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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1854), together with J.G. Fichte and G.W.F. Hegel, is considered to be one of the three key figures of German Idealism. His philosophical oeuvre is most commonly divided into his (1) early period (1794-1800), (2) his Philosophy of Identity (1801-1809), (3) his middle period (1809-1827), and, finally, (4) the Positive and Negative Philosophy, and his critique of Hegel in his late period (1827-1854). His early period is broadly motivated by the systematic question of Kant’s third Critique, that is, of the unity between the realm of necessity and the realm of freedom which Schelling approaches from the perspective of both the subject (Transcendental Philosophy) and object (Philosophy of Nature). Schelling pursues the same question in his Philosophy of Identity but his method in this period resembles a neo-Platonic self-division of an independent ground of freedom and nature, the absolute identity of freedom and necessity. In his middle period, Schelling adds to his earlier view of absolute freedom (freedom that is identical with necessity) the view of freedom as a capacity for both good and evil. In his late period, he criticizes Hegel’s system according to which thought exhausts the whole reality (Negative Philosophy) and argues for the primacy of being over thought (Positive Philosophy).

Although neglected for many years in the Anglophone world, Schelling’s thought remains very much present with us today. Schelling’s view that there are aspects of the self that continuously escape self-consciousness indicates the ongoing relevance of Schelling’s philosophy for psychoanalysis. By assigning a unique place to art, a place that was traditionally assigned to logic in the history of philosophy, namely, art as the “organon” or instrument of philosophy, Schelling admits the limitations of philosophy, which for him is no longer a self-sufficient practice. Schelling’s understanding of identity between mind and nature resonates in the mind-body debates of contemporary analytic philosophy, especially the works of Geach and Davidson. His grounding of our agency in a reality that exceeds the grasp of reason anticipates the later “existentialist” tradition. And finally Schelling’s view that being precedes all reflection entails the idea of historical and empirical contingency which paved the way to Marxist materialism and to some more recent European philosophies that are keen on emphasizing the limits of our rationality.

Key works

The key works of Schelling’s early period are Of the I as the Principle of Philosophy or on the Unconditional in Human Knowledge (1795) [, Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature as Introduction to the Study of this Science (1797) [von Schelling 1988], and System of Transcendental Idealism (1800) [von Schelling 1975]. The most important works of his Philosophy of Identity are Presentation of My System of Philosophy (1801) [Schelling 2001] and The Philosophy of Art (1802-3) [Schelling 1989]. The two central works of his middle period are Of Human Freedom (1809) [Schelling et al 2006] and The Ages of the World (1811-15). And finally the key works of his late period are Foundations of the Positive Philosophy (1832-3) [Schelling & Wirth 2007], Philosophy of Revelation (1841-2), and Philosophy of Mythology (1842) [Schelling & Wirth 2007].

Introductions

Online encyclopedia articles: Andrew Bowie, “Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling” [Bowie 2008]. Book-length introductory works: Andrew Bowie, Schelling and Modern European Philosophy: An Introduction [Bowie 1993]; Manfred Frank, Eine Einfuehrung in Schellings Philosophie [Frank 1985].

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  1. A Történeti-Kritikai Schelling-Kiadás Újabb Kötetei: A Német Idealizmus- És a Schelling-Kutatás Kontextusában. [REVIEW]FehÉr István - unknown - Existentia 6 (1-4):383-391.
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  2. Judith Norman and Alistair Welchman, Eds, The New Schelling.A. Bowie - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  3. Disappearance of Metaphysics in Schelling's Late Works.Lu De Vos - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  4. Andrew Bowie, Schelling and Modern European Philosophy.G. Finlayson - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  5. Philosophy and Religion in the Young Hegel-with Special Consideration of His Polemic with Schelling.M. Fujita - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  6. Swedenborgs Erlösung in Schellings System.Christian Jung - forthcoming - In Andrés Quero-Sánchez (ed.), Eine Lichtung des deutschen Waldes. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
  7. Moral Psychology in Schellings Freiheitsschrift and Stuttgarter Privatvorlesungen.Michelle Kosch - forthcoming - In Thomas Buchheim, Thomas Frisch & Nora C. Wachsmann (eds.), Schellings Freiheitsschrift – Methode, System, Kritik. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
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  8. Nothingness Without Reserve: Fred Moten Contra Heidegger, Sartre, and Schelling.King-Ho Leung - forthcoming - Comparative and Continental Philosophy:1-13.
  9. Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  10. “Schelling’s Systematization of Kant’s Moral Philosophy: Divine Craftsmanship as the Human Moral Telos.” I.Karin Nisenbaum - forthcoming - In Schellings Freiheitsschrift: Methode, System, Kritik.
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  11. The Gigantomachy of Idealism and Realism in the Early Philosophy of Fichte and Schelling.Rainer Schaefer - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
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  12. Schelling and Schopenhauer on Intuition.Marco Segala - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    The paper analyses Schelling and Schopenhauer’s conflicting views on intuition within the context of German classical philosophy and provides an interpretation of their differences. Moreover, the paper intends to fill a gap in the literature, by explaining how Schopenhauer grounded intuition in aesthetics and ethics on feelings and mysticism. After the Introduction, Section 2 summarizes Kant’s epistemology and its role in the subsequent discussions on intuition, and Sections 3 and 4 focus on Schelling’s intellectual intuition and Schopenhauer’s account of different (...)
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  13. Schelling between Gnosis and Philosophy (in Yugoslavian).Xavier Tilliette - forthcoming - Filozofska Istrazivanja.
    Die geschichte der schelling-deutung weist auf eine menge widerspruchlicher urteile hin, wie sonst bei kaum einem anderen, und der vorwurf des geheimnisvollen und theosophischen ist gang und gabe: jahrzehntelang hat die forschung in diese kerbe geschlagen, bis der gelaufige tadel auf einmal aufgehort hat. der letzte bedeutende vertreter der herkommlichen interpretation war karl jaspers, dessen schelling-buch 1955 erschien. schelling ist doch kein gnostiker im sinne des irrationalismus und der hingabe an das orakelhafte und an die magie des denkens. der verfasser (...)
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  14. Indian Philosophy and Yoga in Germany: 1800-1899.Owen Ware - forthcoming - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    This book sheds new light on the fascinating — at times dark and at times hopeful — reception of classical Yoga philosophies in Germany during the nineteenth century. When debates over God, religion, and morality were at a boiling-point in Europe, Sanskrit translations of classical Indian thought became available for the first time. Almost overnight India became the centre of a major controversy concerning the origins of western religious and intellectual culture. Working forward from this controversy, this book examines how (...)
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  15. Kant and the Fate of Freedom: 1788-1800.Owen Ware - forthcoming - In Joe Saunders (ed.), Freedom After Kant. London, UK:
    Kant’s early readers were troubled by the appearance of a dilemma facing his theory of freedom. On the one hand, if we explain human actions according to laws or rules, then we risk reducing the activity of the will to necessity (the horn of determinism). But, on the other hand, if we explain human actions without laws or rules, then we face an equally undesirable outcome: that reducing the will’s activity to mere chance (the horn of indeterminism). After providing an (...)
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  16. Schelling's Late Philosophy in Confrontation with Hegel.Peter Dews - 2023 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    This book presents and evaluates the late philosophy (Spätphilosophie) of F. W. J. Schelling (1775-1854) across a wide range of issues, ranging from relation between pure thinking and being, to the philosophy of mythology and religion, to the philosophy of history, to questions concerning the philosophy of nature and freedom. Simultaneously, it discusses Hegel's treatment of similar issues, and systematically compares the two thinkers. This is the first time, in an English-language publication, that these two major German Idealists have been (...)
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  17. The Jacobi-Schelling Debate.Sean J. McGrath - 2023 - In Alexander J. B. Hampton (ed.), Friedrich Jacobi and the end of the enlightenment: religion, philosophy, and reason at the crux of modernity. Cambridge University Press.
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  18. Schelling's Political Thought: Nature, Freedom, and Recognition.Velimir Stojkovski - 2023 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    In the first study to examine F. W. J. Schelling's political thought, Velimir Stojkovski not only unearths a neglected dimension of the influential thinker's philosophy but further shows what it can teach us about our ethical and political responsibilities today. Unlike Hegel or Fichte, Schelling never wrote a political treatise. Yet by reconstructing the portions of such works as The New Deductions of Natural Right that deal explicitly with the political and by thematically rethinking parts of his writings that have (...)
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  19. Freedom and Ground: A Study of Schelling's Treatise on Freedom.Mark J. Thomas - 2023 - Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
    This book is a new interpretation of Schelling's path-breaking 1809 treatise on freedom, the last major work published during his lifetime. The treatise is at the heart of the current Schelling renaissance—indeed, Heidegger calls it "one of the most profound works of German, thus of Western, philosophy." It is also one of the most demanding and complex texts in German Idealism. By tracing the problem of ground through Schelling's treatise, this book provides a unified reading of the text, while unlocking (...)
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  20. Immanence in Schelling and Hegel in the Jena Period.Paolo Diego Bubbio & Daniele Fulvi - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (3):353-387.
    The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Volume 60, Issue 3, Page 353-387, September 2022.
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  21. Apuntes sobre Metafísica de la Voluntad: un contrapunto entre Schelling y Schopenhauer.Aníbal Vega Cifuentes - 2022 - Otrosiglo 6 (1):120-140.
    ¿Existe algún vínculo o nexo entre el pensamiento de Schelling y Schopenhauer? Comúnmente, la relación entre estos pensadores no ha sido estudiada debido, en gran parte, al rechazo explícito de parte de Schopenhauer a toda la filosofía postkantiana. Sin embargo, este trabajo tiene por finalidad mostrar que las ideas de uno y otro pensador, referentes al tema de la metafísica de la voluntad, tienen más de alguna coincidencia que no resulta ser meramente casual. Palabras clave: Schopenhauer - Schelling - Metafísica (...)
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  22. Imagination and the Environment: Schelling and the Possibility of a Non-Binary Relationship Between Us and the World.Marília Cota Pacheco - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):93-110.
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  23. Die Natur Als Produktivität Und Wille: Zur Naturphilosophie Schellings Und Naturmetaphysik Schopenhauers Aus Prozessphilosophischer Perspektive.Erik Eschmann - 2022 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Die Nähe der Philosophie Schopenhauers zu derjenigen Schellings wurden oft beschworen und bereits zu Schopenhauers Lebzeiten häufig – bis hin zum Plagiatsvorwurf gegen Schopenhauer – thematisiert. Besonders auffällig werden die Ähnlichkeiten, wenn man sich den Naturkonzeptionen beider Denker zuwendet: Beide Philosophen versuchen auf je eigene Weise die Natur als selbsttätig zu denken. Ausgehend von diesen Überlegungen werden im vorliegenden Band die Naturphilosophie Schellings und Naturmetaphysik Schopenhauers ausführlich vor dem Hintergrund einer in ihrer Selbsttätigkeit als prozessual gedachten Natur gegenübergestellt und diskutiert. (...)
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  24. Schelling and the Philebus.Naomi Fisher & Jeffrey J. Fisher - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 26 (2):347-367.
    Schelling’s 1794 commentary on the Timaeus makes extensive use of Plato’s Philebus, particularly the principles of limit and unlimited. In this article, we demonstrate the resonances between Schelling’s 1794 treatment of the metaphysics of the Philebus and his 1798 philosophy of nature. Attention to these resonances demonstrates an underexplored but important debt to Plato in Schelling’s philosophy of nature. In particular, Schelling is indebted to Plato’s late metaphysics in his model of the iterative combination of two basic principles: a productive, (...)
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  25. Schelling Responds to Kant.Naomi Fisher & Kevin Mager - 2022 - Idealistic Studies.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant criticizes his predecessors, specifically Locke and Leibniz, in their one-sided reductions of representation to a single faculty. In his 1802 dialogue Bruno, Schelling develops this discussion into a criticism of Kant’s own one-sided idealism. Focusing on these developments makes clear the manner in which Schelling sees himself as advancing beyond both pre-Critical realisms and Kant’s transcendental idealism. He subsumes realism and Kantian idealism within his own absolute standpoint, providing a ground and rationale for (...)
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  26. Cosmology, Astronomy, and Philosophy Around 1800: Schelling, Hegel, Herder.Laura Follesa - 2022 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 12 (1):242-260.
    This article focuses on debates on philosophical knowledge, mathematics, and the empirical sciences by analyzing the positions on cosmological and astronomical knowledge, around 1800, of three German authors: Herder, Schelling, and Hegel. I show the mutual interdependence of Schelling’s and Hegel’s Naturphilosophie and Herder’s Ideen, and I then demonstrate that the latter’s position during the last years of his life was a reaction to Schelling’s and Hegel’s speculative philosophy. While Herder seems to ignore the works of the Naturphilosophen in his (...)
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  27. Freedom as a Matter of Resistance in the Philosophy of Schelling.Daniele Fulvi - 2022 - Critical Horizons 23 (1):78-92.
    ABSTRACT In this paper, I demonstrate that the concept of resistance is fundamental in order to understand Schelling’s account of freedom. First, I argue that Schelling, in his early works, contends that the resistance opposed by nature to our individual will is fundamental for human beings to actualise freedom. Moreover, I show that Schelling maintains the centrality of resistance even in his philosophy of nature, and I demonstrate that resistance is that fundamental ontological occurrence which grounds the opposition between the (...)
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  28. Introduction: Schelling and the Environment.Chelsea C. Harry - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):1-5.
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  29. Reason and Conversion in Kierkegaard and the German Idealists. [REVIEW]Steven Hoeltzel - 2022 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    In this book’s first half, Ryan S. Kemp and Christopher Iacovetti argue that the history of post-Kantian idealism “can be productively read as a sustained attempt to explain how radical value transformation occurs” —and thus as a sustained attempt to solve a problem posed by Kant’s inconclusive ruminations, in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, regarding the nature and possibility of radical moral conversion. The book’s second half then recounts Kierkegaard’s contribution to this debate—a debate which Kemp and Iacovetti (...)
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  30. The Last Living God: Reading Schelling in Hawaii.Christopher Lauer - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):53-69.
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  31. Ecstatic Ontology: Schelling and the Erotics of the Earth.Bruce Matthews - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):23-52.
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  32. Sean Joseph McGrath, The Philosophical Foundations of the Late Schelling. The Turn to the Positive, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2021 («New Perspectives in Ontology»). [REVIEW]Tommaso Mauri - 2022 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 114:787-790.
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  33. Tra natura e storia. Sui nuovi indirizzi della Schelling-Forschung.Tommaso Mauri - 2022 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 114 (1):185-193.
    The aim of this essay is to examine recent contributions to Schelling research that appeared in three miscellanies in 2020. Their common thread is Schelling’s philosophy of nature, which, because of its dynamic and processual characteristics, is considered relevant in the debate on realism, philosophy of biology and environmental ethics. In the historical-philosophical field, many contributions highlight Schelling’s debt to Kant and Spinoza and his close relationship with the Romantic movement. Lastly, the essay analyses contributions concerning the Spätphilosophie, showing how (...)
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  34. L'abbandono dell'estasi. Per una rilettura della Spätphilosophie schellinghiana a partire dal suo "testamento filosofico".Tommaso Mauri - 2022 - Archivio di Storia Della Cultura 1 (35):73-88.
    The paper aims to reconstruct the final configuration of Schelling’s philosophical system from the second half of the 1840s. Particular attention is given to the Darstellung der reinrationalen Philosophie, which, according to Schelling’s intentions, was to replace the so-called Berliner Einleitung. By analyzing the different use of the notion of critique and the concept of positive philosophy in the two texts under examination, the paper shows how Schelling’s philosophy undergoes significant changes in the very last years of his life.
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  35. The Human Vocation and the Question of the Earth: Karoline von Günderrode’s Philosophy of Nature.Dalia Nassar - 2022 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 104 (1):108-130.
    Contra widespread readings of Karoline von Günderrode’s 1805 “Idea of the Earth ” as a creative adaptation of Schelling’s philosophy of nature, this article proposes that “Idea of the Earth” furnishes a moral account of the human relation to the natural world, one which does not map onto any of the more well-known romantic or idealist accounts of the human-nature relation. Specifically, I argue that “Idea of the Earth” responds to the great Enlightenment question concerning the human vocation, but from (...)
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  36. Schelling and Spinoza: Realism, Idealism, and the Absolute.Benjamin Norris - 2022 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Presents a novel interpretation of Schelling's philosophy by way of his reading and critique of Spinoza.
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  37. El concepto de muerte como paradoja en la vía del conocimiento absoluto en la filosofía de F.W.J. Schelling.Miguel Ramírez - 2022 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 85:83-97.
    Se pretende analizar el concepto de muerte en diversas partes de la filosofía de Schelling, haciendo especial énfasis en las Stuttgarter Privatvorlesungen para establecer que el filósofo emplea este concepto con diversas acepciones, lo cual le lleva a englobar el ámbito de la esencia y de lo ente como ámbitos de muerte siempre con son considerados aisladamente. Ha de haber entre estos dos parámetros una instancia mediadora que conecte estos ámbitos inconmensurables, tratándose en este caso del carácter apofántico del verbo. (...)
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  38. Remarks on the Conceptions of Philosophical Method of Schelling, Hegel, and Krause.Peter Rohs - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (2).
    “The A2 is Light,” Schelling explains to us in the Presentation of My System of Philosophy. Is such a statement meaningful, so that its truth value can be asked? Is it an empirical statement, which can be tested and possibly confirmed through observations? Or is it a synthetic a priori judgment independent of observations? Such questions are not easy to answer, and they are related to the logical status of Schelling’s theory as a whole. That such questions became important stems (...)
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  39. Schelling y las tres Epochen del proceso de autodeterminación del absoluto en el System de 1800.Alejandro Rojas Jiménez - 2022 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 86:85-99.
    Estudio sobre las tres Epochen que distingue Schelling del autodesarrollo de la autoconciencia en el System des transzendentalen idealismus de 1800, poniéndolas en relación con su biografía personal y su periodo de formación filosófica. El objetivo es mostrar en qué sentido Schelling defiende en el System que es justamente en el esfuerzo por querer saber del filósofo que el absoluto acaba por tomar conciencia de sí mismo, no pues tanto en el concepto objetivo, sino en el querer saber y querer (...)
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  40. Becoming-Dynamic: The Early Schelling and the Production of Nature.Christopher Satoor - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):70-92.
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  41. The Methods of Metaphilosophy: Kant, Maimon, and Schelling on How to Philosophize About Philosophy.Jelscha Schmid - 2022 - Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.
    On the basis of an examination of Kant's, Maimon's and Schelling's metaphilosophies, this book investigates how, starting from Kant's diagnosis of a "groping metaphysics", a philosophical research program, whose goal is to elucidate the nature and method of philosophy itself, develops. What unites theirprojects is the thesis that philosophy must begin with an investigation of its own nature, and that this investigation, because of its special object, must be accompanied by a reflection on its method. To this end, their methods (...)
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  42. Paul Tillich: German Classical Philosophy: Schelling.Erdmann Sturm - 2022 - In Christian Danz, Marc Dumas, Werner Schüßler & Bryan Wagoner (eds.), Liminal Spaces and Ethical Challenges: Yearbook 2021/2022. De Gruyter. pp. 225-260.
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  43. Schelling und die Synthese von Spinoza und Kant.Erdmann Sturm - 2022 - In Christian Danz, Marc Dumas, Werner Schüßler & Bryan Wagoner (eds.), Liminal Spaces and Ethical Challenges: Yearbook 2021/2022. De Gruyter. pp. 201-224.
  44. The Schelling-Eschenmayer Controversy, 1801: Nature and Identity by Benjamin Berger and Daniel Whistler. [REVIEW]Mark J. Thomas - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):703-705.
    This excellent book focuses on a decisive moment in Schelling's philosophical development: his 1801 dispute with Eschenmayer shortly before publishing Presentation of My System, the inaugural text of his identity philosophy. Carl August Eschenmayer was a German physician whose Kant-inspired writings in the philosophy of nature greatly influenced Schelling, especially with respect to the doctrine of the potencies. Nonetheless, he is a marginal figure in the history of philosophy, and one might assume that this volume will only interest Schelling specialists (...)
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  45. Kant’s Opus Postumum and Schelling’s Naturphilosophie: The Very Idea.Terrence Thomson - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (1):97-117.
    This paper is about Kant’s late unfinished manuscript, Opus postumum and some of the resonances it has with Schelling’s early Naturphiloso­phie. Most of the secondary literature on Opus postumum investigates its relation to the rest of Kant’s corpus, often framing the drafts as an attempt to fill a so-called “gap” in the Critical philosophy whilst ignoring the relationship it has to the wider landscape of late eighteenth century German philosophy. Whether Opus postumum may provide grounds for reviewing the relationship between (...)
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  46. Kant’s Opus Postumum and Schelling’s Naturphilosophie: The Very Idea.Terrence Thomson - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (1):97-117.
    This paper is about Kant’s late unfinished manuscript, Opus postumum and some of the resonances it has with Schelling’s early Naturphiloso­phie. Most of the secondary literature on Opus postumum investigates its relation to the rest of Kant’s corpus, often framing the drafts as an attempt to fill a so-called “gap” in the Critical philosophy whilst ignoring the relationship it has to the wider landscape of late eighteenth century German philosophy. Whether Opus postumum may provide grounds for reviewing the relationship between (...)
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  47. Il Dio vivente: libertà, male, Trinità in Schelling e Pareyson.Francesco Tomatis - 2022 - Brescia: Morcelliana.
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  48. Apuntes sobre Metafísica de la Voluntad: un contrapunto entre Schelling y Schopenhauer.Anibal Vega Cifuentes - 2022 - Otrosiglo 6 (1):120-140.
    ¿Existe algún vínculo o nexo entre el pensamiento de Schelling y Schopenhauer? Comúnmente, la relación entre estos pensadores no ha sido estudiada debido, en gran parte, al rechazo explícito de parte de Schopenhauer a toda la filosofía postkantiana. Sin embargo, este trabajo tiene por finalidad mostrar que las ideas de uno y otro pensador, referentes al tema de la metafísica de la voluntad, tienen más de alguna coincidencia que no resulta ser meramente casual. Palabras clave: Schopenhauer - Schelling - Metafísica (...)
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  49. Jörg Noller and John Walsh (Eds.), Kant's Early Critics on Freedom of the Will[REVIEW]Aaron Wells - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (4):673-677.
  50. Being True to the Earth: Schelling and Nietzsche.Jason M. Wirth - 2022 - Environment, Space, Place 14 (1):6-22.
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