In both scientific and popular circles it is often said that we are in the midst of a sixth mass extinction. Although the urgency of our present environmental crises is not in doubt, such claims of a present mass extinction are highly controversial scientifically. Our aims are, first, to get to the bottom of this scientific debate by shedding philosophical light on the many conceptual and methodological challenges involved in answering this scientific question, and, second, to offer new philosophical perspectives (...) on what the value of asking this question has been — and whether that value persists today. We show that the conceptual challenges in defining ‘mass extinction’, uncertainties in past and present diversity assessments, and data incommensurabilities undermine a straightforward answer to the question of whether we are in, or entering, a sixth mass extinction today. More broadly we argue that an excessive focus on the mass extinction framing can be misleading for present conservation efforts and may lead us to miss out on the many other valuable insights that Earth’s deep time can offer in guiding our future. (shrink)
In this paper I examine the processes through which movements emerge and are rendered perceptible or imperceptible, building upon the writings of geographers, mobility scholars and philosophers who have sought to overcome or efface the binary of mobility/stasis without flattening differences or overlooking questions of?the political?. The paper does this by distinguishing between?molar? and?molecular? movements, drawing upon Gilles Deleuze and F?lix Guattari?s A Thousand Plateaus to trace how perceptions of movement and stasis emerge in a world that is in process (...) and becoming. The molar and molecular are not presented as opposed terms in binary tension, but as overlapping tendencies or?segmentations?. I argue that a focus on movements and political forces that are becoming-molar and becoming-molecular requires mobility scholars and political theorists to move beyond narrow definitions founded upon binaries of mobility/stasis, the political/apolitical, and micro/macro. In doing this, the paper seeks to advance debates in geography, mobility studies and contemporary philosophy on processual thinking, vibrant matter, micropolitics and the politics of affect. Drawing upon the example of the Israeli separation wall in the West Bank, I then examine how molecular movements and affects are important for understanding the multiple movements and complex materialities of seemingly static molar entities. (shrink)
Thời gian trôi qua, Trái Đất nghe tin nóng lên ghê lắm. Bọn bói cá ở ngoài đê Sông Hồng thỉnh thoảng báo tin nước cạn, cá gầy. Bây giờ ngẫm lại Bói Cá thấy nguy hiểm thật. Ngài tăng cường tìm hiểu, mà phải tin tức khoa học nghiêm chỉnh nhé. Một đội tinh nhuệ, thạo tin, gồm Cò, Chim Sâu, Chim Sẻ, Chào Mào, v.v.., được lập ra để báo cáo tình hình nguy cấp.
Mặc dù 3 điểm nêu trên chưa phải đã đủ, nhưng chắc chắn không thể giải đáp. Vì vậy, khó mà tin vài lập luận đơn giản về “tính khả thi” lại có thể mang ra áp dụng cho cộng đồng trên không gian sinh thái rộng lớn.
Trong khu vực Đông Nam Á, Indonesia là nền kinh tế lớn và cũng là quốc gia phát thải khí nhà kính lớn nhất. Tuy nhiên, Indonesia cũng cam kết mạnh mẽ với mục tiêu giảm mạnh ảnh hưởng phát thải của khu vực sản xuất điện năng của mình, hiện nay đang chủ yếu vận hành các nhà máy nhiệt điện đốt than.
Do xu hướng biến thiên mật độ methane trong bầu khí quyển vẫn còn thiếu hụt, do đó bài nghiên cứu của Skeie, Hodnebrog & Myhre (2023) trên tạp chí Communications Earth & Environment sẽ giúp ta hiểu thêm một số điểm quan trọng.
Ông Ban Ki-moon, cựu Tổng thư ký Liên hợp quốc hiện đang đóng vai trò Chủ tịch Global Center on Adaptation (GCA), mới có xác nhận tại Africa Climate Summit diễn ra ở Nairobi, về nguy cơ tình trạng thiếu thốn tài chính sẽ ngăn cản những tiến bộ tiếp theo, thậm chí đe dọa cả những kết quả tích cực về bảo tồn sinh thái đã đạt được, tại Châu Phi.
Hoạt động môi trường đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc tăng cường nhận thức về biến đổi khí hậu và các vấn đề môi trường, đặc biệt là trong thời gian gần đây khi biến đổi khí hậu và khủng hoảng sinh thái ngày càng trở nên nghiêm trọng hơn. Sự đam mê và cam kết của các nhà hoạt động môi trường là rất đáng ghi nhận. Tuy nhiên, đôi khi trong một số trường hợp, sự nhiệt thành (...) của họ có thể dẫn đến những hành động không chỉ làm giảm đi giá trị của mục tiêu lớn hơn, mà còn tạo cảm giác xa lánh đối với những người họ muốn thuyết phục. (shrink)
Phytoremediation is a biological remediation technique known for low-cost technology and environmentally friendly approach, which employs plants to extract, stabilise, and transform various compounds, such as potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in the soil or water. Recent developments in utilising chelating agents soil remediation have led to a renewed interest in chelate-induced phytoremediation. This review article summarises the roles of various chelating agents and the mechanisms of chelate-induced phytoremediation. This paper also discusses the recent findings on the impacts of chelating agents (...) on PTEs uptake and plant growth and development in phytoremediation. It was found that the chelating agents have increased the rate of metal absorption and translocation up to 45% from roots to the aboveground plant parts during PTEs phytoremediation. Besides, it was also explored that the plants may experience some phytotoxicity after adding chelating agents to the soil. However, due to the leaching potential of synthetic chelating agents, the use of organic chelants have been explored to be used in PTEs phytoremediation. Finally, this paper also presents comprehensive insights on the significance of using chelating agents through SWOT analysis to discuss the advantages and limitations of chelate-induced phytoremediation. (shrink)
E-waste, also known as waste from electrical and electronic equipment, is a solid waste that accumulates quickly due to high demand driven by the market for replacing newer electrical and electronic products. The global e-waste generation is estimated to be between 53.6 million tons, and it is increasing by 3–5% per year. Metals make-up approximately 30% of e-waste, which contains precious elements Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and other high-value elements, valued at USD 57 billion, which is driving the e-waste recycling (...) industry. It is noteworthy that the recycling of precious elements from e-waste has emerged as a profitable enterprise in several parts of developing nations. E-waste contains 50–100 times higher levels of precious metals compared to natural ores, making it suitable for mining. E-waste recycling in developing nations, mostly occurs through the informal sector comprising manual collection, crushing, segregation and selling of precious elements, such as Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Pt, and other rare elements (Nd, In, and Ga). The organized sector, on the other hand, mostly employs mechano-chemical methods, such as pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and bio-hydrometallurgy, which have serious environmental consequences. Both the informal and formal sectors of e-waste processing lead to the leaching of toxic elements into groundwater and soils. Owing to the lesser efficiency of greener technologies, such as phytoremediation and bioremediation, their use in precious metal extraction is very limited. However, this review explores several hyper-accumulating and tolerant plants viz. Brassica juncea and Berkheya coddii, which holds great potential in phytomining of precious metal from e-waste. Thus, the state of the art in precious metal extraction from e-waste as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different metal extraction technologies has been reviewed. (shrink)
Information absorbed from the external environment during childhood is likely to significantly affect the formation of attitudes because the children’s minds still have not been filled up with many beliefs, convictions, and prejudices.
Protecting rare native species in protected areas is not enough to assist biodiversity conservation; establishing green spaces in urban areas for children to engage with and learn about nature (animal, plant) is also a more sustainable choice since it helps build up an eco-surplus culture among urban residents.
Hoạt động môi trường đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc tăng cường nhận thức về biến đổi khí hậu và các vấn đề môi trường, đặc biệt là trong thời gian gần đây khi biến đổi khí hậu và khủng hoảng sinh thái ngày càng trở nên nghiêm trọng hơn. Sự đam mê và cam kết của các nhà hoạt động môi trường là rất đáng ghi nhận. Tuy nhiên, đôi khi trong một số trường hợp, sự nhiệt thành (...) của họ có thể dẫn đến những hành động không chỉ làm giảm đi giá trị của mục tiêu lớn hơn, mà còn tạo cảm giác xa lánh đối với những người họ muốn thuyết phục. (Kinh tế và Dự báo; ngày 15/9/2023). (shrink)
Con người tự hào đứng đầu chuỗi thức ăn. Tự hào hơn nữa con người có trí khôn trác tuyệt để tạo ra cả hệ tiêu chuẩn và gọi việc ăn của mình là giàu tính “đạo đức” theo cách diễn đạt của Paul Valéry trong Tel Quel (1941).
The goal of this paper is to review and critically discuss the philosophical aspects of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Given that estimates of seismic hazard are typically riddled with uncertainty, diferent epistemic values (related to the pursuit of scientifc knowledge) compete in the selection of seismic hazard models, in a context infuenced by non-epistemic values (related to practical goals and aims) as well. We frst distinguish between the diferent types of uncertainty in PSHA. We claim that epistemic and nonepistemic (...) considerations are closely related in the selection of the appropriate estimate of seismic hazard by the experts. Finally, we argue that the division of scientifc responsibility among the experts can lead to responsibility gaps. This raises a problem for the ownership of the results (“no one’s model” problem) similar to the “problem of many hands” in the ethics of technology. We conclude with a plea for a close collaboration between philosophy and engineering. (shrink)
There are distinctive methodological and conceptual challenges in rare and severe event (RSE) forecast verification, that is, in the assessment of the quality of forecasts of rare but severe natural hazards such as avalanches, landslides or tornadoes. While some of these challenges have been discussed since the inception of the discipline in the 1880s, there is no consensus about how to assess RSE forecasts. This article offers a comprehensive and critical overview of the many different measures used to capture the (...) quality of categorical, binary RSE forecasts – forecasts of occurrence and non-occurrence – and argues that of skill scores in the literature there is only one adequate for RSE forecasting. We do so by first focusing on the relationship between accuracy and skill and showing why skill is more important than accuracy in the case of RSE forecast verification. We then motivate three adequacy constraints for a measure of skill in RSE forecasting. We argue that of skill scores in the literature only the Peirce skill score meets all three constraints. We then outline how our theoretical investigation has important practical implications for avalanche forecasting, basing our discussion on a study in avalanche forecast verification using the nearest-neighbour method (Heierli et al., 2004). Lastly, we raise what we call the “scope challenge”; this affects all forms of RSE forecasting and highlights how and why working with the right measure of skill is important not only for local binary RSE forecasts but also for the assessment of different diagnostic tests widely used in avalanche risk management and related operations, including the design of methods to assess the quality of regional multi-categorical avalanche forecasts. (shrink)
This paper adopts two modeling tools, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), to predict the concentrations of heavy metals (zinc, boron, and manganese) in surface waters of the Oued Inaouen watershed flowing towards Inaouen, using a set of physical-chemical parameters. XLStat was employed to perform multiple linear and nonlinear regressions, and Statista 10 was chosen to construct neural networks for modeling and prediction. The effectiveness of the ANN- and MLR-based stochastic models was assessed by the determination (...) coefficient (R²), the sum squared error (SSE) and a review of fit graphs. The results demonstrate the value of ANNs for prediction modeling. Drawing on supervised learning and back propagation, the ANN-based prediction models adopt an architecture of [18-15-1] for zinc, [18-11-1] for manganese, and [18-8-1] for boron, and perform effectively with a single cached layer. It was found that the MLR-based prediction models are substantially less accurate than those based on the ANNs. In addition, the physical-chemical parameters being investigated are nonlinearly correlated with the levels of heavy metals in the surface waters of the Oued Inaouen watershed flowing towards Inaouen. (shrink)
Theo số liệu nghiên cứu, Việt Nam thường xuyên đứng trong nhóm 10 nước có các thành phố có chỉ số ô nhiễm không khí (AQI) cao nhất châu Á. Ô nhiễm không khí gây ra nhiều rất nhiều hệ lụy, nó tác động xấu đến sức khỏe con người và được xem là tác nhân thúc đẩy sự di cư và chảy máu chất xám.
E-waste is one of the most pressing challenges of our time, yet it is often ignored, especially in Southeast Asia. The “tsunami of e-waste” in the region has been putting our lives and our environment at risk. With the extensive use of electrical and electronic devices, we are also contributing to harming the environment and quickening the climate change by producing and discarding e-waste. Youths are among major users of electronic devices, and hunger for upgraded and newer versions. -/- However, (...) there is still a lack of sensitization on e-waste management issues in the Southeast Asia region. Why should not the young people be pioneers in educating this challenge to the young public? Our FRE-E-WASTE project team is firm in our belief that youths should take the lead in bringing to light this aspect of climate justice, to the best of our ability. -/- Implemented by a group of ASEAN environmental enthusiasts, STEP Forward Education and supported by the U.S. Department of State and the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSEALI), FRE-E-WASTE Project seeks to bring together a group of Southeast Asian environmental enthusiasts aged between 18 and 35 to connect and collaborate on e-waste issues in the region and eventually to create a toolkit about e-waste for the Southeast Asia region. (shrink)
Plastic waste is a significant environmental problem for almost all countries; therefore, protecting the environment from the problem is crucial. The most sensible solution to these problems is substituting the natural aggregates with substantial plastic waste in various building materials. This study aimed to optimise the mixed design ratio of cement brick containing plastic waste as aggregate replacement. Plastic cement brick mixtures were prepared by the incorporation of four different types of plastic waste such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene, (...) low-density polyethylene and polypropylene into cement bricks with different cement contents (150, 300 and 450 g) and plastic replacement percentages (0, 3 and 6%). Compressive strength and water absorption of the plastic cement bricks were analysed using a statistical model through the response surface methodology. It revealed the optimum cement brick mixed design is C3-1% PET with the compressive strength of 27.50 MPa and water absorption of 1.16%. The optimised plastic cement brick also satisfied the general ASTM C62-17 requirements for building bricks despite the higher porosity observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis also showed that the addition of the plastic waste into cement brick was unlikely to modify the chemical compound within the cement brick mixtures. Thus, the proposed mathematical model can predict the required hardened properties of plastic cement bricks and could lead to greater utilisation of plastic waste in building materials. (shrink)
Are the most concerning consequences of light and noise pollution detrimental to human health? In my opinion, light and noise pollution may be causing a greater worry at the societal level by widening the gap between human generations living in cities and nature.
Given the higher advantages attributed to larger mitigation scenarios, expecting better natural conservation outcomes and economic returns from national- and global-scale impact mitigation mechanisms seems reasonable. However, such scenarios can hardly happen if the current eco-deficit cultures remain prevailing. If we can build eco-surplus mindsets among a majority of populations on Earth, especially private sectors, not only impact mitigation mechanisms at a global scale but also the semi-conducting principle of monetary and environmental values exchange will be successfully adopted and implemented.
Humans, like other organisms, are still dependent on multiple ecosystem functions and services to sustain their livelihoods, such as the provision of food, the provision of clean water, the decomposition of waste, etc. Ironically, while the negative impacts caused by human activities are pushing many species to the verge of extinction, more and more evidence shows that biodiversity plays a crucial role in ensuring the ecosystem’s functioning and provisioning of ecosystem services.
The EAT-Lancet Commission, consisting of 37 nutritionists, ecologists, and other experts from 16 countries, proposed safe operating space for food systems. This space helps to set ranges of food intake to ensure universal human health and a stable Earth system (not passing the planetary boundaries). Eventually, the Commission developed a 2,500-calorie-per-day eating plan for keeping the food systems in a safe operating space.
Môi trường xung quanh con người đang bị ô nhiễm ngày càng trầm trọng và một trong những vấn đề đáng lo ngại nhất đó là khủng hoảng rác thải nhựa. -/- “Phần còn lại của thế giới (thiên nhiên) có thể tiếp tục sống mà không có chúng ta, nhưng chúng ta không thể tồn tại nếu thiếu đi chúng” -/- Sylvia A.Earle - Nhà hải dương học.
Plants experience stress due to environmental changes, either in biotic or abiotic form, during their life cycle. Non-heritable modifications in morphological, physiological or biochemical characteristics tend to reduce or decrease growth and productivity, and sometimes lead to death. This book presents an exhaustive overview of the specific effects and modifications that could occur in this regard, and will serve to consolidate the ideas to promote standardization of plant adaptation to these changes in the environment. This book returns to the facts (...) of both biotic and abiotic stress, detailing an essential aspect of plant life in the context of stress response. The text is a comprehensive, current reference that effectively addresses issues and concerns related to plant stress in natural environments. Although many reference books about abiotic stress and other environmental stresses have been published, they all exist in relative isolation from one another, covering only one specific topic. This book is, rather, a comprehensive review of all aspects of the responses of plants to changes in the environment. (shrink)
Accelerating global climate change drives new climate risks. People around the world are researching, designing, and implementing strategies to manage these risks. Identifying and implementing sound climate risk management strategies poses nontrivial challenges including (a) linking the required disciplines, (b) identifying relevant values and objectives, (c) identifying and quantifying important uncertainties, (d) resolving interactions between decision levers and the system dynamics, (e) quantifying the trade-offs between diverse values under deep and dynamic uncertainties, (f) communicating to inform decisions, and (g) learning (...) from the decision-making needs to inform research design. Here we review these challenges and avenues to overcome them. ▪ People and institutions are confronted with emerging and dynamic climate risks. ▪ Stakeholder values are central to defining the decision problem. ▪ Mission-oriented basic research helps to improve the design of climate risk management strategies. (shrink)
Plastic waste accumulation in the environment due to huge volumes of plastic waste produced daily with no effective disposal method and waste management have raised public awareness to look for an alternative to replace the current disposal techniques. Waste utilisation or plastic recycling has been regarded as an excellent method to reduce the abundant amount of plastic waste as well as minimising the environmental impacts. In this article, a total of 163 previous studies between 2012 and 2021 had been reviewed (...) to discuss the utilisation of different types of plastic waste as aggregate in construction materials. This paper evaluates on the use of plastic as aggregate in terms of the physical, mechanical and durability properties of the construction materials as well as the environmental and cost analyses. It was found that the mechanical and durability properties of produced materials were altered after the addition of plastic as aggregates; however, the materials are still fulfilling the requirement of construction materials. Besides, a general SWOT analysis to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of plastic waste utilisation was also conducted. -/- . (shrink)
The environmental concern of plastic waste (PW) generation has escalated to an alarming level due to the versatility and high demand in various applications. In order to search for an effective way to utilise PW, reusing them for the production of construction material appears as an environmentally-friendly approach. This is also because conventional construction materials often consume high energy during production has caused many environmental impacts. This review paper summarises the previous studies on reusing various PW as raw material and (...) aggregate for construction and its properties with special attention to bricks and paving blocks. This paper begins by illustrating on the properties of plastics and the impacts of PW to the environment. Followed by discussion on reusing PW and its impacts on the overall properties of construction material. This review found that limited studies had been conducted on the usage of PW in the production of the paving block. Besides, most of the studies focused predominantly on compressive strength and water absorption as the main parameters to evaluate the characteristics of bricks and paving blocks. It is concluded that the use of PW in construction material could possibly serve as a sustainable source for construction material in the future. (shrink)
CLIMATE EDUCATION FOR WOMEN AND YOUTH Around the world, people still lack basic awareness and understanding of the drivers and impact of climate change, as well as options for reducing carbon emissions and adapting to the climate change impacts. In addition, climate change impacts are not equally distributed. Gender inequalities and development gaps increase the impacts of climate change for women and young people. Driving climate action through educating and empowering women and youth could lead to building resilience within communities. (...) Thus, education and training are crucial to building capacity and enhance their ability to tackle climate change, especially as most of them have no access to information and resources related to climate action. Despite the evidence that education has a strong role to play in both climate adaptation and mitigation, the global education community has done little to advance wide-scale education efforts. Solid, coherent policies and plans are the bedrock on which to build sustainable education systems, achieve educational development goals and contribute effectively to lifelong learning. At a time of growing inequality, closing the gaps in access to quality education requires a long-term vision, engagement, and effective collaboration between various stakeholders. To do that, it’s critical to develop climate educational guides for developing countries that include the most important elements about formal and informal education for women and young people, as well as relevant learning materials and tools. Establishing a climate education coalition provides a forum for expert discussion and unlocks the potential of collaborative work. Embedding climate topics into formal and non-formal education is another priority area for action that could contribute to increasing climate awareness among youth. Community-level climate education projects and initiatives could be a powerful tool for educating and empowering women. Thus, governments and local authorities should ensure funds and provide resources for these projects and initiatives. (shrink)
Histories of ocean science have emphasized the ways that state-sponsored deep-sea expeditions ushered in a new age of oceanic understanding during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This essay, on the other hand, examines the ways that shallow waters played host to less formal but nevertheless important efforts to create oceanic natural knowledge, often centuries earlier. By documenting the legends and experiences of people who worked on and lived by the ocean—divers, sailors, and fishermen, among others—and corroborating their stories (...) with firsthand observation, seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century natural historians built a nascent science of the sea. In its close focus on “sea beans” and “barnacle geese,” subjects of wide conjecture and earnest curiosity, the essay shows how shallow waters welcomed new actors onto the scientific stage and decentered the geographies of knowledge production, thereby advancing contemporary knowledge of oceanic circulation as well as the taxonomies and ecologies of coastal creatures. (shrink)
The purpose of the article is to solve an important scientific problem – further development of the basics of management decisions on the implementation of export-import activities based on the results of enterprise symptomatic diagnostics in disruption conditions of sustainable development of the world economy. The essence of enterprise symptomatic diagnostics in the context of management activity is specified by the results of the critical analysis of the scientific publications. The study of the features of the symptomatic diagnostics process of (...) enterprise export-import activity might become the basis for the development of a comprehensive approach to its implementation, which reveals the interaction of the theoretical, scientific and methodological basis and the targeted direction of managers` actions in the diagnostics process. Generalization of symptomatic complex of export-import activity of enterprises-manufacturers of BOPP films – Terichem Tervakoski, a.s. and Xpro India Ltd, helped to identify issues that are reducing its performance. A set of measures was explored in order to avoid the negative symptoms of export-import activity of Terichem Tervakoski and Xpro India Ltd. The authors revealed some dependency respecting that the more negative symptoms of export-import activity realization lead to decline the efficiency of its implementation. The results of the study might clarify the impact of symptoms on the results of the enterprise export-import performance. Symptomatic diagnostics of enterprise export-import activity is considered as the basis of a sequence of management measures in order to avoid negative symptoms of export-import activity. (shrink)
This short article represents the first attempt to define a new core cultural value that will enable the new strategy for engaging the business sector in humankind's mission to heal nature. The presentation is just a primitive concept, which will be calibrated further in the coming months.
This short article represents the first attempt to define a new core cultural value that will enable engaging the business sector in humankind’s mission to heal nature. First, I start with defining the problem of the current business culture and the extant thinking on how to solve environmental problems, which I called “the eco-deficit culture.” Then, I present a solution to this problem by formulating the “semiconducting principle” of monetary and environmental values exchange, which I believe can generate “an eco-surplus (...) business culture.” This work adds one new element, the eleventh cultural value, to the ten core values of progressive cultures postulated by Harrison (2000). (shrink)