About this topic
Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Mīmāṃsā ("Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors", from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the Cārvākas materialists. Given the diversity of views, theories, and doctrines espoused by philosophers on the Indian subcontinent, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of Indian Philosophy are those of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its countervailing notion of anatman ("not-self") in Buddhism, mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation), and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of philosophical speculation in India is concerned with establishing reliable sources of knowing (pramāṇas) such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued in isolation from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical concerns with Western philosophy, although philosophers in India have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Likewise, there are problems central to Western philosophy (e.g., whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason) that philosophers in India did not pursue, and important distinctions (such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments) they did not make.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. Brahmasiddhi. Maṇḍanamiśra, Śaṇkhapāṇi & S. Kuppuswami Sastri - 1937 - Delhi, India: Indian Books Centre. Edited by Śaṅkhapāṇi & S. Kuppuswami Sastri.
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  2. Vivekacūḍāmaṇiḥ. Śaṅkarācārya - 1932 - Kalyāṇa, Bambaī: Gaṅgaviṣṇu Śrīkr̥ṣṇadāsa. Edited by Candraśekhara Śarmā & Mādhavācārya.
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  3. Metaphysics: East and West.Michael Clark, Li Kang, Kris McDaniel & Tuomas E. Tahko (eds.) - 2024 - Springer Nature.
    The basic concepts we use to frame metaphysical discussions – our tools of metaphysics – profoundly influence how those discussions proceed. Much recent work in anglophone metaphysics has centred on a set of hyperintensional such tools: grounding, dependence, fundamentality, and essence. This topical collection will provide new perspectives on these debates by bringing them into contact with Asian metaphysical traditions.
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  4. 7 th International Buddhist Conference - IBC 2022.Randika Perera (ed.) - 2022
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  5. Ṣaḍdarśaneṣu pramāṇaprameyasamuccayaḥ. Anantavīrya - 2000 - Vārāṇasī: Sampūrṇānanda-Saṃskr̥ta-Viśvavidyālaye. Edited by Kumāra Anekānta Jaina.
    Ancient text on logic in Indic philosophy.
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  6. A Buddhist Critique of Desire: The Notion of Kāma in Aśvaghoṣa’s Saundarananda.Nir Feinberg - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-18.
    The critical analysis of desire is a staple of classical Buddhist thought; however, modern scholarship has focused primarily on doctrinal and scholastic texts that explain the Buddhist understanding of desire. As a result, the contribution of _kāvya_ (poetry) to the classical Buddhist philosophy of desire has not received much scholarly attention. To address this dearth, I explore in this article the notion of _kāma_ (desire or love) in Aśvaghoṣa’s epic poem, the _Saundarananda_ (_Beautiful Nanda_). I begin by framing the poem’s (...)
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  7. Rāmānujasiddhāntajyotsnā: proceedings of national seminar on The philosophy of Ramanuja (sponsored by the ICPR) 4th to 6th April, 2016.Ke ṬiVi Rāghavan (ed.) - 2016 - Tirupatiḥ: Śrīveṅkaṭeśvaravedaviśvavidyālayaḥ.
    Proceedings of the National Seminar on the Philosophy of Ramanuja, sponsored by ICPR, New Delhi during 4-6 April, 2016.
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  8. Discerning Philosophy in the Uttarāmnāya Liturgies of the Newars.Pongsit Pangsrivongse - 2024 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 52 (1):21-40.
    Although the Kaula literature of the Newars did not give rise to a systematic philosophical school like that of their Kashmiri counterparts, I will argue in this article that philosophical thinking can be detected in Newar ritual texts. I do this by translating and analysing the unpublished _Kālīsūtra_, an important hymn found in Newar Uttarāmnāya liturgies whose transmission and composition will also be touched upon. This hymn indicates that the cult of Kālī in Nepal had a distinct ontological stance tending (...)
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  9. Contradiction, Negation, and the Catuṣkoṭi: Just Several Passages from Dharmapāla’s Commentary on Āryadeva’s Catuḥśataka. [REVIEW]Chih-Chiang Hu - 2024 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 52 (1):1-20.
    Using logic-laden terms to translate and interpret what the ancient Indian Buddhist thinkers said when we are not sure what they spoke about when they spoke about ‘contradictions’, etc. in natural languages can sometimes make things frustrating. Keeping in mind Wittgenstein’s exhortation, “don’t think, but look!”, I approach the issues of contradiction, negation, and the _catuṣkoṭi_ via case-by-case study on several pertinent passages in Dharmapāla’s _Dasheng Guangbailun Shilun_. The following are some interrelated observations which should not be overgeneralized, especially considering (...)
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  10. Candrakīrti on lokaprasiddhi: A Bad Hand, or an Ace in the Hole?John Newman - 2024 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 52 (1):73-99.
    The Indian Buddhist Mādhyamika master Candrakīrti (ca. 7th century CE) grounds his philosophy in _lokaprasiddhi_ / -_prasiddha_, “that which is common knowledge / generally accepted among people in the world.” This raises the question of whether Candrakīrti accepts _everything_ that is “common knowledge” or instead distinguishes and privileges certain justifiable beliefs within common knowledge. Tom J.F. Tillemans has argued that Candrakīrti advocates a “lowest common denominator” version of _lokaprasiddhi_ instead of a model which promotes “in some areas at least, more (...)
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  11. Is Reflection Real According to Abhinavagupta? Dynamic Realism Versus Naïve Realism.Mrinal Kaul - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-28.
    This essay is one more attempt of understanding the non-dual philosophical position of Abhinavagupta viz-a-viz the problem of reflection. Since when my first essay on ‘Abhinavagupta on Reflection’ appeared in JIP, I have once again focused on the non-dual Śaiva theory of reflection (_pratibimbavāda_) (3.1-65) as discussed by Abhinavagupta (_fl.c._ 975-1025 CE) in the _Tantrāloka_ and his commentator Jayaratha (_fl.c._ 1225-1275 CE). The present attempt is to understand their philosophical position in the context of Nyāya realism where a reflection is (...)
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  12. Dialog “buddhism – western philosophy” as the reality game: An interview with dr. Jan Westerhoff.Olena Kalantarova - 2024 - Filosofska Dumka (Philosophical Thought) 1:122-134.
    No one is surprised anymore by the dialogue between Buddhism and Western science, which develops the foundations of cognitive and contemplative sciences. But there have been requests for reflection on the results achieved, or even for a strategy for analytical research of the Buddhist East, which brings this dialogue to the philosophical level. And this level of discussion is, in fact, the dialogue between Buddhism and Western philosophy, which requires a new discourse that should be built on their common ground. (...)
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  13. Bhāratīyadarśanasiddhāntaprabhā.Gopabandhu Miśra & Bī Umāmaheśvarī (eds.) - 2020 - Verāvalam, Gujarātam: Śrīsomanāthasaṃskr̥tayunivarsiṭī.
    Contributed research papers on Indic philosophy presented at Akhila Bhāratīya Darśana Saṅgoṣṭhī on the topic of "Bhāratīyadarśaneṣu Saiddhāntikapakṣāḥ" organized from 5th February 2019 to 7th February 2019 by Shree Somnath Sanskrit University, Veraval.
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  14. Ajata.Robert Wolfe - 2022 - Ojai, California: Karina Library Press.
    Robert Wolfe writes about the nature of the ajata teachings, or the nature of emptiness and absolute reality.
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  15. Brahmasūtracatuḥsūtrīśāṅkarabhāṣya-Bhāmatī: Hindī anuvāda evaṃ vyākhyā. Vācaspatimiśra - 2022 - Eraṇākulama, Keralam, Bhāratam: Cinmaya Iṇṭarneśanala Phauṇḍeśana. Edited by Kanshi Ram & Vācaspatimiśra.
    Supercommentary on Śaṅkarācārya's Śārīrakamīmāṃāṃsābhāṣya, Advaita commentary on Brahmasūtra of Bādarāyaṇa.
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  16. Catussūtrīśāṅkaraśārīrarakabhāṣyam: Bhāṣyaratnaprabhāprakāśākhyavyākhyāyutam. Śaṅkarācārya - 2022 - Haidarābād: Saṃskr̥ta Akāḍamī, Kendrīyasaṃskr̥taviśvavidyālayena mānitā Ādarśasaṃsthā, Usmāniāviśvavidyālayaḥ. Edited by Śriṣṭi Lakṣmīkumāra Śarmā, Ke Vi Sūryaprakāśa & Ke Nīlakaṇṭham.
    Śaṅkarācārya's commentary with supercommentary on Catuḥsūtra of Brahmasūtra.
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  17. Śrī Harikathāmr̥tasāra.Subōdha Rāmarāya - 2022 - Beṅgaḷūru: Kuvempu Bhāṣā Bhārati Prādhikāra. Edited by Jagannāthadāsa, Paṅkajā Gururāja Subōdha, Raghuvīra Subōdha & EṃEs Caitra.
    Commentary to the "Harikathāmr̥tasāra." work of Jagannāthadāsa, 1728-1809, on the quintessence of Dvaita Vedanta, and on Vishnu, Hindu deity.
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  18. Indiĭskie filosofy o prirode vosprii︠a︡tii︠a︡: Dignāga i ego opponenty: teksty i issledovanii︠a︡ = Indian Philosophers on the Nature of Perception: Dignāga and His Opponents. Text and Research.Viktorii︠a︡ Georgievna Lysenko - 2022 - Moskva: Nauka-Vostochnai︠a︡ literatura.
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  19. Śrīkr̥ṣṇāvadhūtaracitāni Madhvatatvasūtrāṇi svopajñavyākhyāsahitāni. Kr̥ṣṇāvadhūta - 2022 - Beṅgalūru: Śrīviśveśatīrthasaṃśodhanakendram, Karnatakasamskrtavisvavidyalayena "Samsodhanakendram" iti manitam. Edited by Ānandatīrthācārya Vi Nāgasampagi.
    Treatise with auto-commentary on Dvaita philosophy.
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  20. Bhagavatpāda Ādi Śaṅkarācārya evaṃ Devī Ubhayabhāratī.Kr̥shṇa Bihārī - 2022 - Paṭanā: Jānakī Prakāśana. Edited by Manīsha Priyadarśī.
    On the life and philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya, Hindu philosopher.
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  21. A hermeneutical approach to Śrī Madhvācārya's interpretation of the śrutis.Henry D'Almeida - 2022 - Delhi: Christian World Imprints.
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  22. Cūḍānātha Bhaṭṭarāyakā paurastya dārśanika kr̥tiharū.Chudanath Bhattarai - 2022 - Kāṭhamāḍaum̐: Nepāla Prajñā-Pratishṭhāna. Edited by Jagat Upādhyāya Prekshita.
    Compilation of articles on Indic philosophy.
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  23. Bharati.Santu Singha, Priyanka Mandal & Subrata Gayen (eds.) - 2022 - Kolkata: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar.
    Contributed research papers on various aspects of Hindu philosophy, Sanskrit grammar and poetics.
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  24. Advaitasudhānidhiḥ: Tattvasudhāsahitaṃ Dakṣiṇāmūrtistotram, Kiraṇāvalīsahitam, Advaitopadeśapañcaratnam, savyākhyānam Ātmabodhaprakaraṇam, Dīpikāsahitā Kaivalyopaniṣad.Ke Nīlakaṇṭham, Joṣī Bharadvāja & Ke Vi Sūryaprakāśa (eds.) - 2022 - Haidarābāda: Saṃskr̥ta Akāḍamī (Kendrīyasaṃskr̥taviśvavidyālayena mānita Ādarśaśodhasaṃsthā), Usmāniāviśvavidyālayaḥ.
    Text and commentary of selected works on Advaita.
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  25. Collected works of Acharya Brajendranath Seal.Brajendranath Seal - 2023 - Kolkata: The Asiatic Society. Edited by Dilipkumar Mohanta.
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  26. The problem of freedom and the phantasmagoria of Swaraj : reflections on a necessary illusion.Murzban Jal - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  27. The concept of freedom and Krishna Chandra Bhattacharyya.D. P. Chattopadhyaya - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  28. Three moods in Krishna Chandra Bhattacharyya.A. Raghuramaraju - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  29. Bhattacharyya-Vṛtti : K.C. Bhattacharyya's commentary on the Yogasūtra.Daniel Raveh - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  30. Between Abhinavagupta and Daya Krishna : Krishna Chandra Bhattacharyya on the problem of other minds.Nalini Bhushan & Jay L. Garfield - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  31. K.C. Bhattacharyya and spontaneous liberation in Sāṃkhya.Dimitry Shevchenko - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  32. Felt" body and the "interiority" of space in the thought of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya.Kalyankumar Bagchi - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  33. Up down backward on the stairs of the self : from bodily to spiritual subjectivity.Arindam Chakrabarti - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  34. Three absolutes and four types of negation : integrating Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya's insights?Stephen Kaplan - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  35. Vocabularies of the heart : reflecting on Hr̥dayasaṃvāda and Sahr̥daya in light of K.C. Bhattacharyya's new commentary on RASA.Dor Miller - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  36. Feeling and factuality : K.C. Bhattacharyya's reflections on Śaṅkara's Doctrine of Māyā.Nir Feinberg - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  37. The concept of demand : Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya's key to spiritual progress.Elise Coquereau-Saouma - 2023 - In Elise Coquereau-Saouma & Daniel Raveh (eds.), The Making of Contemporary Indian Philosophy: Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  38. Bhāratīyadarśane pramāṇavimarśaḥ: Prabhākaramīmāṃsāyāḥ viśeṣasandarbhe.Vandanā Tripāṭhī - 2023 - Dillī: Pratibhā Prakāśana.
    Analytical study of verbal testimony (Pramāṇa) in Indian philosophy with special reference to Prabhākaramiśra, ancient Sanskrit philosopher and thinker of Mimamsa philosophy.
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  39. Bhāratīya evaṃ pāścātya darśana meṃ īśvara kā svarūpa: eka tulanātmaka dr̥shṭikoṇa.Śrī Bhagavāna - 2023 - Naī Dillī, Bhārata: Sañjaya Prakāśana.
    Comparative study of philosophy of God in Indic and Western philosophy.
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  40. Gli esercizi di Patañjali: contro la vorticosità della affezioni della vita abitudinaria.Federico Squarcini - 2023 - Pisa: Edizioni ETS.
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  41. Puruṣa: personhood in ancient India.M. I. Robertson - 2023 - New York, NY, United States of America: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter introduces the subject of personhood and its significance to Indic traditions and academic discourses. The category of 'person' is distinguished from the categories of 'self' and 'body' by virtue of its relational, permeable, and "extensional" or "expansive" character. The scholarly tendency to frame persons as "microcosms"-bodies that contain within the replication of the cosmos-at-large-is problematized. Indic persons are most often conceived as outward-facing, phenomenalistic, world-wide entities. Chapters of the work are summarized. Significance of Indic theories of personhood to (...)
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  42. Yog yogi yogini.Anuja Rawat - 2023 - Nedw Delhi, India: Satyam Publishing House. Edited by Asim Kulshrestha.
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  43. Advaitavādikāśmīraśaivāgameṣu Rudratattvavimarśaḥ =. Pradīpa - 2023 - Naī Dillī: Śivālika Prakāśana.
    On Rudra (Hindu deity) in Kashmir Shaivism philosophy.
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  44. Utkrāntisāraḥ: Utkrāntisvarūpanirūpaṇaṃ, vimarśca.Kānteśācārya Kadaramaṇḍalagi - 2023 - Beṅgalūru: Śrīvidyādhīśasnātakottarasaṃskr̥taśodhakendram.
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  45. You are strong and worthy: celebrating the yogi in all of us.Harmony Willow Hansen - 2023 - New York, NY: Workman Publishing Co..
    Yoga is the exercise of choice for so many because it makes you feel great in body and mind. But modern images of yoga have long featured the same kinds of bodies--white, slim, young, cis-gendered, able. Harmony Willow Hansen knows that a celebration of every kind of body brings more joy and inclusivity to all of us. She has been drawing joyful people in practice for years, creating a presence on Instagram that reaches hundreds of thousands of yoga lovers. Her (...)
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  46. Keywords of Vedānta: in the light of the teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi.John A. Grimes - 2023 - Varanasi, U.P., India: Indica Books.
    Previously published in The mountain path, quarterly published from Sri Ramanansramam.
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  47. Visages du dharma.Silvia D'Intino & Christèle Barois (eds.) - 2023 - [Paris]: Éditions de l'École des hautes études en sciences sociales.
    Parmi les 'but de l'homme' (puruṣārtha) qui orientent la vie humaine dans le monde indien, le dharma occupe une position très élevée, au-dessus de 'l'intérêt' (artha) et du 'désir' (kāma), respectivement la sphère du pouvoir (politique, économique, social) et celle de l'amour (y compris les passions et les plaisirs de la vie). Enfin, le dharma englobe le quatrième et ultime but de l'homme, la 'délivrance' (moksa). Le caractère normatif du dharma fixe la place de chacun dans la société, par l'exercice (...)
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  48. Vaidika sr̥shṭi prakriyā.Santoṣa Kumāra Śukla, Lakṣmīkānta Vimala & Maṇi Śaṅkara Dvivedī (eds.) - 2023 - Dilli: Vidyānidhi Prakāśana.
    Contributed seminar papers on Vedic theory of creation, philosophy and science.
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  49. Ujjavalaśāstravaibhavam =.Ujjwala Jha, Arun Ranjan Mishra & Anagha Joshi (eds.) - 2023 - Delhi, India: Shivalik Prakashan.
    Contributed research papers on various aspects of Indian philosophy, Vedic and Sanskrit literature and Sanskrit grammar.
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  50. Socio-political ideas of Aurobindo Ghose.Bidyut Chakrabarty - 2023 - New York, NY: Routeledge.
    This volume presents Aurobindo Ghose as a political thinker. It examines his social and political contributions as one of the first nationalist thinkers who conceptualized nationalism in the prism of social priorities, espousing universal humanism. This book discusses in-depth his design of nationalism which was not just politically imbued but was also socially directional. It explores why Sri Aurobindo's felt social reform was critical to India's political emancipation, his arguments for non-cooperation and passive resistance as political mechanism, and advocacy for (...)
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