. “Memory” Revisited: What Sāmavedic Technical Literature Tells Us About Smṛti’s Early Meaning.Guy St Amant - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (4):699-724.
    In this paper, I build on recent scholarship concerning the early semantic history of the word “smṛti,” which has been shown to denote “tradition” in the early dharmasūtra material. I seek to add nuance to this work by examining the meaning of smṛti in the early Sāmavedic technical literature. This corpus helps elucidate one of the processes whereby smṛti came to refer to something textual. This paper argues that smṛti’s earliest textualized referent may have been fixed or semi-fixed individual statements (...)
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  29. DAYA KRISHNA's COUNTER ARGUMENT TO THE TRADITIONAL ACCOUNT OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AS ORTHODOX AND NON-ORTHODOX SYSTEM.Sony Das - 2020 - kUNWALI 2 (1):79-82.
    This paper is an attempt to explore, Daya Krishna’s counter argument towards traditional account of Indian Philosophy as Orthodox and Non- Orthodox system. Daya Krishna gives a new orientation for a new history of Indian philosophy. In his observation, Daya Krishna finds it unjustified to classify Indian Philosophy as Orthodox and Heterodox system on the basis of authority. Daya Krishna’s major concern has been to revaluate Indian philosophical past and related to it to the active philosophical concern of the contemporary (...)
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  30. Classical Indian Philosophy: A History of Philosophy Without Any Gaps by Peter Adamson and Jonardon Ganeri.Joerg Tuske - 2021 - Philosophy East and West 71 (3):1-5.
    "I cannot recommend this book highly enough!" Is this statement true or have I succeeded in lavishing enough praise on this book by writing this statement, making this statement in fact false? This is one way in which Adamson and Ganeri explain the view of the Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna that everything is empty. Nāgārjuna has to defend himself against the objection that if everything is "empty" then this surely also applies to his own view. He famously argues that he does (...)
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  31. Gandhi's Philosophy of Nonviolence: Essential Selections.Brian C. Barnett -
    A concise open-access teaching resource featuring essential selections from Gandhi on the philosophy of nonviolence. The book includes: a preface, brief explanatory notes, supplementary boxes containing related philosophical material, images and videos, an appendix on post-Gandhian nonviolence, questions for reflection/discussion, and suggestions for further study.
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  32. Nothing But Gold. Complexities in Terms of Non-difference and Identity: Part 1. Coreferential Puzzles.Alberto Anrò - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (3):361-386.
    Beginning from some passages by Vācaspati Miśra and Bhāskararāya Makhin discussing the relationship between a crown and the gold of which it is made, this paper investigates the complex underlying connections among difference, non-difference, coreferentiality, and qualification qua relations. Methodologically, philological care is paired with formal logical analysis on the basis of ‘Navya-Nyāya Formal Language’ premises and an axiomatic set theory-based approach. This study is intended as the first step of a broader investigation dedicated to analysing causation and transformation in (...)
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  33. Nāgārjunian-Yogācārian Modal Logic versus Aristotelian Modal Logic.Andrew Schumann - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (3):467-498.
    There are two different modal logics: the logic T assuming contingency and the logic K = assuming logical determinism. In the paper, I show that the Aristotelian treatise On Interpretation has introduced some modal-logical relationships which correspond to T. In this logic, it is supposed that there are contingent events. The Nāgārjunian treatise Īśvara-kartṛtva-nirākṛtiḥ-viṣṇoḥ-ekakartṛtva-nirākaraṇa has introduced some modal-logical relationships which correspond to K =. In this logic, it is supposed that there is a logical determinism: each event happens necessarily or (...)
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  34. The Infinite, Within Limits.Jonathan C. Gold - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):55-59.
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  35. THE DELIRIUM OF APPEARANCE.Abhilash G. Nath - 2016 - The Philosopher 104 ( TUESDAY, 1 MARCH 2016):10 - 20.
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  36. The Delirium of Appearance.Abhilash G. Nath - 2018 - Indian Journal of Politics and International Relations 11 (No. 1 & 2 2018):93 - 107.
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  37. The Forgotten Consort: The Goddess and Kāmadeva in the Early Worship of Tripurasundarī.Anna A. Golovkova - 2020 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 24 (1):87-106.
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  38. Rāmakṛṣṇa and Religious Pluralism Revisited.Amiya P. Sen - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):107-112.
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  39. Dasakathāvatthu: An Alternative Path of Practice Leading to Liberation.Ven Sajal Barua - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (3):499-521.
    Dasakathāvatthu appears to be a unique, but less known course of training in the Buddhist spiritual practice of the Theravāda tradition. Though the importance of the practice is highlighted, it is discussed with very little information in the Pāli Nikāya literature. But a well-informed discussion of the practice is found in the commentarial texts. One specific feature of the practice is that the path factors are defined as kathā suggesting that the practice is dialogical. This is in connection with the (...)
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  40. The Paraconsistent Brahman? Saguṇatva, Nirguṇatva, and the Principle of Non-Contradiction.Michael S. Allen - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):73-78.
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  41. On Śālikanātha’s Critique of Īśvara and the Notions of God.Alfred X. Ye - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (3):451-465.
    The arguments against the existence of Īśvara that are advanced by Śālikanātha’s Prakaraṇapañcikā are quite peculiar and cryptic, due to both the idiosyncratic nature and opaque style of Śālikanātha’s writing. This has contributed to the difficulty in identifying the actual nature of the views that Śālikanātha opposes. This article analyses the framework by which Śālikanātha interrogates the concept of Īśvara and discusses the possible sources of his arguments. It shows, contrary to the conclusions of past scholarship, that considerations of both (...)
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  42. Continuing the Philosophical Conversation on Śrī Rāmakṛṣṇa: A Response.Swami Medhananda - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):141-164.
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  43. Nothing but Gold: Complexities in terms of Non-difference and Identity. Part 2. Contrasting Equivalence, Equality, Identity, and Non-difference.Alberto Anrò - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (3):387-420.
    The present paper is a continuation of a previous one by the same title, the content of which faced the issue concerning the relations of coreference and qualification in compliance with the Navya-Nyāya theoretical framework, although prompted by the Advaita-Vedānta enquiry regarding non-difference. In a complementary manner, by means of a formal analysis of equivalence, equality, and identity, this section closes the loop by assessing the extent to which non-difference, the main issue here, cannot be reduced to any of the (...)
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  44. The Revival of Tantrism: Tibetan Buddhism and Modern China.Martino Dibeltulo Concu - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    This dissertation considers how Tantrism, a ritual tradition vanished in India and in China, but preserved in modern Japan and Tibet, became a component of the revival of Chinese Buddhism between the two World Wars. Tantrism became appealing to revivalists who, in China’s time of internal war and foreign invasion, sought to recover this lost tradition, writing about its rituals, initiations, and teachings in a nostalgic mode. In Republican China (1912-1949), Tantrism would generate an interest in Tibetan Buddhism, which would (...)
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  45. Correction To: Gaṅgeśa on Epistemic Luck.Nilanjan Das - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):203-204.
    In the original publication of the article, on page 20, the section heading should be “Gaṅgeśa on Testimony and Epistemic Luck” instead of “Testimony and Epistemic Luck”.
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  46. Rāmakṛṣṇa’s Tantric Background.C. J. Bartley - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):101-106.
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  47. Beyond the Implicit Materialism of Mere Description.Jeffery D. Long - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):61-66.
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  48. Rāmakṛṣṇa: Saint, Mystic—Philosopher?Julius Lipner - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):127-133.
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  49. Madness, Virtue, and Ecology: A Classical Indian Approach to Psychiatric Disturbance.Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512098224.
    The Caraka Saṃhitā, the first classical Indian medical compendium, covers a wide variety of pharmacological and therapeutic treatment, while also sketching out a philosophical anthropology of the human subject who is the patient of the physicians for whom this text was composed. In this article, I outline some of the relevant aspects of this anthropology – in particular, its understanding of ‘mind’ and other elements that constitute the subject – before exploring two ways in which it approaches ‘psychiatric’ disorder: one (...)
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  50. Pluralisms and the Issue of the Third.Perry Schmidt-Leukel - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (1-2):87-91.
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