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  1. Does the Scientific Community Misconstrue the Nature of Science?Nicholas Maxwell - manuscript
    The scientific community takes for granted a view of science that may be called standard empiricism. This holds that the basic intellectual aim of science is truth, nothing being presupposed about the truth, the basic method being to assess theories with respect to evidence. A basic tenet of the view is that science must not accept any thesis about the world as a part of scientific knowledge independent of evidence, let alone in violation of evidence. But physics only accepts unified (...)
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  2. Science and Virtue: An Essay on the Impact of the Scientific Mentality on Moral Character.Louis Caruana - 2006 - Aldershot UK: Ashgate.
    Charting new territory in the interface between science and ethics, this monograph is a study of how the scientific mentality can affect the building of character, or the attainment of virtue by the individual. Drawing on inspiration from virtue-ethics and virtue-epistemology, Caruana argues that science is not just a system of knowledge but also an important factor determining a way of life. This book goes beyond the normal strategy evident in the science-ethics realm of examining specific ethical dilemmas posed by (...)
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  3. Wissen, Wissenschaft, Wissenschaftslehre.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - In Nora Schleich (ed.), Philosophie als Wissenschaft. Hildesheim, Deutschland: Olms. pp. 113-133.
    The paper entitled "Knowledge, Science, and Science of Knowledge" uses two relevant texts from German idealism to ask whether philosophy is a science. It is first argued that science presupposes knowledge, but that the concept of knowledge has long been subject to strong scepticism due to Fitch's paradox of knowability and especially the Gettier problem. Only in recent years have historians of philosophy made it clear that the so-called standard analysis of knowledge was not even advocated by many classical authors. (...)
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  4. Against Border Patrols.Mariam Thalos - 2017 - In Maarten Boudry and Massimo Pigliucci (ed.), Science Unlimited? Challenges of Scientism. Chicago: pp. 283–301.
  5. The Logic of Scientific Discovery by Karl Popper.Mariam Thalos - 2003 - In The Classics of Western Philosophy. pp. 512-518.
    In his magnum opus, The Logic of Scientific Discovery (first published in German in 1934, English translation, 1959), Karl Popper make two fundamental philosophical moves. First, he relocates the center of gravity of the philosophical treatment of science around what he calls the problem of demarcation. This is the problem of distinguishing between science, on the one hand, and everything else on the other. (By contrast, his contemporaries of the Vienna Circle, whose positivism would prove the most influential brand of (...)
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  6. Review of Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Systematicity: The Nature of Science[REVIEW]Mariam Thalos - 2015 - Mind 124:351–357.
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  7. A-Priority and Hermeneutics: The Scientificity of Phenomenology From Husserl to Heidegger.Bruno Cassara - 2020 - Bollettino Filosofico 35 (1):58-70.
    Like Husserl, the young Heidegger was preoccupied with the a-priority of phenomenology. He also incorporates hermeneutics into phenomenology, though Husserl was convinced that the a-priority of phenomenology removed all interpretation from its analyses. This paper investigates how the early Heidegger is able to make hermeneutics a general condition of understanding while maintaining, in line with Husserl, that phenomenology is an a-priori science. This paper also provides insight into key debates in the history of phenomenology. I examine two places in which (...)
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  8. O anarquismo e o estímulo à inovação científica.Bruno Camilo de Oliveira - 2021 - Inovação Na Educação Superior Brasileira: Metodologia E Casos.
    CAMILO, Bruno. O anarquismo e o estímulo à inovação científica. In: SOUZA, Poliana Mendes de. (org.). Inovação na educação superior brasileira: metodologia e casos. Recife: Even3 Publicações, 2021. p. 57-73. -/- Este trabalho, inserido na subárea da filosofia da ciência, possui como tema principal o “anarquismo metodológico” tal como é apresentado pelo filósofo da ciência Paul Feyerabend. O objetivo geral é apresentar o modo como o “anarquismo metodológico”, tal como exposto em Feyerabend (2007), pode contribuir para resolver o problema da (...)
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  9. Was ist gute Wissenschaft? Philip Kitcher.Marie I. Kaiser - 2020 - In Johannes Müller-Salo (ed.), Analytische Philosophie. Eine Einführung. Paderborn, Deutschland: pp. 111-123.
  10. Institutional Degeneration of Science.Jüri Eintalu - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (2):116-123.
    The scientificity of the research should be evaluated according to the methodology used in the study. However, these are usually the research areas or the institutions that are classified as scientific or non-scientific. Because of various reasons, it may turn out that the scientific institutions are not producing science, while the “non-scientists” are doing real science. In the extreme case, the official science system is entirely corrupt, consisting of fraudsters, while the real scientists have been expelled from academic institutions. Since (...)
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  11. What Is, and How to Do, Science: A Circular-Linear Theory of Everything.Ilexa Yardley - 2008 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
    Science is an entity and a process, comprised of many sub-entities and processes. There is a co-dependent relationship between entity and process, in (as) science, and otherwise, where entity and process (form and substance) cannot occur without each other.
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  12. Uncertainty: How It Makes Science Advance.Kostas Kampourakis & Kevin McCain - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Scientific knowledge is the most solid and robust kind of knowledge that humans have because of its inherent self-correcting character. Nevertheless, anti-evolutionists, climate denialists, and anti-vaxxers, among others, question some of the best-established scientific findings, making claims unsupported by empirical evidence. A common aspect of these claims is reference to the uncertainties of science concerning evolution, climate change, vaccination, and so on. This is inaccurate: whereas the broad picture is clear, there will always exist uncertainties about the details of the (...)
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  13. Our Science Must Establish Itself.Stefan Reiners - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):234-253.
  14. The Decline of Western Science: Defending Spengler’s Account of the End of Science: Within Reason.Gregory Morgan Swer - 2019 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 50 (4):545-560.
    Haack classifies Spengler’s views on the end of science as what she terms annihilationist in that he forecasts the absolute termination of scientific activity as opposed to its completion or culmination. She also argues that in addition to his externalist argument that Western science, as cultural product, cannot survive the demise of Western Culture, Spengler also puts forward an internalist argument that science, regardless of the imminent demise of Western Culture, is in terminal decline as evidenced by its diminishing returns. (...)
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  15. Contextualizing Science for Value-Conscious Communication.Teresa Yolande Branch-Smith - 2019 - Dissertation, University Of Waterloo
    Democracy hinges on the personal and civic decision-making capabilities of publics. In our increasingly technoscientific world, being well-informed requires an understanding of science. Despite acknowledging public understanding of science as an important part of being well-informed, publics’ engagement with science remains limited. I argue that part of publics’ disengagement with science is because information transmitted about science, like science itself, has been decontextualized. Though there are many ways to decontextualize information, obscuring values in science is a popular means of doing (...)
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  16. The Nature of Science. A Dialogue.C. Mantzavinos - 2019 - Synthese 196 (3):775-793.
    In this dialogue the view of Paul Hoyningen-Huene as defended in Systematicity. The Nature of Science is presented and criticized. The approach is developed dialectically by the two interlocutors, a series of critical points are debated and an alternative view is introduced. The dialogical form is intended to honor the general philosophical approach of the author summarized in the last sentence of the book, where he states that he sees philosophy as an ongoing, open-ended dialogue.
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  17. Where Science Ends and Scientism Begins: Maarten Boudry and Massimo Pigliucci : Science Unlimited? The Challenges of Scientism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2017, Vi + 320pp, 105.00 HB; $35.00 PB. [REVIEW]Jonathan Beale - 2019 - Metascience 2019 (2):327-330.
  18. The Need for a Revolution in the Philosophy of Science.Nicholas Maxwell - 2002 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 33 (2):381-408.
    There is a need to bring about a revolution in the philosophy of science, interpreted to be both the academic discipline, and the official view of the aims and methods of science upheld by the scientific community. At present both are dominated by the view that in science theories are chosen on the basis of empirical considerations alone, nothing being permanently accepted as a part of scientific knowledge independently of evidence. Biasing choice of theory in the direction of simplicity, unity (...)
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  19. Probieren - Verfahren, Zwiespalt, Schweigen und Hoffnung in der Wissenschaft.Olaf Dammann - manuscript
    Dieser Aufsatz beschreibt und erörtert fünf Aspekte der gegenwärtigen Wissenschaft: Verfahren, Zwiespalt, Schweigen, Hoffnung, und Probieren.
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  20. Medizin als Wissenschaft - eine wissenschaftstheoretische Analyse.Holger Lyre - 2018 - In Daniela Ringkamp & Héctor Wittwer (eds.), Was ist Medizin? Der Begriff der Medizin und seine ethischen Implikationen. Alber.
    Gegenstand dieses Beitrags ist eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin. Den Leitfaden der Analyse bildet dabei ein jüngerer Ansatz in der analytischen Wissenschaftstheorie, wonach Systematizität als zentrales Kriterium von Wissenschaft anzusehen ist (Hoyningen-Huene 2013). Ich werde im Detail zeigen, dass die Medizin dieses mehrdimensionale Kriterium insgesamt erfüllt, dass aus der Wissenschaftlichkeit der Medizin aber gleichwohl normative Konsequenzen folgen, die beispielsweise zur Abgrenzung von der Homöopathie und einer kritischen Bewertung des biopsychosozialen Modells führen. Zudem resultieren der Anwendungscharakter der Medizin und (...)
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  21. Tough Love for Science: Henry H. Bauer: Science is Not What You Think: How It has Changed, Why We Can’T Trust It, How It Can Be Fixed. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2017, Viii + 251 Pp, $35.00 PB. [REVIEW]Kevin McCain - 2018 - Metascience 27 (2):351-353.
  22. The Naturalism of the Sciences.Gregory W. Dawes & Tiddy Smith - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 67:22-31.
    The sciences are characterized by what is sometimes called a “methodological naturalism,” which disregards talk of divine agency. In response to those who argue that this reflects a dogmatic materialism, a number of philosophers have offered a pragmatic defense. The naturalism of the sciences, they argue, is provisional and defeasible: it is justified by the fact that unsuccessful theistic explanations have been superseded by successful natural ones. But this defense is inconsistent with the history of the sciences. The sciences have (...)
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  23. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method.Peter Kosso - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (1):33-42.
    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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  24. Towards a Curricular Model of the Nature of Science.Keith S. Taber - 2008 - Science & Education 17 (2-3):179-218.
  25. Pseudohistory and Pseudoscience: Corrections to Allchin’s Historical, Conceptual and Educational Claims.David R. Hershey - 2006 - Science & Education 15 (1):121-125.
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  26. Why Respect for History – and Historical Error – Matters.Douglas Allchin - 2006 - Science & Education 15 (1):91-111.
  27. The Nature of Science and Its Implications for Physics Textbooks.Jenaro Guisasola, José M. Almudí & Carlos Furió - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (3-5):321-328.
  28. A Reply to Allchin's "Pseudohistory and Pseudoscience".Anton E. Lawson - 2004 - Science and Education: Academic Journal of Ushynsky University 13 (6):599-605.
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  29. Towards a New Model of Science.Stefan Ziemski - 1976 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 7 (2):340-347.
    Summary One — Sided understanding of Aristotle led to the view that the principal aim of science is general knowledge. In modern times this view must be extended: also particular knowledge of concrete situations and objects has considerable validity for science. This kind of knowledge the author calls diagnostic. In all empirical sciences diagnostic studies form their necessary part. There are two poles in sciences concerning reality — the more and more developed general knowledge and the specialized knowledge about concrete (...)
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  30. Second Order Science: Examining Hidden Presuppositions in the Practice of Science.Michael Lissack - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (3):557-573.
    The traditional sciences have always had trouble with ambiguity. To overcome this barrier, ‘science’ has imposed “enabling constraints”—hidden assumptions which are given the status of ceteris paribus. Such assumptions allow ambiguity to be bracketed away at the expense of transparency. These enabling constraints take the form of uncritically examined presuppositions, which we refer to throughout the article as “uceps.” The meanings of the various uceps are shown via their applicability to the science of climate change. Second order science examines variations (...)
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  31. Essay Review: Ambivalence Towards Science, the Trouble with Science.Ann Dally - 1997 - History of Science 35 (2):241-243.
  32. The Classical Model of Science: A Millennia-Old Model of Scientific Rationality.Jong W. R. De & A. Betti - unknown
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  33. The Objectives of Science.David Miller - 2007 - Philosophia Scientiae 11 (1):21-43.
    Contesting the common opinion that, unlike the problem of induction, the problem of demarcation is of little significance, the paper maintains that Popper’s criterion of falsifiability gives an irresistible answer to the question of what can be learnt from an empirical investigation. Everything follows from the rejection of inductive logic, together with the recognition that, before it can be empirically investigated, a hypothesis has to be formulated and accepted. Scientific hypotheses emerge neither a posteriori, as inductivists hold, nor from some (...)
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  34. Defending Science From All of its Enemies and Some of its Friends.Rom Harré - 2000 - Dialectica 54 (4):265-281.
    Recent debates about the values and virtues of the sciences have been marked by philosophical errors and misunderstandings among both the supporters and the critics of the value of science. Some authors, such as Wilson defending the ultimate value of science and Appleyard decrying the influence of scientific modes of thinking, both assume the positivistic stance to understanding science. Others, such as Dawkins, Maddox and Wolpert, come through as scientific realists, celebrating the power of science to reach beyond what can (...)
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  35. Inquiry Into Science: Its Domain and Limits.William F. Barr - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (4):555-556.
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  36. Understanding Science Through its History: A Response to Newman.Alan Chalmers - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):150-153.
    The paper is a response to William Newman’s rebuttal of a critique of his account of the origins of modern chemistry by Alan Chalmers. A way in which the nature of science can be illuminated by history of science is identified and an account of how this can be achieved in the context of a study of the work of Boyle defended in the face of Newman’s criticism. Texts from the writings of Boyle that are cited by Newman as posing (...)
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  37. Societies of Minds: Science as Distributed Computing.Paul Thagard - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (1):49-67.
    Science is studied in very different ways by historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists. Not only do researchers from different fields apply markedly different methods, they also tend to focus on apparently disparate aspects of science. At the farthest extremes, we find on one side some philosophers attempting logical analyses of scientific knowledge, and on the other some sociologists maintaining that all knowledge is socially constructed. This paper is an attempt to view history, philosophy, psychology, and sociology of science from a (...)
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  38. I Am Knowledge. Get Me Out Of Here! On Localism And The Universality Of Science.Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):590-601.
  39. Imputing Intentionality: Popper, Demarcation and Darwin, Freud and Marx.Steven Yearley - 1984 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 16 (4):337.
  40. Theory in Psychology: A Reply to Tryon's "Measurement Units and Theory Construction".Altan Löker - 1999 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 20 (3):277-294.
    Tryon advises psychologists to construct theories as physicists do, and claims that a theory of physics is a system of algebraic relations which constitute the definitions of new concepts and their units of measurement in terms of existing ones, at least two basic units being initially adopted. He says that these algebraic relations create a knowledge hierarchy, which he considers a theory. In reality, only some of the mathematical relations of physics are definitions, which introduce new tools, while the rest (...)
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  41. La nature de la vérité scientifique. [REVIEW]Agustín Arrieta - 1987 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 2 (2-3):609-612.
  42. Philosophy of Pseudoscience. Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. [REVIEW]Michał Tatarczak - 2015 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 63 (4):231-239.
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  43. A Critical Assessment of the Programmes of Producing ‘Islamic Science’ and ‘Islamisation of Science/Knowledge’.Ali Paya - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):311-335.
    In the present article, working from within the framework of critical rationalism and focusing mostly on the views developed by some Iranian writers, I argue that the programmes of producing ‘Islamic Science’ and ‘Islamisation of Science/Knowledge’ are doomed to failure. I develop my arguments in three parts. I start by explaining that the advocates of the programmes of producing cIS or IoK subscribe to mistaken images of science that are shaped by either a positivist or outmoded culturalist/interpretivist theories of science. (...)
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  44. The Nature of Scientific Knowledge: An Explanatory Approach.Kevin McCain - 2010 - Springer.
    This book offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the epistemology of science. It not only introduces readers to the general epistemological discussion of the nature of knowledge, but also provides key insights into the particular nuances of scientific knowledge. No prior knowledge of philosophy or science is assumed by The Nature of Scientific Knowledge. Nevertheless, the reader is taken on a journey through several core concepts of epistemology and philosophy of science that not only explores the characteristics of the (...)
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  45. The Structure of Science.Felix Kaufmann - 1941 - Journal of Philosophy 38 (11):281.
    In speaking of empirical science as a self-correcting process one implies that a proposition accepted in accordance with the rules of procedure may have to be eliminated later according to these very rules. Taking this for granted one realizes that a particular empirical science, say physics, should be defined in terms of rules of method rather than as a system of propositions representing our knowledge at a given time. Obviously both the science of Galileo and Newton and the science of (...)
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  46. The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight Zone of the Scientific Age. John Horgan. [REVIEW]S. S. Schweber - 2000 - Isis 91 (1):177-179.
  47. The Nature and Function of Scientific Theories. Essays in Contemporary Science and Philosophy. Robert G. Colodny.J. E. Bolzan - 1972 - Isis 63 (2):256-257.
  48. Evandro Agazzi: Scientific Objectivity and Its Contexts. [REVIEW]Marco Buzzoni - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (1):257-259.
  49. What is (a) Science?Sarah Tietz - unknown
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  50. Science: A ‘Dappled World’ or a ‘Seamless Web’?Philip W. Anderson - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (3):487-494.
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