Results for 'Uncertainty'

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  1. Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic & Amos Tversky - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (3):331-340.
     
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  2.  27
    Predicting weather and climate: Uncertainty, ensembles and probability.Wendy S. Parker - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (3):263-272.
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    Actions and Uncertainty: How Prenatally Diagnosed Variants of Uncertain Significance Become Actionable.Allison Werner-Lin, Judith L. M. Mccoyd & Barbara A. Bernhardt - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (S1):61-71.
    The development of genomic technologies has seemed almost magical. Excitement about it, both in medicine and among the public, stems from the belief that genomic techniques will illuminate the causes of health and disease, will lead to effective interventions for both rare and common genetic conditions, and will inform reproductive decision‐making. Novel diagnostic tools, however, are often deployed before targeted therapies are developed, tested, or available and before their psychosocial implications are explored. Newer technologies such as prenatal whole exome screening (...)
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  4.  27
    Graininess of judgment under uncertainty: An accuracy-informativeness trade-off.Ilan Yaniv & Dean P. Foster - 1995 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124 (4):424.
  5.  43
    Belief, Evidence, and Uncertainty: Problems of Epistemic Inference.Mark Taper, Gordon Brittan & Prasanta Bandyopadhyay - 2016 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag. Edited by Gordon Brittan Jr & Mark L. Taper.
    It can be demonstrated in a very straightforward way that confirmation and evidence as spelled out by us can vary from one case to the next, that is, a hypothesis may be weakly confirmed and yet the evidence for it can be strong, and conversely, the evidence may be weak and the confirmation strong. At first glance, this seems puzzling; the puzzlement disappears once it is understood that confirmation is of single hypotheses, in which there is an initial degree of (...)
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  6.  15
    Instability and Uncertainty Are Critical for Psychotherapy: How the Therapeutic Alliance Opens Us Up.Patrick Connolly - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Tschacher and Haken have recently applied a systems-based approach to modeling psychotherapy process in terms of potentially beneficial tendencies toward deterministic as well as chaotic forms of change in the client’s behavioral, cognitive and affective experience during the course of therapy. A chaotic change process refers to a greater exploration of the states that a client can be in, and it may have a potential positive role to play in their development. A distinction is made between on the one hand, (...)
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  7.  86
    The Role of Short-Termism and Uncertainty Avoidance in Organizational Inaction on Climate Change: A Multi-Level Framework.Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee, Timo Busch, Jonatan Pinkse & Natalie Slawinski - 2017 - Business and Society 56 (2):253-282.
    Despite increasing pressure to deal with climate change, firms have been slow to respond with effective action. This article presents a multi-level framework for a better understanding of why many firms are failing to reduce their absolute greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to climate change. The concepts of short-termism and uncertainty avoidance from research in psychology, sociology, and organization theory can explain the phenomenon of organizational inaction on climate change. Antecedents related to short-termism and uncertainty avoidance reinforce one (...)
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    Self-knowledge, uncertainty, and choice.Frederic Schick - 1979 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (3):235-252.
  9.  10
    Generating Buoyancy in a Sea of Uncertainty: Teachers Creativity and Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ross C. Anderson, Tracy Bousselot, Jen Katz-Buoincontro & Jandee Todd - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant uncertainty for students and teachers. During this time, teacher and student creative beliefs and affect play a supportive role in adaptively managing stress, finding joy, and bouncing back from inevitable setbacks with resilience. Developing an adaptive orientation to creativity is a critically important step in helping teachers deal with the challenges and stress of reaching their students through distance learning, especially the most marginalized. This study aims to understand how (...)
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  10.  94
    Rationality and uncertainty.Amartya Sen - 1985 - Theory and Decision 18 (2):109-127.
  11.  16
    Values, Motives, and Organic Food Consumption in China: A Moderating Role of Perceived Uncertainty.Sheng Wei, Furong Liu, Shengxiang She & Rong Wu - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    The present research attempts to understand the importance of altruistic and egoistic values in determining consumers’ motives and intention to purchase organic foods. Using the face-to-face survey approach, a total of 1,067 responses were collected from consumers in China. Data analysis was performed using a two-step structural equation modeling approach, i.e., measurement and structural models. The findings indicated that both values influence the intention to purchase organic foods through the mediation of motives. Specifically, the altruistic value influences the environmental concern, (...)
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  12. Studies of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition in animals and humans.J. David Smith - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.
     
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  13.  24
    Legitimating reason or self-created uncertainty? Public opinion as an observer of modern politics.Giancarlo Corsi - 2017 - Thesis Eleven 143 (1):44-55.
    Theoretical approaches to public opinion are hard to find in the sociological literature, with the exception of the seminal work of Jürgen Habermas. One important alternative, although almost unknown in the English-speaking world, is offered in a few contributions by the systems theoretician Niklas Luhmann. Both critical theory and systems theory start from a historical analysis of the conditions that led to the rise of a public sphere and understand its function as the limitation and control of the arbitrariness of (...)
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  14.  26
    Pupil diameter reflects uncertainty in attentional selection during visual search.Joy J. Geng, Zachary Blumenfeld, Terence L. Tyson & Michael J. Minzenberg - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  15.  74
    The Stem Cell Uncertainty Principle.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):945-957.
    Stem cells are defined as having capacities for both self-renewal and differentiation. Many different entities satisfy this working definition. I show that this general stem cell concept is relative to a cell lineage, temporal duration, and characters of interest. Experiments specify values for these variables. So claims about stem cells must be understood in terms of experimental methods used to identify them. Furthermore, the stem cell concept imposes evidential constraints on interpretation of experimental results. From these constraints, it follows that (...)
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  16.  32
    Treating Baby Doe: The Ethics of Uncertainty.Nancy K. Rhoden - 1986 - Hastings Center Report 16 (4):34-42.
    The ethical tensions inherent in all Baby Doe treatment decisions are compounded by medical uncertainty. Physicians both here and abroad have adopted various strategies. Swedish doctors tend to withhold treatment from the beginning from infants for whom statistical data suggest a grim prognosis. The British are more likely to initiate treatment but withdraw it if the infant appears likely to die or suffer severe brain damage. The trend in the U.S. is to start treating any baby who is potentially (...)
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  17.  65
    The Irrelevance of the Risk-Uncertainty Distinction.Dominic Roser - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (5):1387-1407.
    Precautionary Principles are often said to be appropriate for decision-making in contexts of uncertainty such as climate policy. Contexts of uncertainty are contrasted to contexts of risk depending on whether we have probabilities or not. Against this view, I argue that the risk-uncertainty distinction is practically irrelevant. I start by noting that the history of the distinction between risk and uncertainty is more varied than is sometimes assumed. In order to examine the distinction, I unpack the (...)
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  18.  51
    Living with Uncertainty.Jean-Pierre Dupuy - 2004 - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 8 (2):4-25.
  19.  13
    Cities of Uncertainty: Jakarta, the Urban Majority, and Inventive Political Technologies.AbdouMaliq Simone - 2013 - Theory, Culture and Society 30 (7-8):243-263.
    When people inhabit a city, they situate themselves and are situated through the intersections of infrastructure and technical systems, and the particular domains and modalities of occupation – settlement and work – that are configured by them. At the same time, people are also inhabited by the city, as a kind of possession, endowment, and series of conundrums. People figure themselves out through figuring arrangements of materials, of designing what is available to them in formats and positions that enable them (...)
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  20.  9
    The relationship between future self-continuity and intention to use Internet wealth management: The mediating role of tolerance of uncertainty and trait anxiety.Rongzhao Wang, Xuanxuan Lin, Zetong Ye, Hua Gao & Jianrong Liu - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    This study aimed to analyze the mediating effect of tolerance of uncertainty and trait anxiety on future self-continuity and intention to use Internet wealth management systems. A questionnaire survey was distributed online and a total of 388 participants completed questionnaire, The questionnaire included the following scales: Chinese version of the FSC, Intention to Use the Internet Wealth Management, TU, and TA. Pearson correlation was used to investigate the correlation coefficient between variables while the sequential regression method was used to (...)
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  21.  7
    Chan rhetoric of uncertainty in the Blue Cliff Record: sharpening a sword at the dragon gate.Steven Heine - 2016 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    This book provides an innovative, critical textual and literary analysis, in light of Song dynasty (960-11279) Chinese cultural and intellectual historical trends, of the Blue Cliff Record, the seminal Chan/Zen Buddhist collection of commentaries on one hundred gongan/koan cases long celebrated for its intricate and articulate interpretative methods.
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  22.  16
    Human enhancement and technological uncertainty : Essays on the promise and peril of emerging technology.Karim Jebari - 2014 - Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
    Essay I explores brain machine interface technologies. These make direct communication between the brain and a machine possible by means of electrical stimuli. This essay reviews the existing and emerging technologies in this field and offers an inquiry into the ethical problems that are likely to emerge. Essay II, co-written with professor Sven-Ove Hansson, presents a novel procedure to engage the public in deliberations on the potential impacts of technology. This procedure, convergence seminar, is a form of scenario-based discussion that (...)
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  23. Towards a Bayesian theory of second-order uncertainty: lessons from non- standard logics.Hykel Hosni - unknown
    Second-order uncertainty, also known as model uncertainty and Knightian uncertainty, arises when decision-makers can (partly) model the parameters of their decision problems. It is widely believed that subjective probability, and more generally Bayesian theory, are ill-suited to represent a number of interesting second-order uncertainty features, especially “ignorance” and “ambiguity”. This failure is sometimes taken as an argument for the rejection of the whole Bayesian approach, triggering a Bayes vs anti-Bayes debate which is in many ways analogous (...)
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    Making policy decisions under plural uncertainty: responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.Malvina Ongaro - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    In this paper, I contend that the uncertainty faced by policy-makers in the COVID-19 pandemic goes beyond the one modelled in standard decision theory. A philosophical analysis of the nature of this uncertainty could suggest some principles to guide policy-making.
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  25.  44
    Effects of Uncertainty on ERPs to Emotional Pictures Depend on Emotional Valence.Huiyan Lin, Hua Jin, Jiafeng Liang, Ruru Yin, Ting Liu & Yiwen Wang - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  26.  18
    The Effect of Sustainability Standard Uncertainty on Certification Decisions of Firms in Emerging Economies.Ivan Montiel, Petra Christmann & Trevor Zink - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (3):667-681.
    Voluntary sustainability standards that establish global rules for firms’ environmental and/or social conduct and allow for verification of firm compliance via third-party certification hold the promise to govern firms’ sustainability conduct in a globalizing world economy. However, the recent proliferation of competing and overlapping global sustainability standards that have been developed by various stakeholders with different agendas, creates uncertainties for firms that likely reduce their propensity to adopt any standard. Without widespread adoption these standards cannot effectively govern firm conduct and (...)
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    Intolerance of Uncertainty and Anxiety-Related Dispositions Predict Pain During Upper Endoscopy.Marco Lauriola, Manuela Tomai, Rossella Palma, Gaia La Spina, Anastasia Foglia, Cristina Panetta, Marilena Raniolo & Stefano Pontone - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  28.  49
    Harming animals for research and for food in conditions of moral uncertainty.Robert Streiffer - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):453-454.
    Koplin and Wilkinson argue for the sociological claim that many believe that the moral uncertainty argument provides significant moral reasons against farming human–pig chimaeras for their organs but that there no are significant moral reasons against farming non-chimeric pigs for food. And yet, K&W argue for the ethical claim, that if the moral uncertainty argument provides significant moral reasons against farming for organs then there are similar moral reasons against farming for food. The moral uncertainty argument appears (...)
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  29.  54
    A Closer Look at the Uncertainty Relation of Position and Momentum.Thomas Schürmann & Ingo Hoffmann - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (8):958-963.
    We consider particles prepared by a single slit diffraction experiment. For those particles the standard deviation σ p of the momentum is discussed. We find out that σ p =∞ is not an exception but a rather typical case. A necessary and sufficient condition for σ p <∞ is given. Finally, the inequality σ p Δx≥π ℏ is derived and it is shown that this bound cannot be improved.
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  30.  13
    Applications of Uncertainty Models as Support in Smart Buildings and Ethical Computing in Edge Computing of Smart Cities.Ying Li & Trip Huwan - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-13.
    In order to improve the effect of smart city construction, this paper combines smart buildings and ethical computing to conduct research on smart city edge computing. The new smart city architecture based on the flexible deployment of edge computing and data slicing capabilities provides support for the transformation of smart city construction from hardware embedded technology, access means, and software data processing. Moreover, this paper uses information technology to collect, process, analyze, use the information to achieve intelligence, and integrate resources (...)
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  31.  14
    Decisions under uncertainty are more messy than they seem.Jarno Tuominen - 2023 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 46:e109.
    Conviction Narrative Theory (CNT) is conceptually so multifaceted as to make critical evaluation difficult. It also omits one course of action: Active engagement with the world. Parsing the developmental and mechanistic processes within CNT would allow for a rigorous research programme to put the account under test. I propose a unifying account based on active inference.
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    Expressions of uncertainty in invisible scientific and religious phenomena during naturalistic conversation.Niamh McLoughlin, Yixin Kelly Cui, Telli Davoodi, Ayse Payir, Jennifer M. Clegg, Paul L. Harris & Kathleen H. Corriveau - 2023 - Cognition 237 (C):105474.
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  33.  9
    The Aesthetics of Uncertainty.Janet Wolff - 2009 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 67 (4):427-429.
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  34. Equipoise as a means of managing uncertainty: personal, communal and proxy.P. Alderson - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (3):135-139.
    Equipoise is advocated as a means of achieving high scientific and ethical standards in randomised trials. As used in the context of research the word describes a state of uncertainty characterised by the belief that in a trial no arm is known to offer greater harm or benefit than any other arm. Clinicians who lack personal equipoise are advised to accept clinical or communal equipoise, based on current unresolved disagreement among the medical profession. Equipoise is mainly discussed in the (...)
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  35.  13
    Making the most of uncertainty: Treasuring exceptions in prenatal diagnosis.Andrew J. Hogan - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 57 (C):24-33.
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  36. Naming and Uncertainty: The Historical-Chain Theory Revised.Zsófia Zvolenszky - 2010 - Proceedings of the XXVth Varna International Philosophical School:132-141.
  37. Retributivism and uncertainty : Why do we punish criminals?Sofia Jeppsson - 2021 - Daily Philosophy (18).
    Published on Daily Philosophy 2021-10-18 Why do we have a criminal justice system? What could possibly justify the state punishing its citizens? Philosophers, scholars of law, politicians and others have proposed different justifications, one of them being retributivism: the view that we ought to give offenders the suffering that they deserve for harming others. However, intentionally harming other people and making them suffer is serious business. If we are to do this in the name of what’s right and good, we (...)
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  38.  8
    Following Snowden, German uncertainty about monitoring.Andrew A. Adams, Sarah Hosell & Kiyoshi Murata - 2017 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 15 (3):232-246.
    PurposeAs part of an international study of knowledge of and attitudes to Snowden’s revelations about the activities of the National Security Agency/Government Communications Headquarters, this paper aims to deal with Germany, taking its socio-cultural and political environment surrounding privacy and state surveillance into account.Design/methodology/approachA questionnaire was answered by 76 German University students. The quantitative responses to the survey were statistically analysed as well as qualitative considerations of free text answers.FindingsSnowden’s revelations have had an important influence over German students’ attitudes toward (...)
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  39.  52
    The limits of uncertainty: A note.Ernest R. Alexander - 1975 - Theory and Decision 6 (3):363-370.
  40.  34
    What Prospects of Morality in Times of Uncertainty?Zygmunt Bauman - 1998 - Theory, Culture and Society 15 (1):11-22.
    This article explores ethical theories as variations on two biblical stories of the origins of morality: morality as the necessity to make choices and assume responsibility and morality as conformity to a rule set by a supreme power. It looks at Knud Løgstrup's and Emanuel Levinas's theories as the most prominent examples of the first approach — and thus best fit to grasp the realities of moral life under contemporary conditions of existential uncertainty and the only ones which perceive (...)
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  41.  19
    Corporate Political Activity and Free Riding under Market Uncertainty: An Investigation of TARP Funding.Lee Warren Brown, John A. De Leon & Abdul A. Rasheed - 2019 - Business and Society Review 124 (1):115-143.
    Given that the benefits of Corporate Political Activity (CPA) are usually granted in the form of favorable industry regulation that benefits all industry participants rather than a single firm, small politically inactive firms are often able to take advantage of the benefits from CPA without investing in them. We argue that the free‐riding problem is context specific. Situations of extreme uncertainty create institutional voids that enable individual firms to more fully appropriate the returns from their CPA. In this paper, (...)
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  42.  16
    Cognitive Aspects of the Strategic Management System under Uncertainty.Tetiana Kulinich, Ruslana Pikus, Oksana Kuzmenko, Svetlana Vasilieva, Victoria Melnik & Mariia Orel - 2022 - Postmodern Openings 13 (3):166-179.
    The importance of the topic of the article lies in the need to explain the cognitive aspects of the strategic management system under uncertainty. The purpose of the article is the need to study and substantiate the importance of cognitive aspects of the system of strategic management in conditions of uncertainty; a comparative analysis of different approaches to strategies in conditions of uncertainty, identifying their features and differences from the provisions of the classical strategic management; to classify (...)
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  43.  54
    Theology and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle: I.Christopher F. Mooney - 1993 - Heythrop Journal 34 (3):247–273.
  44.  12
    The effect of uncertainty in stimulus perception on same-different judgments.David Navon - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12 (6):411-414.
  45.  17
    Raising awareness of uncertainty: A useful addendum to courses in the history and philosophy of science for science teachers?Jack A. Rowell & Judith M. Pollard - 1995 - Science & Education 4 (1):87-97.
  46.  8
    Frames and decisions under uncertainty in economics theory.David Schmeidler - 2021 - Theory and Decision 92 (3-4):759-764.
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    Quantifying the uncertainty of a belief net response: Bayesian error-bars for belief net inference.Tim Van Allen, Ajit Singh, Russell Greiner & Peter Hooper - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (4-5):483-513.
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  48.  21
    Min–max decision rules for choice under complete uncertainty: Axiomatic characterizations for preferences over utility intervals.Jürgen Landes - 2014 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 55:1301-1317.
    We introduce two novel frameworks for choice under complete uncertainty. These frameworks employ intervals to represent uncertain utility attaching to outcomes. In the first framework, utility intervals arising from one act with multiple possible outcomes are aggregated via a set-based approach. In the second framework the aggregation of utility intervals employs multi-sets. On the aggregated utility intervals, we then introduce min–max decision rules and lexicographic refinements thereof. The main technical results are axiomatic characterizations of these min–max decision rules and (...)
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  49. The Tolls of Uncertainty: How Privilege and the Guilt Gap Shape Unemployment in America.[author unknown] - 2021
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  50.  2
    Education in radical uncertainty: transgression in theory and method.James D. Williams - 2022 - British Journal of Educational Studies 70 (4):528-531.
    Comparative international education is a complex field that has been defined/described in several different ways. Some scholars (e.g., Getao, 1996) propose that comparative education strives to und...
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