About this topic
Summary

Socialism is a political and economic order in which the means of production (e.g. land, factories, machinery, communication and transportation infrastructure, etc.) are subject to public control and the traditionally gendered and often unpaid labor of reproduction (e.g. child rearing, domestic labor, etc.) is compensated or socialized. While the structure of governance, use of markets, degree of cooperative labor, and kinds welfare guarantees may vary, socialism seeks to prioritize the satisfaction of human needs, while mitigating material inequality and social oppression. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) argued that the objective possibility of socialism was immanent to capitalism. (Socialism supported by moral principles or human will alone, was critically referred to as utopian.) Immanent to socialism, in turn, is the objective possibility of communism, which entails the complete dissolution of the state, division of labor, and the value form associated with commodity production. Marxist socialism is thus a stage in the historical development of communism, whose defining characteristic is the overcoming of all internal contradictions and radical otherness (a characteristic it shares with Hegel’s notion of absolute spirit). Marxism, however, also refers to a systematic, dialectical, and historical analysis of capitalism; a reflexive form of critical social theory with an emancipatory intent; a historical materialist methodology; theories of class formation, conflict, and ideology; as well as to critiques of alienation, reification, and commodity fetishism. There are now several different schools of Marxist thought, from Humanist, Structuralist, and Autonomist Marxism, to Analytical, Feminist, and Cultural Marxism, among others.

Key works Major early works in socialist thought include Charles Fourier,

The Theory of the Four Movements

(1808), Robert Owen,

New View of Society

(1813), and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? (1840). Major works by Marx and Engels include Karl Marx's Capital, Volumes 1-3, the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, “On the Jewish Question,” and The Eighteenth Brumaire; Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) and The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1884); as well as 

The Communist Manifesto

(1848) and the German Ideology (1845), which Marx and Engels authored together. The collected works of Marx and Engels in German are here (MEGA) and in English here (MECW). Other key texts in the Marxist tradition include Lenin, State and Revolution (1917); Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks; Rosa Luxemburg, The Accumulation of Capital (1913), Georg (György) Lukács,

History and Class Consciousness (1923); Louis Althusser, For Marx (1965); and Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique of Dialectical Reason, 2 Volumes (1960, 1985).

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5894 found
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  1. Ethical Life.Liam Kofi Bright - manuscript
    A sketch of my ethical views, or secular moral philosophy. Emphasis is on stating how it all hangs together.
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  2. Heideggerian Marxism, Dasein, and the Nature of Revolution.Jarryd Louw - manuscript
    This present paper is concerned with clarifying the relationship between the specifics of revolution and historical Dasein as elaborated by Herbert Marcuse in his early work concerning Heideggerian Marxism. In this early work, Marcuse identifies the industrial proletariat as constituting an expression of historical Dasein and in which the eventual proletarian revolution not only brings about the liberation of the proletariat from the effects of capitalism but also allows for the authentic expression of historical Dasein. While Marcuse holds that this (...)
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  3. The Economics of Diversity.Ryan Wasser - manuscript
    At first blush values such as diversity appear to be worth striving for. The question is whether or not such values—which have become increasingly prevalent the institutional credos of academia—are values as such, that being that they are things of moral worth (Value, n.d.), or if they are something else altogether. My unpopular suspicion leans toward the latter. Personal opinions, of course, can hardly be said to be good justification for a withering critique, however, these opinions of mine mirror similar (...)
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  4. A ‘Grooming Chamber’ For Antisemitism.Jan M. Van der Molen - Jan 28, 2020 - University of Groningen.
    If Jewish Bolsheviks could put an end to the imperial rule of the Romanovs, could they pose a threat to the vision of a Third Reigh? A question the German National Socialists are likely to have asked themselves before and on the eve of plotting the rise of the Nazi regime. After all, Europe had had a long-standing relationship with blaming the Jews for the world’s miseries. A relationship Germany was ready to refuel, as indicated by German Field Marshal Walter (...)
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  5. Mark Neocleous, Fascism.T. Abse - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  6. Lenin Reads Hegel.Andreas Arndt - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  7. Shame as Sensus Communis.Oleg Aronson - forthcoming - Studies in East European Thought.
  8. The End/s of Socialism.Ronald Aronson - forthcoming - Theoria.
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  9. The Proclaimed Emergence of Communism in the USSR.Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  10. Has the Soviet Union Taken a Step Toward Communism?Alexander S. Balinky - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  11. Capital ReturnsMarx’s Inferno: The Political Theory of Capital, by RobertsWilliam Clare. Princeton University Press. 2017, 304 Pp.Portfolio Society: On the Capitalist Mode of Prediction, by AscherIvan. Zone Books. 2016, 192 Pp. [REVIEW]Charles Barbour - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059171773398.
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  12. The Crisis in Marxist Sociology.Norman Birnbaum - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  13. Phenomenology and Existentialism in Dialogue with Marxist Humanism in Yugoslavia in the 1950s and 1960s.Una Blagojević - forthcoming - Studies in East European Thought.
    The paper looks at how Marxist humanists around the Yugoslav philosophical journal Praxis engaged with existentialist and phenomenological categories. After presenting the early 1950s critiques of existentialism in Yugoslavia, the paper considers how the categories used by the representatives of existentialism were interpreted and incorporated by Yugoslav Marxist humanists in the 1960s.
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  14. Un Martor Al Realimului Socialist.Radu Bogdan - forthcoming - Dilema.
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  15. Market Socialism: A Subjectivist Perspective.R. Bradley - forthcoming - Journal of Libertarian Studies.
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  16. White Psychodrama.Liam Kofi Bright - forthcoming - Journal of Political Philosophy.
    I analyse the political, economic, and cultural circumstances that have given rise to persistent political disputes about race (known colloquially as “the culture war”) among a subset of Americans. I argue that they point to a deep tension between widely held normative aspirations and pervasive and readily observable material facts about our society. The characterological pathologies this gives rise to are discussed, and a normatively preferable path forward for an individual attempting to reconcile themselves to the current social order is (...)
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  17. John Stuart Mill, Socialiste.Christopher Brooke - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  18. Still Primus Inter Pares for Understanding and Opposing the Capitalist System.Richard A. Brosio - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
  19. Marxism and the Multitude '.Alex Callinicos - forthcoming - Multitudes: Revue Politique, Artistique, Philosophique.
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  20. Why the Socialist Mill Will Not Alarm His Liberal Readers: A Reflection on Helen McCabe’s John Stuart Mill, Socialist.Ross Carroll - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  21. To Study Marxism with Marx's Academic Spirit.Xu Chang-fu - forthcoming - Modern Philosophy.
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  22. The Dialectics of Standing One's Ground.George Ciccariello-Maher - forthcoming - Theory and Event 15 (3).
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  23. Philippe Van Parijs, Marxism Recycled.A. Collier - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  24. In What Senses Should We See John Stuart Mill as a Socialist?Gregory Conti - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-3.
  25. From Cultural Marxism to Critical Literacy: Rethinking Douglas Kellner’s Media Theory.Otávio Daros - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. Douglas Kellner emerged in the late 1980s as a media theorist. This article reconstructs his intellectual trajectory, analyzing the developments and problems of his media theory. His path was influenced by so-called Western Marxism, notably by the Frankfurt School and, later, by British cultural studies. Kellner made both currents of European thought dialogue and incorporated them into French postmodernism, in a context configured by the ‘culture wars’ in the United States. All of this (...)
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  26. From Cultural Marxism to Critical Literacy: Rethinking Douglas Kellner’s Media Theory.Otávio Daros - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Douglas Kellner emerged in the late 1980s as a media theorist. This article reconstructs his intellectual trajectory, analyzing the developments and problems of his media theory. His path was influ...
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  27. From Cultural Marxism to Critical Literacy: Rethinking Douglas Kellner’s Media Theory.Otávio Daros - forthcoming - Sage Journals.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. Douglas Kellner emerged in the late 1980s as a media theorist. This article reconstructs his intellectual trajectory, analyzing the developments and problems of his media theory. His path was influenced by so-called Western Marxism, notably by the Frankfurt School and, later, by British cultural studies. Kellner made both currents of European thought dialogue and incorporated them into French postmodernism, in a context configured by the ‘culture wars’ in the United States. All of this (...)
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  28. Symposium on Helen McCabe’s John Stuart Mill, Socialist.Hugo Drochon - forthcoming - History of European Ideas:1-1.
  29. Stephen A. Resnick and Richard D. Wolff, Class Theory and History: Capitalism and Communism in the USSR.C. el-Ojeili - forthcoming - Thesis Eleven.
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  30. John E. Roemer, A Future for Socialism.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  31. Antonio Gramsci, Letters From Prison.G. Elliott - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  32. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy.Giorgio Fazio - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  33. Sartre antihumaniste: Antisujectivisme, marxisme critique, postcolonialisme.Alex J. Feldman - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
  34. The Point of Change: Marxism/Australia.Carole Ferrier & Rebecca Pelan - forthcoming - History/Theory.
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  35. Platform Socialism: How to Reclaim Our Digital Future From Big Tech.Jennifer Forestal - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory.
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  36. Søren Mau, Stummer Zwang: eine marxistische Analyse der ökonomischen Macht im Kapitalismus.Joseph Fracchia - forthcoming - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy:1-2.
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  37. Centennial Evolution of Marxist Philosophy of Education in China.Boya Geng & Shi Zhongying - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-11.
  38. La funzione del parlamento.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
  39. Apriamo un franco dibattito all'interno del Partito.Ludovico Geymonat - forthcoming - (l'Unità).
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  40. Human Dignity and Social Justice.Pablo Gilabert - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Human dignity: social movements invoke it, several national constitutions enshrine it, and it features prominently in international human rights documents. But what is it, why is it important, and what is its relationship to human rights and social justice? Pablo Gilabert offers a systematic defence of the view that human dignity is the moral heart of justice. In Human Dignity and Human Rights (OUP 2019), he advanced an account of human dignity for the context of human rights discourse, which covers (...)
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  41. Fredric Jameson, Brecht and Method.S. Giles - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  42. Democracy’s History of Inegalitarianism: Symposium on Michael Hanchard, The Spectre of Race: How Discrimination Haunts Western Democracy, Princeton University Press, 2018, 272 Pgs. [REVIEW]Robert Gooding-Williams, David Theo Goldberg, Juliet Hooker & Michael G. Hanchard - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172090186.
  43. Contemporary Marxist Sociology.Erich Hahn - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  44. Perry Anderson, The Origins of Postmodernity.H. Harootunian - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  45. Socialism and Democracy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  46. Literature on the Theory of a Socialist Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  47. The Interplay of Capitalism and Socialism in the American Economy.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  48. Marxism and Underdeveloped Countries.Eduard Heimann - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
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  49. Existentialism, Existentialists, and Marxism: From Critique to Integration Within the Philosophical Establishment in Socialist Romania.Adela Hîncu & Ştefan Baghiu - forthcoming - Studies in East European Thought.
  50. How Foucault Got Rid of (Bossy) Marxism.Gordon Hull - forthcoming - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society.
1 — 50 / 5894