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Johann Gottlieb Fichte is a key figure in the landscape of post-Kantian idealism. From 1794 up to the final year of his life in 1814, Fichte attempted to formulate a unified philosophical programme that would combine, in a single system, the main branches of theoretical and practical philosophy. At the heart of this programme we find Fichte’s idea of a ‘doctrine of science’ (Wissenschaftslehre) that tries to articulate the fundamental principles of human cognition on the basis of the ‘I’ and its self-positing activity. In subsequent years he worked to articulate a ‘doctrine of right’ (Rechtslehre) in the Foundations of Natural Right (1795/96), and a ‘doctrine of ethics’ (Sittenlehre) in the System of Ethics (1798), both of which Fichte published under the subtitle ‘according to the principles of the Wissenschaftslehre.’ In later years he also worked and lectured on a doctrine of religion (Religionslehre). In addition to his philosophical writings, Fichte produced numerous popular works, such as Some Lectures Concerning the Scholar’s Vocation, the Vocation of Human Beings (1800), and The Way Towards the Blessed Life (1806). 

Key works Fichte's main philosophical works are: Foundations for the Entire Doctrine of Ethics (Fichte 1970); Foundations of Natural Right According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre (Fichte 2000); and the System of Ethics According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre  (Fichte 2005).
Introductions For introductions to Fichte's philosophical system, see Breazeale (Breazeale 2013), Ware (Ware 2020), and Wood (Wood 2016).
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  1. The Establishment of the State in Fichte’s System.Türker Armaner - unknown - Yeditepe'de Felsefe (Philosophy at Yeditepe) 1.
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  2. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Hanbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  3. Kant, Fichte, and the Act of the I.Charles E. DeBord - forthcoming - Philosophy Study.
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  4. I-Hood as the Speculative Ground of Fichte’s Real Ethics.Kienhow Goh - forthcoming - In The Enigma of Fichtes First Principles: 49 (Fichte-Studien). Brill. pp. 267-287.
    This article considers how the I furnishes a ground for the moral principle’s reality or applicability, or the synthetic unification of the higher and the lower powers of desire, through its originally determined nature. It argues that the nature of I-hood as an immediate unity of seeing and being, an absolute identity of the subjective and objective, is key to securing the moral principle’s applicability. On its basis, Fichte envisages an originally determined system of drives and feelings on the one (...)
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  5. Anschauung und Begriff in formaler und transzendentaler Logik.Max Gottschlich - forthcoming - In Violetta Waibel (ed.), Die Rolle von Anschauung und Begriff bei Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Mit Kant über Kant hinaus (Reihe: Begriff und Konkretion). Berlin: Duncker&Humblot.
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  6. Fichte on Summons and Self-Consciousness.Michelle Kosch - forthcoming - Mind:fzaa001.
    J. G. Fichte held that a form of intersubjectivity—what he called a ‘summons’—is a condition of possibility of self-consciousness. This thesis is widely taken to be one of Fichte’s most influential contributions to the European philosophy of the last two centuries. But what the thesis actually states is far from obvious; and existing interpretations either are poorly supported by the texts or else render the thesis trivial or implausible. I propose a new interpretation, on which Fichte’s claim is that reflective (...)
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  7. The Bloomsbury Companion to Fichte.Bykova Marina (ed.) - forthcoming - Bloomsbury.
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  8. Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  9. The Human Vocation and the Question of the Earth: Karoline von Günderrode's Philosophy of Nature.Dalia Nassar - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 104.
    Contra widespread readings of Karoline von Günderrode’s 1805 “Idea of the Earth (Idee der Erde)” as a creative adaptation of Schelling’s philosophy of nature, this article proposes that “Idea of the Earth” furnishes a moral account of the human relation to the natural world, one which does not map onto any of the more well-known romantic or idealist accounts of the human-nature relation. Specifically, I argue that “Idea of the Earth” responds to the great Enlightenment question concerning the human vocation, (...)
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  10. Art, Authenticity, and Understanding.David Suarez - forthcoming - In Jens Pier & Aron Schwertner (eds.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    Early 20th century debates over the possibility of ‘metaphysics’ are grounded in a set of questions and answers whose central themes are already delineated in Kant’s critical philosophy. Wittgenstein and Carnap are sympathetic to Kant’s dismissal of transcendent metaphysics, but skeptical that there could be any substantive account of the fundamental conditions of our meaning-making. By contrast, Heidegger follows Fichte and the early German Romantics in seeing answers to the problems raised by metacritique not in science, but in the non-discursive (...)
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  11. Personal Meditations as the Foundation of the Foundation: The Proper Beginning of Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In Christoph Asmuth Jesper Lundsfryd Rasmussen (ed.), Das Problem des Anfangs.
    It is the aim of this article to establish the conceptual continuity between Fichte's early manuscript Personal Meditations on Elementary Philosophy/ Practical Philosophy (1793/94) and his Foundation of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre (1794/95) and thereby draw implications for understanding the proper foundation of the Wissenschaftslehre. The second section will begin with a remark on Fichte’s term “setzen” (to posit), a term that Fichte appropriated from his predecessors to designate a fundamental activity which is central to rational agency and prior to the (...)
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  12. The Relation Between Reality and Negation in Kant, Maimon, and Fichte.Chiu Yui Plato Tse - forthcoming - In The Significance of Negation in Classical German Philosophy. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
    The aim of this paper is to show that the binary notions of reality and negation play an important role in the philosophical agenda of Kant, Maimon and Fichte. The paper has three sections. The first section illustrates the metaphysical significance of Kant’s introduction of the quantitative opposition between reality and negation, which informs the phenomena-noumena distinction and the attribution of intensive magnitude. The second section argues that Maimon’s speculative appropriation of differentials took up Kant’s conception of real opposition between (...)
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  13. My Duty and the Morality of Others: Lying, Truth, and the Good Example in Fichte’s Normative Perfectionism.Stefano Bacin - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 201-220.
    The aim of the paper is to shed light on some of the most original elements of Fichte’s conception of morality as expressed in his account of specific obligations. After some remarks on Fichte’s original classification of ethical duties, the paper focuses on the prohibition of lying, the duty to communicate our true knowledge, and the duty to set a good example. Fichte’s account of those duties not only goes beyond the mere justification of universally acknowledged demands, but also deploys (...)
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  14. Fichte's System of Ethics: A Critical Guide.Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.) - 2021 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    The System of Ethics was published at the height of Fichte's academic career and marks the culmination of his philosophical development in Jena. Much more than a treatise on ethics narrowly construed, the System of Ethics presents a unified synthesis of Fichte's core philosophical ideas, including the principle I-hood, self-activity and self-consciousness, and also contains his most detailed treatment of action and agency. This volume brings together an international group of leading scholars on Fichte, and is the first of its (...)
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  15. Fichte and the Path From “Formal” to “Material” Freedom.Daniel Breazeale - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–108.
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  16. Facticity and Genesis: Tracking Fichte’s Method in the Berlin Wissenschaftslehre.G. Anthony Bruno - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:177-97.
    The concept of facticity denotes conditions of experience whose necessity is not logical yet whose contingency is not empirical. Although often associated with Heidegger, Fichte coins ‘facticity’ in his Berlin period to refer to the conclusion of Kant’s metaphysical deduction of the categories, which he argues leaves it a contingent matter that we have the conditions of experience that we do. Such rhapsodic or factical conditions, he argues, must follow necessarily, independent of empirical givenness, from the I through a process (...)
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  17. The Monogram of the "Sweet Songstress of the Night": The Hovering of the Imagination as the First Principle of Fichte’s Aesthetics.Laure Cahen-Maurel - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:219-247.
    This article presents a new reading of Fichte’s aesthetics that differs from a primarily functionalist interpretation of the imagination and art. It demonstrates that the “hovering” of the creative imagination should be viewed as the first principle of Fichte’s aesthetics, in which the latter consists of a triad of the pleasant, the beautiful and the sublime. Moreover, it argues that in the text Ueber Geist und Buchstab in der Philosophie Fichte created a real and original monogram of the hovering creative (...)
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  18. Knot of the World: German Idealism Between Annihilation and Construction.Kirill Chepurin - 2021 - In Kirill Chepurin & Alex Dubilet (eds.), Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology. New York City, New York, USA: Fordham University Press. pp. 35-53.
    Through an analysis of the ultimate telos of the world and of the subject’s striving in Schelling, the late Fichte, and Friedrich Schlegel—as well as via such concepts as the absolute, bliss, nothingness, God, chaos, and irony—this essay reconfigures German Idealism and Romanticism as spanning the conceptual space between two poles, world-annihilation and world-construction, and traces the ways in which these thinkers attempted to resolve what this essay calls the "transcendental knot," or to think the way the world is without (...)
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  19. Fichte on Normativity in the Late Jena Period.Benjamin Crowe - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–46.
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  20. 'Transcendental' in Kant and Fichte.Elena Ficara - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:333-352.
    The article is about the meaning of the word ‘transcendental’ in Kant and Fichte. Its aim is not merely exegetical. It is a common hermeneutical insight that analysing the use and definitions of concepts in history, and their shifts in the development of the history of philosophy, is a crucial tool we have to understand those concepts and to assess their viability for philosophy today. In this paper, I focus on Kant’s use and definitions of the word ‘transcendental’ and suggest (...)
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  21. Ethics as Theory of Society: Morality and Ethical Life in Fichte’s System of Ethics.Luca Fonnesu - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 178–200.
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  22. The First Principle of Philosophy in Fichte’s 1794 Aenesidemus Review.Elise Frketich - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:59-76.
    In Aenesidemus, G.E. Schulze adopts the skeptical voice of Aenesidemus and engages in critical dialogue with Hermias, a Kantian, in the hopes of laying bare what he views as the fundamental issues of K.L. Reinhold’s version of critical philosophy. While some attacks reveal a deep misunderstanding of Reinhold’s Elementarphilosophie on Schulze’s part, others hit their mark. In the Aenesidemus Review, J.G. Fichte at times agrees with criticisms raised by Aenesidemus and at times defends Reinhold against them. On Fichte’s view, Schulze (...)
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  23. I-Hood as the Speculative Ground of Fichte’s Real Ethics.Kienhow Goh - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:267-287.
    This article considers how the I furnishes a ground for the reality or applicability of the moral principle, or the synthetic unification of the higher and the lower powers of desire, through its originally determined nature. It argues that the nature of I-hood as an immediate unity of seeing and being, an absolute identity of the subjective and objective, is key to establishing the moral principle’s applicability. On its basis, Fichte envisages an originally determined system of drives and feelings on (...)
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  24. The Struggle is Real: An Exploration of 19th Century Notions of Striving, Dialectic, and General Unrest.Dustin Gray - 2021 - Dialogue: Journal of Phi Sigma Tau 63 (2-3):160-7.
    In the comprehension of many 19th century European philosophers, there seems ever present in much of the work, a shared notion of struggle. This notion seems mainly to arise within the confines of human consciousness. The notion of struggle is in fact pervasive in contemporary thought as well, and could simply be inherent to human nature. However, I will maintain specific focus on the notion of struggle as brought to light by a sampling of works by three relevant 19th century (...)
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  25. Fichte’s Theory of Moral Evil.David James - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–149.
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  26. Fichte's Theory of Drives.Michelle Kosch - 2021 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 59 (2):247-269.
  27. A Reason to Know.Olof Leffler - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-19.
    It is often thought that desire-based versions of reasons internalism, according to which our practical reasons depend on what we desire, are committed to denying that we have any categorical reasons. I shall argue, however, that such theories are committed to a universal desire which gives rise to an unexpected categorical reason – a reason to know our surroundings. I will arrive at this conclusion by using Fichte’s argument for thinking that security from unpredictable and powerful forces of nature is (...)
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  28. Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Die späten wissenschaftlichen Vorlesungen iv, 1: Transzendentale Logik 1 (1812). Neu herausgegeben von Hans Georg von Manz und Ives Radrizzani. Unter Mitarbeit von Erich Fuchs. [REVIEW]Zhu Lei - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:445-458.
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  29. Fichte on the Content of Conscience.Dean Moyar - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–130.
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  30. Fichte’s First Principle of Right.Michael Nance - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:248-266.
    This paper addresses the following questions: what is Fichte’s first principle of right, how does he argue for it, and how does it function as the first principle of his substantive political theory? To answer these questions, the paper offers an overview of the main steps of Fichte’s derivation of the principle of right, explains its relationship to Fichte’s account of individual personhood, and then specifies some of the senses in which the resulting principle serves as the foundation of the (...)
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  31. Embodiment and Freedom: Fichte “On the Material of the Ethical Law”.Angelica Nuzzo - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 150–177.
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  32. The Role of First Principles in Fichte’s Philosophy of History.Pavel Reichl - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:288-308.
    In this article, I explore the role of the first principle in Fichte’s philosophy of history and assess the extent to which its introduction is able to resolve problems in the philosophies of history of his predecessors. Particularly, I focus on Fichte’s response to the question of how history can be grasped in a systematic manner for the purposes of theoretical cognition. I argue that while Fichte is able to resolve the tension between Herder’s pluralism and Kant’s chiliasm in an (...)
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  33. Fichte’s Original Insight Reviewed.Roberto Horácio Sá Pereira - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:394-415.
    This paper addresses Fichte’s puzzle of self-consciousness. I propose a new reading of “Fichte’s original insight”, inspired by Pareyson’s general reading, which I call here the “Fichtean metaphysical turn in transcendental philosophy”. Against the mainstream view in Fichte’s scholarship, I argue that Fichte’s and Kant’s views do not concur regarding the primary reference of the “I”, namely spontaneous agency in thinking, which Fichte calls “Tathandlung”. Yet, their views do in fact concur when Fichte claims that this spontaneous agency in thinking (...)
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  34. From Being Reflexive to Absolute Reflection – Fichte’s Original Insight Reconsidered.Stefan Schick - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:139-160.
    This paper defends Fichte’s conception of the absolute I by interpreting it as a modification of the reflection theory. It firstly provides a short outline of Dieter Henrich’s idea of Fichte’s “original insight,” before delineating the problems of Fichte’s “original insight” as they are presented by Henrich. It then analyzes Fichte’s concept of the absolute I by reconstructing its deduction in the Foundations of the Science of Knowledge. With the concept of the absolute I delineated in this manner, it then (...)
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  35. Fichte on Autonomy.Ulrich Schlösser - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–65.
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  36. Why Is the First Principle of the Grundlage der Gesamten Wissenschaftslehre Foundational for Fichte’s Entire Wissenschaftslehre?Alexander Schnell - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:79-93.
    This article aims at a new interpretation of paragraph §1 of Fichte’s main work of 1794/95, the Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre. This well-known text of the early Jena period explicitly introduces a number of thought motifs that will prove to be valuable for the later versions of the Wissenschaftslehre – including the second version of 1804 – and these motifs will furthermore illuminate the significance of the first principle for Fichte’s entire Wissenschaftslehre.
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  37. Difference Within Identity? Fichte’s Reevaluation of the First Principle of Philosophy in §5 of the Foundation of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre.Philipp Schwab - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:94-118.
    The aim of the article is to discuss a reevaluation of the first principle in §5 of Fichte’s Foundation of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre. The article makes the case that this reevaluation takes place in an attempt to resolve the key systematic issue of a transition from identity to difference, which can be traced back to the very first draft of Fichte’s system in the Own Meditations on Elementary Philosophy. Especially as Fichte, in §1 of the Foundation, conceptualizes the principle of (...)
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  38. "Knowledge Is Existence" – Ascent to the First Principle in Fichte’s 1805 Erlangen Wissenschaftslehre.Robert G. Seymour - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:198-216.
    Whereas in the Wl1794 the transition from the facts of empirical consciousness to the absolutely unconditioned and self-evident Grundsatz is undertaken briskly, Fichte begins the wl1805 by stating the Grundsatz with the proviso that it cannot immediately be recognised as such. Instead of proceeding from a self-evident starting point to derive the specific a priori determinations of knowledge, there follows a long process of “ascent” to clarify the Grundsatz, in what Fichte calls the Existenzlehre. This “ascent” does not correlate to (...)
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  39. General Logic and the Foundational Demonstration of the First Principle in Fichte’s Eigene Meditationen and Early Wissenschaftslehre.David Sommer - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:32-58.
    In this paper I inquire into the role of general logic in Fichte’s early formulations of his first principle. This inquiry contains three main parts. First, I summarize the role of general logic in Kant’s theoretical philosophy, as well as Gottlob Schulze’s critical claims regarding their relation in Reinhold’s Elementarphilosophie. Second, I examine the first three sections of Fichte’s private notes on the Elementarphilosophie, called the Eigene Meditationen, and closely follow his early attempts to provide a basic principle that is (...)
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  40. Feeling, Drive, and the Lower Capacity of Desire.Owen Ware - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & OwenEditors Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 66–84.
    Part II of Fichte’s System of Ethics is titled “Deduction of the Reality and Applicability of the Moral Law.” In this chapter, I argue that what motivates Fichte’s new deduction is a concern to avoid what he calls “empty formula philosophy,” that is, a philosophy which fails to explain how willing an object is possible. Fichte sets out to avoid this shortcoming by offering a complex theory of the drives, focusing first on what he calls our “lower capacity of desire.” (...)
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  41. Fichte's Ethical Holism.Owen Ware - 2021 - In Practical Philosophy from Kant to Hegel: Freedom, Right and Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 138-156.
    My aim in this chapter is to address what looks like a tension in Fichte’s derivation of ethical content for the moral law in his System of Ethics. In the first place, Fichte seeks to derive the content of our duties from our “natural drive [Naturtrieb],” which he defines in terms of our striving for enjoyment. But later in the book we find a second argument that derives the content of our duties from what Fichte calls the conditions of our (...)
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  42. "The Subsequent Delivery of the Deduction" – Fichte’s Transformation of Kant’s Deduction of the Categories.Gesa Wellmann - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:119-138.
    In the wake of the massive criticism of Kant’s deduction of the categories in the first Critique, Fichte starts providing what he takes an improved version of such a deduction to be. This article aims at investigating the transformation he thereby introduces into the Kantian thought. I will do so mainly with respect to the deduction’s architectonical dimension, i.e. by investigating the role of the deduction for the Wissenschaftslehre as a whole. Concretely, I will defend the following theses: By identifying (...)
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  43. Fichte’s Ethics as Kantian Ethics.Allen Wood - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–27.
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  44. Fichte’s First Principles and the Total System of the Wissenschaftslehre.David W. Wood - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:9-19.
    Editor's Preface to Fichte-Studien 49 (2021), "The Enigma of Fichte’s First Principles", (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2021): : IX-XIX. Also available on open-access. See the publisher's website.
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  45. Fichte’s First First Principles, in the Aphorisms on Religion and Deism (1790) and Prior.Jason M. Yonover - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:3-31.
    The idea of a “first principle” looms large in Fichte’s thought, and its first real appearance is in his “Aphorisms on Religion and Deism”, which has received little attention. I begin this paper by providing some context on that piece, and then developing a reconstruction of the position presented within it. Next, I establish that Fichte’s views at the time of writing, and for some years prior, are those of the “deist,” and clarify why he sensed he had to leave (...)
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  46. Fichte im Wilhelminischen Reich: Idealisiertes Bild, patriotische Vorbildhaftigkeit und nationale Bildung.Elena Alessiato - 2020 - Fichte-Studien 48:358-385.
    In Germany at the turn of the 20th century the interest in Fichte’s philosophy was growing remarkably.This phenomenon has to be considered as a part of a broader “German movement”, i. e. a collective cultural trend aiming at pinpointing what had been properly “German” in the last two centuries. This need became even more acute by the outbreak of the Great War.In that context Fichte’s work was used as a benchmark for creating and elaborating on the myth of “the German (...)
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  47. The Thought of a Principle: Rödl’s Fichteanism.Bruno G. Anthony - 2020 - In Marina Bykova (ed.), The Bloomsbury Handbook to Fichte. Bloomsbury.
    Sebastian Rödl portrays much of his work as attempts at articulating a German idealist view of self-consciousness. Although he rarely engages directly with German idealist texts, his accounts of first-person and second-person knowledge arrive at strikingly Fichtean theses regarding the necessary identity of subject and object in the former and the necessary reciprocity of subject and other in the latter. Despite this affinity, I argue, Rödl's accounts lack a feature that is essential to Fichte's and, indeed, to German idealism's distinctive (...)
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  48. Le Vorbild comme clef de voûte de l’image et de l’usage de Platon chez Fichte.Marco Rampazzo Bazzan - 2020 - Fichte-Studien 48:185-203.
    The question whether Fichte was or not Platonist is not to be considered harmless. This is first and foremost a question that Fichte asks himself in front of his students during his Lecture on Ethics at the University of Berlin. In this way Fichte pretended to clarify a point that he considered decisive for characterizing his conception of ethics. Thus, the question of his Platonism no longer concerns his knowledge nor his interpretation of Plato, but rather his manner and reasons (...)
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  49. Saul Ascher’s Critique of Fichte’s Novel Form of Anti-Judaism.Robert Bernasconi - 2020 - Eco-Ethica 9:209-233.
    Some scholars have responded to the increasingly widespread concerns about Immanuel Kant’s racism by promoting his cosmopolitanism as if the two were self-evidently incompatible, but his particular form of cosmopolitanism has its own history of difficulties when it comes to both racism and anti-Judaism. These concerns can be grounded historically if one links his 1784 essay on history with his account of cosmopolitanism in his 1793 lectures on the metaphysics of morals, where he criticized Jews for failing to embrace cosmopolitanism. (...)
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  50. Suspending the World: Romantic Irony and Idealist System.Kirill Chepurin - 2020 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 53 (2):111-133.
    This paper revisits the rhetorics of system and irony in Fichte and Friedrich Schlegel in order to theorize the utopic operation and standpoint that, I argue, system and irony share. Both system and irony transport the speculative speaker to the impossible zero point preceding and suspending the construction of any binary terms or the world itself—an immanent nonplace (of the in-itself, nothingness, or chaos) that cannot be inscribed into the world's regime of comprehensibility and possibility. It is because the philosopher (...)
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