About this topic
Summary

Critical Theory refers to a form of self-reflexive social critique as well as a particular tradition associated with the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung), a.k.a. the Frankfurt School. Early Frankfurt School theorists combined a Hegelian Marxist social criticism with other emancipatory approaches, such as psychoanalysis and cultural critique, taking a genuinely anti-positivist and interdisciplinary approach. Critical theory was intended to contribute to the “intensification of the struggle with which the theory is connected,” wrote Horkheimer, becoming a material force in the “transformation of society as a whole” (219). Theorists associated with the early Frankfurt School include Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, and Walter Benjamin, while contemporary figures such as Jürgen Habermas, Axel Honneth, Nancy Fraser, and Seyla Benhabib continue the tradition with non-Marxist forms of critique grounded in, for example, communicative reason and social recognition. Today, Critical Theory refers to a broader spectrum of social theorists in poststructuralist, feminist, queer, critical race, disability, and postcolonial theory, such as Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Angela Davis, Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, Enrique Dussel, Gayatri Spivak, Giorgio Agamben, Jacque Rancière, and Slavoj Žižek.

Key works

Max Horkheimer’s 1937 essay “Traditional and Critical Theory” (in Horkheimer 1972) is a foundational text, outlining the Institute’s interdisciplinary methodology and critique of "traditional" theory. Other important works by early Frankfurt School theorists include Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment; Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia and Negative Dialectics; short works by Walter Benjamin in Illuminations and Reflections, particularly his essays “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” and “On Violence”; and Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man and Eros and Civilization. Jürgen Habermas’ two-volume work The Theory of Communicative Action represents a break from the earlier Marxist tendencies of the Institute, laying out a new normative foundation for critique in communicative reason. Axel Honneth, the current director of the Institute for Social Research, has alternatively reconstructed the Hegelian notion of social recognition in his critiques of social injustices and social pathologies in Struggle for Recognition and Freedom’s Right. Seyla Benhabib’s Critique, Norm, and Utopia and Nancy Fraser’s Unruly Practices are also important works in the Frankfurt School tradition. Seminal texts beyond this tradition include, for example, Frantz Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth, Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble Enrique Dussel’s Ethics of Liberation, Gayatri Spivak’s “Can the Subaltern Speak?”, and Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer.

Introductions

The best scholarly introductions to the Frankfurt School tradition in English are Jay 1973, Held 1980, and Wiggershaus 1994. Jay Bernstein has edited the six-volume collection: The Frankfurt School: Critical Assessment and the publications of the Institute’s journal Zeitscrift für Sozialforschung (1932-1941) are available in a nine-volume set. Notable anthologies on the Frankfurt School and critical theory more generally include Andrew Arato and Eike Gebhardt (eds.), The Essential Frankfurt School Reader, Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas MacKay Kellner (eds.), Critical Theory and Society, David Rasmussen, The Handbook of Critical Theory, Benhabib, Butler, Cornell, and Fraser, Feminist Contentions; Seyla Benhabib and Drucilla Cornell (eds.), Feminism as Critique, William Rehg and James Bohman (eds), Pluralism and the Pragmatic Turn, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, et al. (eds.), Critical Race Theory, Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg (eds.), Race Critical Theories, Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman (eds.), Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory, and two volumes on the “idea of communism”: Costas Douzinas and Slavoj Žižek (eds.),The Idea of Communism, and Slavoj Žižek (ed.), The Idea of Communism, Volume II.

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  1. Social Wrongs.Arto Laitinen & Arvi Särkelä - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-25.
    In this paper we elucidate the notion of ‘social wrongs’. It differs from moral wrongness, and is broader than narrowly political wrongs. We distinguish conceptually monadic wrongness (1.1), dyadic wronging (1.2), and the idea of there being something ‘wrong with’ an entity (1.3). We argue that social and political wrongs share a feature with natural badness or wrongness (illnesses of organisms) as well as malfunctioning artifacts or dysfunctional organizations: they violate so called ought-to-be norms; they are not as they ought (...)
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  2. Critical Theory and the Future of Humanity: A Reply to Asger Sørensen.Per Jepsen - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    The article entails a critical discussion of the book Capitalism, Alienation and Critique by Asger Sørensen. Like Sørensen’s book, it stresses the importance of the first generation of critical the...
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  3. From Analytic Pragmatism to Historical Materialism: Frankfurt School Critical Theory and the Quine-Duhem Thesis.Jacob McNulty - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  4. Artificial Antisemitism: Critical Theory in the Age of Datafication.Matthew Handelman - 2022 - Critical Inquiry 48 (2):286-312.
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  5. تأملات في عالم ما بعد الحقيقة.Salah Osman - 2021 - With Mind We Start Academy.
    لا شك أن بعض الوصايا التي تحملها أحجار جورجيا الإرشادية يتسم بالحكمة والنبل، ومن ثم يستحق الثناء ومحاولة التطبيق، لكن أغلبها في الحقيقة يحمل أفكارًا تستدعي بقوة نظريات المؤامرة بأشكالها المختلفة، لاسيما تلك التي تتعلق بطوفان العولمة وهيمنة رأس المال وبقاء الأصلح ومناهضة الأديان. لا شك أيضًا أن ثمة تفسيرًا جديرًا بالتأمل لهالة الغموض التي أحيط بها النُصب وبُناته، مؤداه أن هذا الغموض لا يعدو أن يكون مجرد نوعٍ من أنواع الترويج السياحي للنُصب ولولاية جورجيا، لكن الأحداث الجارية تقدم سببًا (...)
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  6. Pandemic Politics - An Introduction.Ewa Latecka, Jean Du Toit & Gregory Morgan Swer - 2021 - Acta Academica 53 (2):1-11.
    The outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020 and the various measures taken subsequently, either by individual countries or by government and nongovernment bodies with a global reach, have had a profound effect on human lives on a number of levels, be it social, economic, legal, or political. The scramble to respond to the threat posed by the rapid spread of the virus has, in many cases, led to a suspension of ordinary politics whilst at the same time throwing into sharp (...)
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  7. Book Review: Critique on the Couch: Why Critical Theory Needs Psychoanalysis, by Amy Allen. [REVIEW]Siraj Sindhu - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172110571.
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  8. Contempt, Respect, and Recognition.Bryan Lueck - forthcoming - Critical Horizons.
    Since the early modern period, the vast majority of philosophers who have written on contempt have understood it as a denial of respect. But there has been considerable disagreement about precisely what kind of respect we deny people when we contemn them. Contemporary philosophers who defend contempt as a morally appropriate attitude tend to understand it as a denial of what Stephen Darwall calls appraisal respect, while early modern writers, who all believe that contemning others constitutes a serious moral wrong, (...)
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  9. From Analytic Pragmatism to Historical Materialism: Frankfurt School Critical Theory and the Quine‐Duhem Thesis.Jacob McNulty - forthcoming - Wiley: European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  10. The End of Progress: Decolonizing the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory by Amy Allen.Joshua Barkan - 2021 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 35 (3):320-325.
    Amy Allen's The End of Progress: Decolonizing the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory is a careful intervention in the ongoing attempts to establish a critical theory of society associated with the Frankfurt School. Its central concern is the way Critical Theory, particularly in its latter-day incarnations, has been structured by a stadial philosophy of history that presents European modernity as the apex of progress and as a universal standard from which the rest of the world can be judged. Provoked by (...)
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  11. Plural Reconstruction: A Method of Critical Theory for the Analysis of Emerging and Contested Political Practices.Svenja Ahlhaus - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    In this article, I argue that Habermas’s method of rational reconstruction faces limitations when it comes to analysing newly emerging and contested political practices. As rational reconstruction...
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  12. Methodological Egalitarianism and the Task of a Critical Theory.Matthew Lampert - forthcoming - Constellations.
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  13. Migration, Recognition and Critical Theory.Gottfried Schweiger (ed.) - 2021
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  14. Reasonable Agonism : Justification and Dissent in Liberal Democracies.Kris Klotz - 2019 - Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University
    This dissertation develops a conception of reasonableness that can adequately respond to agonistic critiques of this concept. As an aspect of practical reason, reasonableness refers to the moral capacity of citizens to cooperate politically, especially in pluralistic societies. More specifically, the principles or rules of political association governing society ought to be acceptable to all reasonable members of that society. This relates, furthermore, to the idea of justification: the acceptability of fundamental political principles refers to their justifiability. Justification, in turn, (...)
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  15. What an Ethics of Discourse and Recognition Can Contribute to a Critical Theory of Refugee Claim Adjudication.David Ingram - 2021 - In Gottfried Schweiger (ed.), Migration, Recognition and Critical Theory.
    Thanks to Axel Honneth, recognition theory has become a prominent fixture of critical social theory. In recent years, he has deployed his recognition theory in diagnosing pathologies and injustices that afflict institutional practices. Some of these institutional practices revolve around specifically juridical institutions, such as human rights and democratic citizenship, that directly impact the lives of the most desperate migrants. Hence it is worthwhile asking what recognition theory can add to a critical theory of migration. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  16. From Critique to Reaction: The New Right, Critical Theory and International Relations.Michael C. Williams & Jean-Francois Drolet - 2022 - Journal of International Political Theory 18 (1):23-45.
    Across the globe, radical conservative political forces and ideas are influencing and even transforming the landscape of international politics. Yet IR is remarkably ill-equipped to understand and engage these new challenges. Unlike political theory or domestic political analyses, conservatism has no distinctive place in the fields’ defining alternatives of realism, liberalism, Marxism, and constructivism. This paper seeks to provide a point of entry for such engagement by bringing together what may seem the most unlikely of partners: critical theory and the (...)
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  17. Methodological Egalitarianism and the Task of a Critical Theory.Matthew Lampert - forthcoming - Constellations.
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  18. Revisiting 'Falling Man' at 20: The 9/11 Archive and Missing Images of Jumpers.Jared Gee - 2021 - Comparative American Studies: An International Journal 2021 (2021):1-14.
    Images of jumpers represent an emotionally charged symbol of 9/11, yet just after 9/11 their circulation was quickly and dramatically censored. Yet twenty years later, the 9/11 archive continues to be curated in this way. As the 9/11 archive particularly supports the justification of many military tactics and international interventions, it becomes important to look at what has been excluded and why, including photographs and video. This paper will turn to representations of jumpers in three forms – in photography, in (...)
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  19. Phenomenology and Time: Husserl, Derrida, Zahavi.Jared Gee - 2014 - Philosophy in Practice 8 (Spring):77-90.
    This paper traces Husserl's concept of internal time consciousness through its developments and alterations in Jacques Derrida and Dan Zahavi.
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  20. Colonial Encounters in Albert Camus: Algeria and Limits of Freedom.Jared Gee - 2016 - Journal of Camus Studies 2016.
    While the early literary works of Albert Camus often neglect and erase the lives of Arabs and the backdrop of Algeria, his later works are infiltrated by the situation and encounters of the Algerian war of decolonization. Multiple encounters between Arabs, Berbers, pied-noirs, and French can be found in his later work that complicate both his early philosophical views but also his political stances. These encounters among the backdrop of the Algerian war pushed his philosophical views to their limits. Through (...)
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  21. On Wandering: Exile, Migration and Other Questions in Critical Theory.James Gordon Finlayson - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (3):664-673.
    European Journal of Philosophy, Volume 29, Issue 3, Page 664-673, September 2021.
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  22. On the General Secular Contradiction: Secularization, Christianity, and Political Theology.Alex Dubilet - 2021 - In Alex Dubilet & Kirill Chepurin (eds.), Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology. New York, NY, USA: pp. 240-255.
    Dubilet’s contribution turns to Marx’s “On the Jewish Question” in order to diagnose the collusive interplay between mediation and sovereignty as modes of transcendence that, together, prevent real immanence from irrupting. It does so by recovering the logic of “the general secular contradiction”—the division between the state and civil society that materializes and secularizes the structure of diremption originally articulated in theological form, as the opposition between heaven and earth. In this analysis, the logic of Christianity is shown to be (...)
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  23. An Immanence Without the World.Alex Dubilet - 2021 - Qui Parle 1 (30):51–86.
    This essay proposes to rethink the conceptual associations that bind immanence to the secular and oppose it to (divine) transcendence. It asks: What if immanence is divorced from the conceptual opposition between the world and its openings to (divine) other(s), between enclosure and the trace of a transcendent outside? What might arise if immanence is severed from its link with secularity, if it ceases to be merely another conceptual support in secularism’s metaphysical armature? To pursue these questions, the essay engages (...)
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  24. Deborah Cook, Adorno, Foucault and the Critique of the West. [REVIEW]Eli B. Lichtenstein - 2020 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 41 (1):319-322.
  25. The End of Progress: Decolonizing the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory by Amy Allen.Joshua Barkan - 2021 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 54 (3):320-325.
    Amy Allen's The End of Progress: Decolonizing the Normative Foundations of Critical Theory is a careful intervention in the ongoing attempts to establish a critical theory of society associated with the Frankfurt School. Its central concern is the way Critical Theory, particularly in its latter-day incarnations, has been structured by a stadial philosophy of history that presents European modernity as the apex of progress and as a universal standard from which the rest of the world can be judged. Provoked by (...)
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  26. Reification as an Ontological Concept.Michael J. Thompson - forthcoming - Metodo.
    In this paper, I outline the ways that reification as a pathology of what I call “cybernetic society” shapes the fundamental structures of the self and our shared social reality. Whereas the classical theory of reification was a diagnostic attempt to understand the failure of class consciousness, I believe we must push this thesis further to show how is fundamentally an ontological and not a merely cognitive or epistemic concern. By this I mean that it is a pathology of consciousness (...)
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  27. Umano e non-umano in Primo Levi. Una lettura darwiniana.Simone Ghelli - 2021 - In Alberto Casadei, Francesca Fedi, Annalisa Nacinovich & Andrea Torre (eds.), Letteratura e Scienze Atti delle sessioni parallele del XXIII Congresso dell’ADI (Associazione degli Italianisti) Pisa, 12-14 settembre 2019. Pisa: Adi editore. pp. 1-17.
    La questione antropologica è sicuramente uno dei temi più dibattuti all’interno degli studi filosofici attorno all’opera di Primo Levi. L’obbiettivo del presente contributo è quello di offrire una lettura darwiniana del modo in cui lo scrittore torinese ha definito il complesso rapporto tra umano e non-umano. A mio parere, analizzare il pensiero antropologico di Levi a partire dalle tesi psicologico-evoluzioniste esposte da Darwin in The Descent of Man permette infatti di risolvere le contraddizioni e le aporie in cui sembrano cadere (...)
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  28. Review Essay: Energopolitics, the Eurocene, and Critical Theory.Bruce Baum - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172110397.
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  29. Histories and Afterlives of Dispossession: Symposium on Robert Nichols’s Theft is Property!: Dispossession and Critical Theory, Durham: Duke University Press, 2020.Brenna Bhandar, Sandy Grande, Adom Getachew & Robert Nichols - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172110350.
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  30. Theft is Property!: Dispossession and Critical Theory. [REVIEW]Alena Wolflink - 2021 - Philosophy and Global Affairs 1 (2):387-390.
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  31. Ernst Bloch and the Subject of Orientalism.Filippo Menozzi - 2021 - Textual Practice.
    This essay offers a reading of German philosopher Ernst Bloch's 1952 essay Avicenna and the Aristotelian Left in relation to the question of orientalism. Bloch's study of first-century Islamic philosopher, scientist and doctor Ibn Sina (Avicenna) relies on orientalist sources and authors also discussed in Edward Said's Orientalism. Yet, it challenges many stereotypes and ‘structures of attitude and reference’ that are recurrent in European representations of the Middle East. Bloch presents Avicenna as a secular thinker and situates him in a (...)
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  32. Ideology Critique: A Deleuzian Case.Keunchang Oh - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.
  33. Enter the metrics: critical theory and organizational operationalization of AI ethics.Joris Krijger - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    As artificial intelligence deployment is growing exponentially, questions have been raised whether the developed AI ethics discourse is apt to address the currently pressing questions in the field. Building on critical theory, this article aims to expand the scope of AI ethics by arguing that in addition to ethical principles and design, the organizational dimension plays a pivotal role in the operationalization of ethics in AI development and deployment contexts. Through the prism of critical theory, and the notions of underdetermination (...)
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  34. Nancy Fraser and Rahel Jaeggi, Capitalism: A Conversation in Critical Theory. [REVIEW]Marianna Poyares - 2020 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 41 (1):322-326.
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  35. Working Through Critical Theory’s Colonial Unconscious.Amy Allen - 2020 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 41 (1):185-205.
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  36. Kierkegaard, Mimesis, and Modernity: A Study of Imitation, Existence, and Affect.Wojciech Kaftanski - 2021 - Routledge.
    This book challenges the widespread view of Kierkegaard’s idiosyncratic and predominantly religious position on mimesis. -/- Taking mimesis as a crucial conceptual point of reference in reading Kierkegaard, this book offers a nuanced understanding of the relation between aesthetics and religion in his thought. Kaftanski shows how Kierkegaard's dialectical-existential reading of mimesis interlaces aesthetic and religious themes, including the familiar core concepts of imitation, repetition, and admiration as well as the newly arisen notions of affectivity, contagion, and crowd behavior. Kierkegaard’s (...)
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  37. Cultural MarxismCultural Marxism and the CathedralCathedral, The: Two Alt-RightAlt-Right Perspectives on Critical Theory.Andrew Woods - 2019 - In Christine M. Battista & Melissa R. Sande (eds.), Critical Theory and the Humanities in the Age of the Alt-Right. Springer Verlag. pp. 39-59.
    Paleoconservatives developed the Frankfurt School conspiracy to frame liberal or progressive politics as foreign to the American way of life. The Cathedral, on the other hand, is a term to refer to the expansive institutional complex that produces and regulates public opinion to ensure the perpetuation of the “progressive” status quo. Although both movements have shaped the alt-right worldview, paleoconservatives and neoreactionaries represent incompatible ideologies. Their distinctive ideological standpoints result in two markedly different explanations for existence and practice of critical (...)
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  38. Cultural Marxism and Cathedral, The: Two Alt-Right Perspectives on Critical Theory.Andrew Woods - 2019 - In Christine M. Battista & Melissa R. Sande (eds.), Critical Theory and the Humanities in the Age of the Alt-Right. Springer Verlag. pp. 39-59.
    Paleoconservatives developed the Frankfurt School conspiracy to frame liberal or progressive politics as foreign to the American way of life. The Cathedral, on the other hand, is a term to refer to the expansive institutional complex that produces and regulates public opinion to ensure the perpetuation of the “progressive” status quo. Although both movements have shaped the alt-right worldview, paleoconservatives and neoreactionaries represent incompatible ideologies. Their distinctive ideological standpoints result in two markedly different explanations for existence and practice of critical (...)
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  39. Critical Theory: Rituals, Pedagogies and Resistance.Peter McLaren - 2022 - Brill.
    This collection of essays incorporates some of the most important and longstanding foundational texts in education developed by the leading educational neo-Gramscian social theorist Peter McLaren.
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  40. Histories and Afterlives of Dispossession: Symposium on Robert Nichols’s Theft is Property!: Dispossession and Critical Theory, Durham: Duke University Press, 2019.Brenna Bhandar, Sandy Grande, Adom Getachew & Robert Nichols - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059172110350.
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  41. ‘Hermeneutics and Critical Theory’.Nicholas H. Smith - 2015 - In J. Malpas and H. Gander (ed.), Routledge Companion to Philosophical Hermeneutics. London, UK: pp. 600-611.
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  42. Faith Between Reason and Affect: Thinking with Antonio Gramsci.Lukas Slothuus - 2021 - Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory 1 (1).
    This article argues that faith is a crucial concept for understanding the relationship between reason and affect. By allowing people to learn from religious faith for secular ends, it can help generate political action for emancipatory change. Antonio Gramsci's underexplored secular-political and materialist conception of faith provides an important contribution to such a project. By speaking to common sense and tradition, faith avoids imposing a wholly external set of normative and political principles, instead taking people as they are as the (...)
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  43. Foucault’s Analytics of Sovereignty.Eli B. Lichtenstein - 2021 - Critical Horizons 22 (3):287-305.
    The classical theory of sovereignty describes sovereignty as absolute and undivided yet no early modern state could claim such features. Historical record instead suggests that sovereignty was always divided and contested. In this article I argue that Foucault offers a competing account of sovereignty that underlines such features and is thus more historically apt. While commentators typically assume that Foucault’s understanding of sovereignty is borrowed from the classical theory, I demonstrate instead that he offers a sui generis interpretation, which results (...)
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  44. Reconstruction and Indignation: On the Transformative Potential of the Latest Model of Axel Honneth’s Critical Theory.Ricardo Crissiuma - 2020 - Cadernos de Filosofia Alemã 25 (3).
    This paper analyses the transformative potential of Axel Honneth’s latest model of Critical Theory and is divided in three sections. Firstly, it will be presented the criticisms towards Honneth’s latest model of Critical Theory revealing the largely shared assumption that normative reconstruction is responsible for a conservative bias. The second section will focus on Honneth’s “reconstrutive turn” exposing its reasons and outcomes.. The third section will then discuss how reconstructive critique is related to a genealogical proviso that will metacritically denounce (...)
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  45. The Prescience and Paradox of Erich Fromm: A Note on the Performative Contradictions of Critical Theory.Jeffrey C. Alexander - 2021 - Thesis Eleven 165 (1):3-9.
    As social theorists seek to understand the contemporary challenges of radical populism, we would do well to reconsider the febrile insights of the psychoanalytic social theorist Erich Fromm. It was Fromm who, at the beginning of the 1930s, conceptualized the emotional and sociological roots of a new ‘authoritarian character’ who was meek in the face of great power above and ruthless to the powerless below. It was Fromm, in the 1950s, who argued that societies, not only individuals, could be sick. (...)
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  46. Book Reviews: Erich Fromm’s Critical Theory: Hope, Humanism, and the Future. [REVIEW]Matheus Capovilla Romanetto - 2021 - Thesis Eleven 165 (1):197-201.
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  47. Analyzing the Far Right: A Psychoanalytic Critical Theory Perspective.Claudia Leeb - manuscript
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  48. From Intersectionality to Interference: Feminist Onto-Epistemological Reflections on the Politics of Representation.Evelien Geerts & Iris van der Tuin - 2013 - Women's Studies International Forum 3 (41).
    This article reviews the debate on ‘intersectionality’ as the dominant approach in gender studies, with an emphasis on the politics of representation. The debate on intersectionality officially began in the late 1980s, though the approach can be traced back to the institutionalization of women's studies in the 1970s and the feminist movement of the 1960s. Black and lesbian feminists have long advocated hyphenated identities to be the backbone of feminist thought. But in recent years, intersectionality has sustained criticism from numerous (...)
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  49. Materialist Philosophies Grounded in the Here And Now: Critical New Materialist Constellations & Interventions in Times Of Terror(Ism).Evelien Geerts - 2019 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz
    This dissertation, located at the crossroads of Continental political philosophy, feminist theory, critical theory, intellectual history, and cultural studies, provides a critical cartography of contemporary new materialist thought in its various constellations and assemblages, while using diffractive theorizing to examine two Continental terror(ist) events. It is argued that such a critical cartography is not only a novel but also much needed undertaking, as we, more than almost two decades after the Habermas-Derrida dialogues on terror(ism), are in need of a Zeitgeist-adjusted (...)
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  50. Diffraction & Reading Diffractively.Evelien Geerts & Iris van der Tuin - 2021 - Matter: Journal of New Materialist Research 1 (2).
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