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Johann Gottlieb Fichte is a key figure in the landscape of post-Kantian idealism. From 1794 up to the final year of his life in 1814, Fichte attempted to formulate a unified philosophical programme that would combine, in a single system, the main branches of theoretical and practical philosophy. At the heart of this programme we find Fichte’s idea of a ‘doctrine of science’ (Wissenschaftslehre) that tries to articulate the fundamental principles of human cognition on the basis of the ‘I’ and its self-positing activity. In subsequent years he worked to articulate a ‘doctrine of right’ (Rechtslehre) in the Foundations of Natural Right (1795/96), and a ‘doctrine of ethics’ (Sittenlehre) in the System of Ethics (1798), both of which Fichte published under the subtitle ‘according to the principles of the Wissenschaftslehre.’ In later years he also worked and lectured on a doctrine of religion (Religionslehre). In addition to his philosophical writings, Fichte produced numerous popular works, such as Some Lectures Concerning the Scholar’s Vocation, the Vocation of Human Beings (1800), and The Way Towards the Blessed Life (1806). 

Key works Fichte's main philosophical works are: Foundations for the Entire Doctrine of Ethics (Fichte 1970); Foundations of Natural Right According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte 2000); and the System of Ethics According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre  (Fichte 2005).
Introductions For introductions to Fichte's philosophical system, see Breazeale (Breazeale 2013), Ware (Ware 2020), and Wood (Wood 2016).
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  1. The Establishment of the State in Fichte’s System.Türker Armaner - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 1.
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  2. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Handbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  3. Fichte and the Primacy of Practical Reason.G. Anthony Bruno - forthcoming - In Jeffery Kinlaw (ed.), Fichte’s Doctrine of Scientific Knowledge: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  4. Kant, Fichte, and the Act of the I.Charles E. DeBord - forthcoming - Philosophy Study.
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  5. George di Giovanni. Hegel and the Challenge of Spinoza: A Study in German Idealism, 1801-1831. [REVIEW]Robb Dunphy - forthcoming - Hegel Bulletin:1-7.
  6. I-hood as the Speculative Ground of Fichte’s Real Ethics.Kienhow Goh - forthcoming - In The Enigma of Fichtes First Principles: 49 (Fichte-Studien). Brill. pp. 267-287.
    This article considers how the I furnishes a ground for the moral principle’s reality or applicability, or the synthetic unification of the higher and the lower powers of desire, through its originally determined nature. It argues that the nature of I-hood as an immediate unity of seeing and being, an absolute identity of the subjective and objective, is key to securing the moral principle’s applicability. On its basis, Fichte envisages an originally determined system of drives and feelings on the one (...)
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  7. Anschauung und Begriff in formaler und transzendentaler Logik.Max Gottschlich - forthcoming - In Violetta Waibel (ed.), Die Rolle von Anschauung und Begriff bei Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Mit Kant über Kant hinaus (Reihe: Begriff und Konkretion). Berlin: Duncker&Humblot.
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  8. Fichte’s Moral Philosophy, by Owen Ware. [REVIEW]Steven Hoeltzel - forthcoming - Mind:fzad066.
    A review of Ware's groundbreaking study, with particular attention to his accounts of (i) Fichte’s approach to establishing the authority of the moral law and (ii) Fichte’s conception of the natural drive and its contribution to our ethical vocation.
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  9. Fichte’s Doctrine of Scientific Knowledge: A Critical Guide.Jeffery Kinlaw (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
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  10. El contractualismo social de Fichte.Mario Alberto Mariani - forthcoming - Cuadernos de Filosofía.
    El propósito de este artículo consiste en mostrar el carácter social del contractualismo de Fichte. Para realizar ese propósito se comienza examinando la conexión entre trabajo y ciudadanía como una condición de la legitimidad política. Luego se presenta esa conexión en el marco del siempre posible desarrollo histórico de la naturaleza humana. Por último, se indican las razones de la recepción de Fichte como un precursor del socialismo germánico.
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  11. The Bloomsbury Companion to Fichte.Bykova Marina (ed.) - forthcoming - Bloomsbury.
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  12. Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  13. Fichte's Turn from Absolute I to Absolute Knowledge in advance.Yady Oren - forthcoming - Idealistic Studies.
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  14. The Modern Semantic Principles Behind Gilson’s Existential Interpretation of Aquinas (Part 1).Elliot Polsky - forthcoming - Studia Gilsoniana.
    Gilson’s Being and Some Philosophers (BSP) has been widely influential well beyond Thomistic circles, but its modern historical sources and logical consequences call for further investigation. The first part of this two-part article explores three modern semantic assumptions or principles without which BSP’s innovated theory of existential judgment cannot be fully appreciated—the existential neutrality of the copula ubiquitous among modern logicians; Kant’s introduction of a positing or “thetic” function of judgment, the understanding of which evolved in nineteenth-century logic; and the (...)
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  15. From Kant to Maimon to Fichte.Jelscha Schmid - forthcoming - In Jeffery Kinlaw (ed.), Fichte's Doctrine of Scientific Knowledge: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  16. Personal Meditations as the Foundation of the Foundation: The Proper Beginning of Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In Christoph Asmuth Jesper Lundsfryd Rasmussen (ed.), Das Problem des Anfangs.
    It is the aim of this article to establish the conceptual continuity between Fichte's early manuscript Personal Meditations on Elementary Philosophy/ Practical Philosophy (1793/94) and his Foundation of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre (1794/95) and thereby draw implications for understanding the proper foundation of the Wissenschaftslehre. The second section will begin with a remark on Fichte’s term “setzen” (to posit), a term that Fichte appropriated from his predecessors to designate a fundamental activity which is central to rational agency and prior to the (...)
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  17. The Relation between Reality and Negation in Kant, Maimon, and Fichte.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In The Significance of Negation in Classical German Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
    The aim of this paper is to show that the binary notions of reality and negation play an important role in the philosophical agenda of Kant, Maimon and Fichte. The paper has three sections. The first section illustrates the metaphysical significance of Kant’s introduction of the quantitative opposition between reality and negation, which informs the phenomena-noumena distinction and the attribution of intensive magnitude. The second section argues that Maimon’s speculative appropriation of differentials took up Kant’s conception of real opposition between (...)
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  18. The quintuple quintuplicity of forms of (self-)consciousness in Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Emiliano Acosta - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  19. You can't get there from here:" : Fichte's (unwritten) 1799 Review (nach der Principien der Wissenschaftslehre) of the 1804 Wissenschaftslehre. [REVIEW]Daniel Breazeale - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  20. The "we" of speculative philosophy.Benjamin Crowe - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  21. Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing".Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.) - 2024 - Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Illuminating new essays on Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre, or The Science of Knowing.
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  22. The odyssey of the "through" ("das Durch").M. Jorge de Carvalho - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  23. The self-justification of Fichte's philosophy.Jacinto Rivera de Rosales - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  24. Dalla Nova Methodo alla Prima Methodo: tendere e impulso nel tardo Fichte.Federico Ferraguto - 2024 - Trans/Form/Ação 47 (3):e0240028.
    The paper points out the reasons for the substitution of the concept of reason’s striving for the concept of will in J.G. Fichte’s later writings, and particularly in his lectures on the Facts of Consciousness of 1813. In this way, it is possible to rethink R. Lauth’s interpretation, according to which Fichtian philosophizing would reconsider the primacy attributed by modernity to theoretical knowledge and would succeed in constructing a “nova method” philosophy, but would fail to overcome a ‘horizontal’ conception of (...)
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  25. Fichte on Free Will and Predestination.Kienhow Goh - 2024 - New York and London: Routledge.
    The book presents Fichte’s position on free will as a form of compatibilism that has not yet been explored in the literature. Due to early rationalist convictions, Fichte is as much concerned with reconciling freedom with a logical and a theological determinism as he is with a causal determinism. He sees in Kant’s novel concept of a pure practical reason a new form of rationalism, one consisting of a system of moral rather than natural necessitating grounds. At the same time, (...)
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  26. The I and I: The Pure and the Empirical Subject in Fichte’s Science of Science.Kienhow Goh - 2024 - In Robb Dunphy & Toby Lovat (eds.), Metaphysics as a Science in Classical German Philosophy. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 251-69.
    This paper presents Fichte’s system of philosophical science with the aim of elucidating the boundary separating the pure, absolute I and the empirical, individual I in the system. Tapping on writings related to the two versions of the Jena Doctrine of Science, I represent Fichte’s philosophical project as the primarily epistemological one of maintaining the scientific status of pre-philosophical knowledge in the face of the Maimonian skeptical challenge. Apparently, Fichte analyzes the scientificity of a body of knowledge in terms of (...)
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  27. Blockchain as Fichtean problem.Adam Hankins - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  28. The absolute and the 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Charles Jeffery Kinlaw - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  29. The first principle in the later Fichte : the (not) "surprising insight" in the 15th fifteenth lecture of the 1804 Wissenschaftslehre. [REVIEW]Michael Lewin - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  30. Fichte's reader and the autopoiesis of the Wissenschaftslehre, 1794-1804.Andrew J. Mitchell - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  31. Into death's lair : truth, appearance, and the irrational gap in Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Matthew Nini - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  32. Immanent thinking and the activity of philosophizing in Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Angelica Nuzzo - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  33. Is Fichte a Kantian, a German idealist, both, or neither?Tom Rockmore - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  34. Nothing remains : notes on Fichte's "irrational gap" in the 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.F. Scott Scribner - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  35. Pure light and the promethean self of Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Kit Slover - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  36. Fichte contra idealism in the 1804 Wissenschaftslehre.Michael Steinberg - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  37. Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre : a possible reply to Schelling's Bruno.Michael Vater - 2024 - In Benjamin D. Crowe & Gabriel Gottlieb (eds.), Fichte's 1804 Wissenschaftslehre: essays on the "Science of knowing". State University of New York Press.
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  38. The Controversy Between Schiller and Johann Gottlieb Fichte.Emiliano Acosta - 2023 - In Antonino Falduto & Tim Mehigan (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Philosophy of Friedrich Schiller. Springer Verlag. pp. 497-509.
    In this chapter, Acosta shows that the well-known Horen-Dispute—the epistolary polemic in the summer of 1795 initiated by Schiller’s rejection of an article submitted by Fichte for publication in Die Horen—actually represents the tip of the iceberg in the philosophical disagreement between Schiller and Fichte. According to Acosta, this controversy is better understood as a confrontation between two ways of resolving the Kantian antinomy between freedom and necessity after Kant and after the French Revolution. Whereas Fichte develops a dialectic based (...)
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  39. The Concept of Property in Kant, Fichte, and Hegel: Freedom, Right, and Recognition.Jacob Blumenfeld - 2023 - New York: Routledge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Philosophy.
    This book provides a detailed account of the role of property in German Idealism. It puts the concept of property in the center of the philosophical systems of Kant, Fichte, and Hegel and shows how property remains tied to their conceptions of freedom, right, and recognition. The book begins with a critical genealogy of the concept of property in modern legal philosophy, followed by a reconstruction of the theory of property in Kant's Doctrine of Right, Fichte's Foundations of Natural Right, (...)
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  40. Intuição, crença e saber imediato: Jacobi, Fichte e Schelling entre Fé e saber e as Lições sobre a história da filosofia de Hegel.Eduardo Brandão - 2023 - Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã 28 (2):13-22.
    O objetivo do artigo é indicar que na crítica a Fichte em Fé e saber, referida à noção de crença de Jacobi, já se pode vislumbrar dentro de certos limites e desvios a posição de Hegel nas Lições sobre a história da filosofia sobre o vínculo entre Schelling e Jacobi no que diz respeito às noções de intuição intelectual e saber imediato.
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  41. ‘All is Act, Movement, and Life’: Fichte’s Idealism as Immortalism.G. Anthony Bruno - 2023 - In Luca Corti & Johannes-Georg Schülein (eds.), Life, Organisms, and Human Nature: New Perspectives on Classical German Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 121-139.
    In the Vocation of Man, Fichte makes the striking claim that life is eternal, rational, our true being, and the final cause of nature in general and of death in particular. How can we make sense of this claim? I argue that the public lectures that compose the Vocation are a popular expression of Fichte’s pre-existing commitment to what I call immortalism, the view that life is the unconditioned condition of intelligibility. Casting the I as an absolutely self-active or living (...)
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  42. The Beginning of Hegel's Logic.Robb Dunphy - 2023 - Philosophy Compass 18 (5):1-10.
    This article discusses two topics, both commonly referred to using the label “the beginning of Hegel's Logic”: (1) Hegel's justification for the claim that a science of logic must begin by considering the concept of “pure being”. (2) Hegel's account of the concepts “being”, “nothing”, and “becoming” in the first chapter of his Logic. Discussing recent work on both of these topics, two primary claims are defended: Regarding (1): the strongest interpretations of Hegel's case for beginning a science of logic (...)
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  43. Metaphysics as a Science in Classical German Philosophy.Robb Dunphy & Toby Lovat (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This volume is dedicated to questions about the nature and method of metaphysics in Classical German Philosophy. Its chapters offer original investigations into the metaphysical projects of many of the major figures in German philosophy between Wolff and Hegel. The period of Classical German Philosophy was an extraordinarily rich one in the history of philosophy, especially for metaphysics. It includes some of the highest achievements of early modern rationalism, Kant's critical revolution, and the various significant works of German Idealism that (...)
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  44. The Conceptual Origin of Worldview in Kant and Fichte.Alexander T. Englert - 2023 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 4 (1):1-24.
    Kant and Fichte developed the concept of a worldview as a way of reflecting on experience as a whole. But what does it mean to form a worldview? And what role did it play in the German Idealist tradition? This paper seeks to answer these questions through a detailed analysis of the form of a philosophical worldview and its historical portent, both of which remain unexplored in the literature. The dearth of attention is partially to blame on Kant’s desultory development (...)
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  45. rol pedagógico en el segundo Sistema trascendental de Jena de J. G. Fichte.Feyie Ferrán - 2023 - Resonancias Revista de Filosofía 15:89-100.
    El presente trabajo busca mostrar el rol pedagógico que posee el concepto de exhortación en el segundo sistema trascendental que Fichte desarrolla en Jena. Según los primeros parágrafos (§§1-4) de su Grundlage des Naturrechts la constitución de la autoconciencia individual tiene como condición necesaria que un ser racional se relaciona con otro admitiéndolo como un semejante. Vale decir, esta relación se constituye por un reconocimiento recíproco que, al mismo tiempo, es la base de los conceptos de derecho y libertad. Para (...)
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  46. Solving Projected Model Counting by Utilizing Treewidth and its Limits.Johannes K. Fichte, Markus Hecher, Michael Morak, Patrick Thier & Stefan Woltran - 2023 - Artificial Intelligence 314 (C):103810.
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  47. A Note on Friedrich Schlegel's Reception of the Wissenschaftslehre.Kienhow Goh - 2023 - Human Affairs (Symposium Issue):1-12.
    This essay investigates what a nuanced and revisionary interpretation of Fichte’s Critical-idealist philosophy could reveal about its impact on the philosophic thought of Friedrich Schlegel. It argues that Schlegel sees the Wissenschaftslehre through the lens of the distinction Fichte famous draws between the “spirit” (Geist) and the “letter” (Buchstaben) of a philosophy. He considers the spirit of the Wissenschaftslehre to lie in its acute awareness of its own limitation as a work of art and its letter in the deductive or (...)
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  48. La Bestimmung come disposizione. Un’analisi tra Sorge e Liebe.Elia Gonnella - 2023 - Odradek. Studies in Philosophy of Literature, Aesthetics, and New Media Theories 9 (1-2):263-303.
    This paper analyses Spalding’s Betrachtung über die Bestimmung des Menschen (1748) through a translation proposal that tries to point out the human disposal to act ethically. In accord with modern German use, I argue for a translation of Bestimmung as disposition. In the first part of the article, I deal with the relevant issues for a philosophy of human experience that are present in Spalding’s text. In the second one, I bring the translation proposal into the philosophical domain showing how (...)
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  49. Fichte and Hegel on free time.Thimo Heisenberg - 2023 - European Journal of Philosophy 31 (4):914-926.
    To us today, it seems intuitive that an ideal society would secure for its citizens some time for leisure that is, some time to do “whatever they want” after having attended to their various responsibilities and natural needs. But, in this essay, I argue that—in 19th century social philosophy—the status of leisure (Muße) in an ideal society was actually surprisingly controversial: whereas J.G. Fichte makes a strong case for leisure as part of an ideal society (going even so far as (...)
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  50. XIV—Hegel and Fichte: Two Early Critiques of Capitalism.Axel Honneth - 2023 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 123 (3):347-376.
    In what follows, I attempt to reconstruct Fichte’s and Hegel’s reasons for developing at almost the same time two very different conceptions of a rational economic order. Whereas Hegel, on the basis of his objective notion of reason, would recommend that a rational state, founded on the notion of right, should include a strictly confined, socially embedded market economy, Fichte, on the basis of his subjective notion of reason, thought instead that the very same state must adopt an economic order (...)
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