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Johann Gottlieb Fichte is a key figure in the landscape of post-Kantian idealism. From 1794 up to the final year of his life in 1814, Fichte attempted to formulate a unified philosophical programme that would combine, in a single system, the main branches of theoretical and practical philosophy. At the heart of this programme we find Fichte’s idea of a ‘doctrine of science’ (Wissenschaftslehre) that tries to articulate the fundamental principles of human cognition on the basis of the ‘I’ and its self-positing activity. In subsequent years he worked to articulate a ‘doctrine of right’ (Rechtslehre) in the Foundations of Natural Right (1795/96), and a ‘doctrine of ethics’ (Sittenlehre) in the System of Ethics (1798), both of which Fichte published under the subtitle ‘according to the principles of the Wissenschaftslehre.’ In later years he also worked and lectured on a doctrine of religion (Religionslehre). In addition to his philosophical writings, Fichte produced numerous popular works, such as Some Lectures Concerning the Scholar’s Vocation, the Vocation of Human Beings (1800), and The Way Towards the Blessed Life (1806). 

Key works Fichte's main philosophical works are: Foundations for the Entire Doctrine of Ethics (Fichte 1970); Foundations of Natural Right According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte 2000); and the System of Ethics According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre  (Fichte 2005).
Introductions For introductions to Fichte's philosophical system, see Breazeale (Breazeale 2013), Ware (Ware 2020), and Wood (Wood 2016).
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  1. The Establishment of the State in Fichte’s System.Türker Armaner - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 1.
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  2. Fichte's Conception of the Body: The Intertwining of Sociality and Embodiment.Arash Abazari - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  3. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Handbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  4. Kant, Fichte, and the Act of the I.Charles E. DeBord - forthcoming - Philosophy Study.
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  5. I-Hood as the Speculative Ground of Fichte’s Real Ethics.Kienhow Goh - forthcoming - In The Enigma of Fichtes First Principles: 49 (Fichte-Studien). Brill. pp. 267-287.
    This article considers how the I furnishes a ground for the moral principle’s reality or applicability, or the synthetic unification of the higher and the lower powers of desire, through its originally determined nature. It argues that the nature of I-hood as an immediate unity of seeing and being, an absolute identity of the subjective and objective, is key to securing the moral principle’s applicability. On its basis, Fichte envisages an originally determined system of drives and feelings on the one (...)
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  6. Anschauung und Begriff in formaler und transzendentaler Logik.Max Gottschlich - forthcoming - In Violetta Waibel (ed.), Die Rolle von Anschauung und Begriff bei Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Mit Kant über Kant hinaus (Reihe: Begriff und Konkretion). Berlin: Duncker&Humblot.
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  7. Fichte and Hegel on Free Time.Thimo Heisenberg - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  8. Fichte and Hegel on Free Time.Thimo Heisenberg - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  9. The Bloomsbury Companion to Fichte.Bykova Marina (ed.) - forthcoming - Bloomsbury.
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  10. Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  11. Fichte's Turn From Absolute I to Absolute Knowledge in Advance.Yady Oren - forthcoming - Idealistic Studies.
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  12. Personal Meditations as the Foundation of the Foundation: The Proper Beginning of Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In Christoph Asmuth Jesper Lundsfryd Rasmussen (ed.), Das Problem des Anfangs.
    It is the aim of this article to establish the conceptual continuity between Fichte's early manuscript Personal Meditations on Elementary Philosophy/ Practical Philosophy (1793/94) and his Foundation of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre (1794/95) and thereby draw implications for understanding the proper foundation of the Wissenschaftslehre. The second section will begin with a remark on Fichte’s term “setzen” (to posit), a term that Fichte appropriated from his predecessors to designate a fundamental activity which is central to rational agency and prior to the (...)
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  13. The Relation Between Reality and Negation in Kant, Maimon, and Fichte.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In The Significance of Negation in Classical German Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
    The aim of this paper is to show that the binary notions of reality and negation play an important role in the philosophical agenda of Kant, Maimon and Fichte. The paper has three sections. The first section illustrates the metaphysical significance of Kant’s introduction of the quantitative opposition between reality and negation, which informs the phenomena-noumena distinction and the attribution of intensive magnitude. The second section argues that Maimon’s speculative appropriation of differentials took up Kant’s conception of real opposition between (...)
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  14. Kant on Freedom.Owen Ware - forthcoming - Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
    Kant’s early critics argued that his theory of freedom faced a dilemma: either it reduces the will’s activity to strict necessity by making it subject to the causality of the moral law, or it reduces the will’s activity to blind chance by liberating it from rules of any kind. This Element offers a new interpretation and defense of Kant’s theory against the backdrop of this controversy. It argues that Kant was a consistent proponent of the claim that the moral law (...)
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  15. Kant and the Fate of Freedom: 1788-1800.Owen Ware - forthcoming - In Joe Saunders (ed.), Freedom After Kant. London, UK:
    Kant’s early readers were troubled by the appearance of a dilemma facing his theory of freedom. On the one hand, if we explain human actions according to laws or rules, then we risk reducing the activity of the will to necessity (the horn of determinism). But, on the other hand, if we explain human actions without laws or rules, then we face an equally undesirable outcome: that reducing the will’s activity to mere chance (the horn of indeterminism). After providing an (...)
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  16. Solving Projected Model Counting by Utilizing Treewidth and its Limits.Johannes K. Fichte, Markus Hecher, Michael Morak, Patrick Thier & Stefan Woltran - 2023 - Artificial Intelligence 314 (C):103810.
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  17. Jacobi's Philosophy of Faith in Fichte's 1794 Wissenschaftslehre.David W. Wood - 2023 - In Alexander J. B. Hampton (ed.), Friedrich Jacobi and the end of the enlightenment: religion, philosophy, and reason at the crux of modernity. Cambridge University Press.
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  18. System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte.Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book investigates various aspects of freedom as developed in the philosophical systems of Kant and Fichte. Freedom, both Kant and Fichte insist, does not mean that we can chose or think independently from all rules or necessity, but rather that we willingly accept a certain kind of submission under these rules. Therefore, the conditions of our knowledge affect and inform our self-understanding, our willing, and the ways we justify our practical choices. The essays in this volume explore both philosophers' (...)
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  19. Fichte's Moral Philosophy and Kant's Justification of Ethics, by Owen Ware. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2020, Xv + 244 Pp. ISBN‐13: 978‐0‐19‐008659‐6 Hb $43.78 and New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2021, Xiii + 176 Pp. ISBN‐13: 978‐0‐19‐884993‐3 Hb $61.02. [REVIEW]William F. Bristow - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):1217-1225.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  20. Conscience, Conviction, and Moral Autonomy in Fichte’s Ethics.Timothy L. Brownlee - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (4):626-645.
    According to Kant, a certain kind of knowledge is essential to the achievement of moral autonomy. In order for an action to be obligatory, it must be possible for me to know not only what I have a...
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  21. Hiatus Irrationalis: Lask’s Fateful Misreading of Fichte.G. Anthony Bruno - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):977-995.
    ‘Facticity’ is a concept that classical phenomenologists like Heidegger use to denote the radically contingent or underivably brute conditions of intelligibility. Yet Fichte coins the term, to which he gives the opposing use of denoting unacceptably brute conditions of intelligibility. For him, radical contingency is a problem to be solved by deriving such conditions from reason. Heidegger rejects Fichte's recoil from facticity with his hermeneutics of facticity, supplanting Fichte's metaphor of our always being in reason's hand with the metaphor of (...)
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  22. Fichte's Original Presentation of the Foundational Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre : The Question of Method.Marina F. Bykova - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  23. Kant’s Letter to Fichte, the Pure Intellect and His ‘All-Crushing’ Metaphysics: Comments on De Boer’s Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics.Brian A. Chance - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):119-125.
    I raise three questions relevant to De Boer’s overall project in Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics. The first is whether Kant’s 1799 open letter to Fichte supports or threatens her contention that Kant had an abiding interest in developing a reformed metaphysics from 1781 onwards. The second is whether De Boer’s conception of the pure intellect and its place in Kant’s projected system of metaphysics captures the role of pure sensibility in the Analytic of Principles, rational physics and rational psychology. The (...)
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  24. The Conceptual Origin of Worldview in Kant and Fichte.Alexander T. Englert - 2022 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 3:1-24.
    Kant and Fichte developed the concept of a worldview as a way of reflecting on experience as a whole. But what does it mean to form a worldview? And what role did it play in the German Idealist tradition? This paper seeks to answer these questions through a detailed analysis of the form of a philosophical worldview and its historical portent, both of which remain unexplored in the literature. The dearth of attention is partially to blame on Kant’s desultory development (...)
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  25. Die Natur Als Produktivität Und Wille: Zur Naturphilosophie Schellings Und Naturmetaphysik Schopenhauers Aus Prozessphilosophischer Perspektive.Erik Eschmann - 2022 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann.
    Die Nähe der Philosophie Schopenhauers zu derjenigen Schellings wurden oft beschworen und bereits zu Schopenhauers Lebzeiten häufig – bis hin zum Plagiatsvorwurf gegen Schopenhauer – thematisiert. Besonders auffällig werden die Ähnlichkeiten, wenn man sich den Naturkonzeptionen beider Denker zuwendet: Beide Philosophen versuchen auf je eigene Weise die Natur als selbsttätig zu denken. Ausgehend von diesen Überlegungen werden im vorliegenden Band die Naturphilosophie Schellings und Naturmetaphysik Schopenhauers ausführlich vor dem Hintergrund einer in ihrer Selbsttätigkeit als prozessual gedachten Natur gegenübergestellt und diskutiert. (...)
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  26. Book Review: M. Lewin, Das System der Ideen: Zur perspektivistischen Begründung der Vernunft im Anschluss an Kant und Fichte. Freiburg & München: Alber, 2021, 378 pp. [REVIEW]Luis Fellipe Garcia - 2022 - Kantian Journal 41 (2):148-158.
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  27. Yo, absoluto y libertad: perspectivas sobre la filosofía de Fichte.Mariano Lucas Gaudio - 2022 - Pensamiento. Revista de Investigación E Información Filosófica 78 (297):267-271.
    Se trata de una reseña amplia y que reconstruye la estructura, el desarrollo y cada uno de los momentos del libro de J. Rivera de Rosales, Fichte. La libertad es el fundamento del conocimiento y de la moral, Barcelona, RBA, 2015, 159 páginas.
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  28. Reason and Conversion in Kierkegaard and the German Idealists. [REVIEW]Steven Hoeltzel - 2022 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    In this book’s first half, Ryan S. Kemp and Christopher Iacovetti argue that the history of post-Kantian idealism “can be productively read as a sustained attempt to explain how radical value transformation occurs” —and thus as a sustained attempt to solve a problem posed by Kant’s inconclusive ruminations, in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, regarding the nature and possibility of radical moral conversion. The book’s second half then recounts Kierkegaard’s contribution to this debate—a debate which Kemp and Iacovetti (...)
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  29. Reading Fichte Today. The Prospect of a Transcendental Philosophy.Marco Ivaldo - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  30. The Idea of Universal Monarchy in Fichte's Practical Philosophy.David James - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  31. Fichte's Moral Philosophy by Owen Ware.Jeffery Kinlaw - 2022 - Review of Metaphysics 75 (3):607-609.
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  32. Revelation’s Entrenchment in Pure Reason in Fichte’s Versuch Einer Kritik Aller Offenbarung.Amit Kravitz - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (2):299-329.
    According to Kant’s dictum, morality leads inescapably to religion. Notably, this implies two unavoidable shifts: From ‘morality’ to the ‘religion of reason’ and from the ‘religion of reason’ to ‘positive religions’. I explain the grounds for each shift, focusing on the different kinds of necessity involved. I then analyze Fichte’s Versuch einer Kritik aller Offenbarung, which mainly addresses the second shift, discussed only briefly by Kant. As I show, whereas for Kant revelation is conditioned by a prior free determination of (...)
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  33. La réflexivité dans l’idéalisme de Fichte et de Husserl.Alexandre Leduc Berryman - 2022 - Philosophie 2:42-60.
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  34. Alterity, Facticity and Foundation of Finite Freedom in Levinas. A Comparison with Fichte.Giulio Marchegiani - 2022 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 11 (1):73-92.
    Starting with the emphasis that Levinas puts on the role of otherness in the constitution of subjective dimension, this paper discusses how the articulation of this process and the consequences that derive from it recall specifically Fichtean themes. Although the relation between Levinas and Fichte has not been thoroughly examined in the literature yet, it can nevertheless be shown that themes such as the “call” of the subject from the outside, from the unattainable dimension of an otherness irreducible to any (...)
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  35. The Human Vocation and the Question of the Earth: Karoline von Günderrode’s Philosophy of Nature.Dalia Nassar - 2022 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 104 (1):108-130.
    Contra widespread readings of Karoline von Günderrode’s 1805 “Idea of the Earth ” as a creative adaptation of Schelling’s philosophy of nature, this article proposes that “Idea of the Earth” furnishes a moral account of the human relation to the natural world, one which does not map onto any of the more well-known romantic or idealist accounts of the human-nature relation. Specifically, I argue that “Idea of the Earth” responds to the great Enlightenment question concerning the human vocation, but from (...)
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  36. Fichte's Turn From Absolute I to Absolute Knowledge.Yady Oren - 2022 - Idealistic Studies 52 (2):157-178.
    Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre of 1801/2 is considered to be the beginning of his late phase. In this phase he supposedly alters his earlier thinking and, instead of the transcendental unity of the I, conceptualizes a higher transcendent and simple unity; a unity that has been claimed to correspond to Neoplatonism. I refute these two arguments here. First, through a comparison between the Wissenschaftslehre of 1801/2 and that of 1794/5, I show that both versions contain a similar analysis of the supreme unity. (...)
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  37. The Right to the “Possibility of Acquiring Rights”: Cosmopolitan Right and Migration in Fichte's Doctrine of Right.Roberta Picardi - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):113-128.
    European Journal of Philosophy, Volume 30, Issue 1, Page 113-128, March 2022.
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  38. The Methods of Metaphilosophy: Kant, Maimon, and Schelling on How to Philosophize About Philosophy.Jelscha Schmid - 2022 - Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann.
    On the basis of an examination of Kant's, Maimon's and Schelling's metaphilosophies, this book investigates how, starting from Kant's diagnosis of a "groping metaphysics", a philosophical research program, whose goal is to elucidate the nature and method of philosophy itself, develops. What unites theirprojects is the thesis that philosophy must begin with an investigation of its own nature, and that this investigation, because of its special object, must be accompanied by a reflection on its method. To this end, their methods (...)
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  39. Transzendentale Argumente Bei Hegel Und Fichte: Das Problem Objektiver Geltung Und Seine Auflösung Im Nachkantischen Idealismus.Simon Schüz - 2022 - De Gruyter.
  40. Art, Authenticity, and Understanding.David Suarez - 2022 - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    Early 20th century debates over the possibility of ‘metaphysics’ are grounded in a set of questions and answers whose central themes are already delineated in Kant’s critical philosophy. Wittgenstein and Carnap are sympathetic to Kant’s dismissal of transcendent metaphysics, but skeptical that there could be any substantive account of the fundamental conditions of our meaning-making. By contrast, Heidegger follows Fichte and the early German Romantics in seeing answers to the problems raised by metacritique not in science, but in the non-discursive (...)
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  41. Jörg Noller and John Walsh (Eds.), Kant's Early Critics on Freedom of the Will[REVIEW]Aaron Wells - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (4):673-677.
  42. My Duty and the Morality of Others: Lying, Truth, and the Good Example in Fichte’s Normative Perfectionism.Stefano Bacin - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 201-220.
    The aim of the paper is to shed light on some of the most original elements of Fichte’s conception of morality as expressed in his account of specific obligations. After some remarks on Fichte’s original classification of ethical duties, the paper focuses on the prohibition of lying, the duty to communicate our true knowledge, and the duty to set a good example. Fichte’s account of those duties not only goes beyond the mere justification of universally acknowledged demands, but also deploys (...)
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  43. Fichte's System of Ethics: A Critical Guide.Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.) - 2021 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    The System of Ethics was published at the height of Fichte's academic career and marks the culmination of his philosophical development in Jena. Much more than a treatise on ethics narrowly construed, the System of Ethics presents a unified synthesis of Fichte's core philosophical ideas, including the principle I-hood, self-activity and self-consciousness, and also contains his most detailed treatment of action and agency. This volume brings together an international group of leading scholars on Fichte, and is the first of its (...)
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  44. L.M. Rendl und R. König (Hrsg.), Schlusslogische Letztbegründung. Festschrift für Kurt Walter Zeidler zum 65. Geburtstag, Berlin 2020, 646 Seiten. [REVIEW]Michael Boch - 2021 - Perspektiven der Philosophie 47:235–250.
    In der vorliegenden Festschrift "Schlusslogische Letztbegründung" stehen zwei von Zeidlers zentralen wissenschaftlichen Forschungsbereichen im Fokus. Zum einen hat Zeidler sich in seiner Beschäftigung mit der transzendentalen und spekulativen Logik durch Herausarbeitung der begründenden Funktion des Schlusses hervorgetan. Zum Anderen führte er intensive Studien zur Thematik der Letztbegründung durch, die letztere als dynamische Form der Selbstbegründung auswiesen. Diese zentralen Thesen, dass der Schluss die logische Form der Begründung sei und Letztbegründung nur als Selbstbegründung möglich ist, führten ihn zu seiner Vollendung der (...)
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  45. Fichte and the Path From “Formal” to “Material” Freedom.Daniel Breazeale - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–108.
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  46. Facticity and Genesis: Tracking Fichte’s Method in the Berlin Wissenschaftslehre.G. Anthony Bruno - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:177-97.
    The concept of facticity denotes conditions of experience whose necessity is not logical yet whose contingency is not empirical. Although often associated with Heidegger, Fichte coins ‘facticity’ in his Berlin period to refer to the conclusion of Kant’s metaphysical deduction of the categories, which he argues leaves it a contingent matter that we have the conditions of experience that we do. Such rhapsodic or factical conditions, he argues, must follow necessarily, independent of empirical givenness, from the I through a process (...)
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  47. The Monogram of the "Sweet Songstress of the Night": The Hovering of the Imagination as the First Principle of Fichte’s Aesthetics.Laure Cahen-Maurel - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:219-247.
    This article presents a new reading of Fichte’s aesthetics that differs from a primarily functionalist interpretation of the imagination and art. It demonstrates that the “hovering” of the creative imagination should be viewed as the first principle of Fichte’s aesthetics, in which the latter consists of a triad of the pleasant, the beautiful and the sublime. Moreover, it argues that in the text Ueber Geist und Buchstab in der Philosophie Fichte created a real and original monogram of the hovering creative (...)
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  48. Knot of the World: German Idealism Between Annihilation and Construction.Kirill Chepurin - 2021 - In Kirill Chepurin & Alex Dubilet (eds.), Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology. New York City, New York, USA: Fordham University Press. pp. 35-53.
    Through an analysis of the ultimate telos of the world and of the subject’s striving in Schelling, the late Fichte, and Friedrich Schlegel—as well as via such concepts as the absolute, bliss, nothingness, God, chaos, and irony—this essay reconfigures German Idealism and Romanticism as spanning the conceptual space between two poles, world-annihilation and world-construction, and traces the ways in which these thinkers attempted to resolve what this essay calls the "transcendental knot," or to think the way the world is without (...)
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  49. Fichte on Normativity in the Late Jena Period.Benjamin Crowe - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–46.
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  50. Heidegger on Fichte’s Three Principles.M. Jorge de Carvalho - 2021 - In Cynthia D. Coe (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook of German Idealism and Phenomenology. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 429-455.
    What does Heidegger’s Fichte look like? This paper focuses on a key component of Heidegger’s interpretation of Fichte, as laid out in volume 28 of the Gesamtausgabe. In Heidegger’s view, the key to understanding Fichte is his 1794 Grundlage, and the key to understanding Fichte’s Grundlage lies in Fichte’s three “first principles.” But what is new about Heidegger’s interpretation of Fichte’s first principles? This chapter attends to Heidegger’s interpretation: of the first principle, of “thetic judgments” and the primacy of “I-hood”; (...)
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