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Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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  1. Ethical Life.Liam Kofi Bright - manuscript
    A sketch of my ethical views, or secular moral philosophy. Emphasis is on stating how it all hangs together.
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  2. The Economics of Diversity.Ryan Wasser - manuscript
    At first blush values such as diversity appear to be worth striving for. The question is whether or not such values—which have become increasingly prevalent the institutional credos of academia—are values as such, that being that they are things of moral worth (Value, n.d.), or if they are something else altogether. My unpopular suspicion leans toward the latter. Personal opinions, of course, can hardly be said to be good justification for a withering critique, however, these opinions of mine mirror similar (...)
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  3. A ‘Grooming Chamber’ For Antisemitism.Jan M. Van der Molen - Jan 28, 2020 - University of Groningen.
    If Jewish Bolsheviks could put an end to the imperial rule of the Romanovs, could they pose a threat to the vision of a Third Reigh? A question the German National Socialists are likely to have asked themselves before and on the eve of plotting the rise of the Nazi regime. After all, Europe had had a long-standing relationship with blaming the Jews for the world’s miseries. A relationship Germany was ready to refuel, as indicated by German Field Marshal Walter (...)
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  4. Mark Neocleous, Fascism.T. Abse - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  5. Lenin Reads Hegel.Andreas Arndt - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  6. The End/s of Socialism.Ronald Aronson - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  7. The Proclaimed Emergence of Communism in the USSR.Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  8. Has the Soviet Union Taken a Step Toward Communism?Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  9. Capital ReturnsMarx’s Inferno: The Political Theory of Capital, by RobertsWilliam Clare. Princeton University Press. 2017, 304 Pp.Portfolio Society: On the Capitalist Mode of Prediction, by AscherIvan. Zone Books. 2016, 192 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles Barbour - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059171773398.
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  10. Frederick Antal and the Marxist Challenge to Art History.Jim Berryman - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512110037.
    First published in 1948, Frederick Antal’s Florentine Painting and Its Social Background was an important milestone in anglophone art history. Based on European examples, including Max Dvořák, it sought to understand art history’s relationship to social and intellectual history. When Antal, a Hungarian émigré, arrived in Britain in 1933, he encountered an inward-looking discipline preoccupied with formalism and connoisseurship; or, as he phrased it, art historians of ‘the older persuasion’ ignorant of ‘the fruitful achievements of modern historical research’. Despite its (...)
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  11. The Crisis in Marxist Sociology.Norman Birnbaum - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  12. Un Martor Al Realimului Socialist.Radu Bogdan - forthcoming - Dilema.
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  13. Market Socialism: A Subjectivist Perspective.R. Bradley - forthcoming - Journal of Libertarian Studies.
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  14. Still Primus Inter Pares for Understanding and Opposing the Capitalist System.Richard A. Brosio - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
  15. Authority Claims Situating Socialist Science Studies in the GDR.Friedrich Cain - forthcoming - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, EarlyView.
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  16. Marxism and the Multitude '.Alex Callinicos - forthcoming - Multitudes: Revue Politique, Artistique, Philosophique.
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  17. To Study Marxism with Marx's Academic Spirit.Xu Chang-fu - forthcoming - Modern Philosophy.
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  18. The Dialectics of Standing One's Ground.George Ciccariello-Maher - forthcoming - Theory and Event 15 (3).
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  19. Philippe Van Parijs, Marxism Recycled.A. Collier - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  20. Stephen A. Resnick and Richard D. Wolff, Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR.C. el-Ojeili - forthcoming - Thesis Eleven.
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  21. John E. Roemer, A Future for Socialism.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  22. Antonio Gramsci, Letters From Prison.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  23. Sartre antihumaniste: Antisujectivisme, marxisme critique, postcolonialisme.Alex J. Feldman - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
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  24. The Point of Change: Marxism/Australia.Carole Ferrier & Rebecca Pelan - forthcoming - History/Theory.
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  25. Apriamo un franco dibattito all'interno del Partito.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
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  26. La funzione del parlamento.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
  27. Perfectionism and Dignity.Pablo Gilabert - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    Perfectionism about well-being is, at a minimum, the view that people’s lives go well when, and because they realize their capacities. It is common to link perfectionism with an idea of human essence or nature, to yield the view that what constitutes people’s well-being is the development and exercise of characteristically human capacities. The first part of this paper considers the very serious problems associated with the idea of human nature or essence, and argues that perfectionism would be more plausible (...)
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  28. Fredric Jameson, Brecht and Method.S. Giles - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  29. Democracy’s History of Inegalitarianism: Symposium on Michael Hanchard, The Spectre of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2018, 272 Pgs. [REVIEW]Robert Gooding-Williams, David Theo Goldberg, Juliet Hooker & Michael G. Hanchard - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090186.
  30. Contemporary Marxist Sociology.Erich Hahn - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  31. Perry Anderson, The Origins of Postmodernity.H. Harootunian - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  32. Socialism and Democracy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  33. Literature on the Theory of a Socialist Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  34. The Interplay of Capitalism and Socialism in the American Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  35. Marxism and Underdeveloped Countries.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  36. Karel Kosík's Notion of "Positivism".Tomas Hribek - forthcoming - In Jan Mervart, Joseph G. Feinberg & Ivan Landa (eds.), Karel Kosík's Dialectics of the Concrete. Leiden, Nizozemsko:
    The most prominent Czech philosopher, Karel Kosík, makes a few hints to the Vienna Circle, Otto Neurath and "positivism" in his important book, DIALECTICS OF THE CONCRETE (1963). I mine these few remarks for a better understanding of the conflicts, as well as connections, between the social progressivism of the Vienna Circle and the later Marxist humanism.
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  37. The Communist Farmer.Alvin Johnson - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  38. The American Worker and His Education.Horace M. Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  39. Communism as a Secret Individualism.Horace Meyer Kallen - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  40. Communism and Social Democracy.Harry W. Laidler - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  41. Comment on Mayer's Analysis of National Socialism.Carl Landauer - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  42. Van Weense Socialist Tot Britse Mandarijn: Poppers Ontwikkeling.M. M. Leezenberg - forthcoming - Wijsgerig Perspectief.
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  43. The Legal Structure of the Communist Bloc.Dietrich André Loeber - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  44. Kevin Anderson, Lenin, Hegel and Western Marxism.M. Loewy - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  45. Communists, Anarchists, and Suckers: A Reply to Spafford on ‘Conditional Exchange’.Callum Zavos MacRae - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-9.
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  46. Culture and the Trend of Scientific Socialism in Contemporary Arab Thought.Ahmed Madi - forthcoming - Philosophy and Culture. Nairobi: Bookwise Limited.
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  47. Efficient Markets and Alienation.Barry Maguire - forthcoming - Philosophers Imprint.
    Efficient markets are alienating if they inhibit us from recognizably caring about one another in our productive activities. I argue that efficient market behaviour is both exclusionary and fetishistic. As exclusionary, the efficient marketeer cannot manifest care alongside their market behaviour. As fetishistic, the efficient marketeer cannot manifest care in their market behaviour. The conjunction entails that efficient market behavior inhibits care. It doesn’t follow that efficient market behavior is vicious: individuals might justifiably commit to efficiency because doing so serves (...)
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  48. The Marxist School of Sociology: What is Sociology in a Marxist Sense?Oleg Mandić - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  49. Hegemony or Socialism?S. Martin - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  50. Some Sociological Problems of Socialist Factories.Alexander Matejko - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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