Phenomenology

Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
About this topic
Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2000) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1964) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger et al 1967) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Sartre 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
Related categories
Subcategories:
Martin Heidegger (10,557)
Michel Henry (192)
Edmund Husserl (15,358 | 3,094)
Max Scheler (489)
History/traditions: Phenomenology

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  1. Objectification, Inferiorization and Projection in Phenomenological Research on Dehumanization.Sara Heinämaa & James Jardine - 2021 - In Maria Kronfeldner (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 309-325.
    Sara Heinämaa and James Jardine demonstrate that both classical and existential phenomenology offer analytical concepts that are of crucial pertinence and value to contemporary dehumanization research. They begin by outlining an account of dehumanization that distinguishes this phenomenon both from the general operation of objectification and from the violation of autonomy. What is essential to dehumanizing acts and practices they argue, is not objectification or the violation of autonomy per se, but rather a disregard for, and undermining of, the unique (...)
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  2. On the Full Concretion of Subjectivity in Husserl’s Phenomenology: Contingency and the Transcendental Person.Mérédith Laferté-Coutu - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-19.
    This paper argues that Husserl’s personalist ethics provides a new way to understand the meaning of the full concretion of the transcendental ego in his mature phenomenology. Husserl’s late ethics introduces, at the core of his thinking, a notion of contingency that he associates with irrationality and facticity. This central aspect of human life, namely that contingency traverses it through and through and which ethics makes painfully visible, is usually obscured by the phenomenological attitude, insofar as the phenomenological reduction brackets (...)
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  3. Forms of Life and Subjectivity: Rethinking Sartre’s Philosophy, written by Daniel Rueda Garrido.Renxiang Liu - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):219-224.
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  4. Anti-Semitism and Analytical Psychology: Jung, Politics and Culture, written by Daniel Burston.Steen Halling - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):212-218.
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  5. How to Write a Phenomenological Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Guide, written by Katarzyna Peoples.Rodger Broomé - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):199-211.
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  6. Falling Out of Time, Relationships, and Mood: A Case Study of Post-Concussion Syndrome.Patrick M. Whitehead & Gary Senecal - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):184-198.
    In this article, the authors examine post-concussion syndrome (PCS) from an existential-phenomenological perspective, specifically as a Heideggerian analysis of Dasein (or Daseinsanalysis; Condrau, 1988). As a medical syndrome, PCS was once defined in terms of its pathophysiology. However, in the absence of reliable evidence of pathophysiology, PCS has been removed from the DSM-5. We have suspended the natural attitude, in this case the biomedical model, and have taken seriously the symptoms of PCS as indications that meaningful changes have occurred within (...)
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  7. Uncanny Brains versus a Lived-Body: Reflections on the “Hard Problem” of Consciousness.Yochai Ataria - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):165-183.
    The natural sciences seek to explain all natural phenomena, including human beings. This lofty objective encompasses the scientific project in all its glory, within which brain science constitutes an integral part. Essentially, however, neuroscientists not only seek to achieve a greater understanding of how the human brain works but rather, and perhaps mainly, aspire to understand human consciousness, that is, the subjective experience. According to this approach, consciousness is merely brain activity, and thus any progress in the study of the (...)
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  8. Emotional Problems Arising during the First Trimester of Pregnancy.Susi Ferrarello - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):144-164.
    This paper proposes a phenomenological exploration of the first trimester of pregnancy. In this paper I have presented three core problems that might already appear in the first trimester of pregnancy: alienation, objectification, and loss of identity, which might cause emotional distress for the woman and further develop into depressive states. The goal of the paper is to indicate the kind of mindful approach we can use to reduce the impact of these problems.
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  9. The Strategic and Paradoxical Usage of Phenomenology in Foucault’s Archaeology.Kwok-Ying Lau - 2022 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 53 (2):121-143.
    It is well-known that the mature Foucault, while recognizing the influence of phenomenology on him during his youth, declared his anti-phenomenological position since his archeological breakthrough. This paper tries to argue and show that though phenomenology is an object of criticism of Foucault’s archaeology, it nonetheless plays a paradoxical and strategic role in the construction of the archaeological project. Though Foucault undertakes in The Birth of the Clinic a critical deconstruction of phenomenology as positivism, against the open anti-positivist declaration of (...)
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  10. “Play” in Biological Life and Artificial Intelligence: A Critical Evaluation of the Phenomenon of “Play” in Human beings and Animals and in AI Machine systems.Syed Wajeeh Ud Din - 2022 - Dissertation, University of Sussex at Brighton
    The main question of this dissertation is "Can AI systems Play" or "Is it possible for an AI machine to "just play" rather than play games? In this dissertation, I argue that currently, It is impossible for AI systems just to play because of the complex and diverse structure of the activity of Play that inherently differentiates itself from Games, in other words, it seems impossible for AI systems to fit into the design or realm of Play.
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  11. The Intersection of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Roman Ingarden in the Hermeneutic Experience of Fictional Worlds.Thomas Jurkiewicz - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-14.
    At the heart of our experience of literature is the idea that fiction can show us new possibilities for the world in which we live. I open up fictional worlds’ hermeneutic dimension by investigating the intersection of Roman Ingarden’s analytic phenomenology of the literary work with Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics. Reading Ingarden together with Gadamer, I understand a fictional world as an orientation towards a fictional environment whose foundation is our capacity for language, showing how the reciprocal relationship in which (...)
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  12. Emotions and Sentiments: Two Distinct Forms of Affective Intentionality.Íngrid Vendrell-Ferran - forthcoming - Phenomenology and Mind.
    How to distinguish emotions such as envy, disgust, and shame from sentiments such as love, hate, and adoration? While the standard approach argues that emotions and sentiments differ in terms of their temporal structures (e.g., Ben-ze’ev, 2000; Deonna & Teroni, 2012; Frijda et al., 1991), this paper sketches an alternative approach according to which each of these states exhibits a distinctive intentional structure. More precisely, this paper argues that emotions and sentiments exhibit distinct forms of affective intentionality. The paper begins (...)
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  13. Gadamer’s Hermeneutics and the Concept of Genre: The Case of the Utopian Genre in Plato.Antoine Pageau-St-Hilaire - 2022 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 53 (4):352-369.
    This paper addresses the question of the function of genre in Gadamer’s hermeneutics by examining his treatment of Plato’s political writings in the context of the “utopian genre.” I argue that Gadamer’s reading of Plato informs us on the hermeneutics of genre, which is otherwise undiscussed in Truth and Method. First, I reconstruct the utopian genre as Gadamer treats it in a 1983 lecture hitherto neglected. Second, I expand Gadamer’s “logic of question and answer” by drawing on the notion of (...)
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  14. Tragic Realism: On Karel Kosík’s Insight into Kafka.Francesco Tava - 2021 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 53 (4):370-383.
    The aim of this article is to shed light on the reflections that Czech Marxist philosopher Karel Kosík dedicated to literature, and particularly to the writings of Franz Kafka, from the 1960s to the 1990s. More specifically, this article clarifies whether and how Kafka’s work influenced Kosík’s philosophy of praxis and critique of modern society.
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  15. Hermeneutical Injustice and Unworlding in Psychopathology.Lucienne Jeannette Spencer - 2023 - Philosophical Psychology 1.
    The rich literature in phenomenological psychopathology regards the communicative difficulties accompanying psychiatric illness as a product ofunworlding: the experience of a drastic change in one’s habitual field of experience. This paper argues that the relationship between speech expression and unworlding in psychiatric illness is more complex than previously assumed. Not only does unworlding cause a breakdown in speech expression, but a breakdown in speech expression can perpetuate, and even exacerbate, the experience of unworlding characteristic of psychiatric illness. In other words, (...)
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  16. The recognition of the gift.Jean-Luc Marion - 2009 - Studia Phaenomenologica 9:17-28.
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  17. Philosophical Concepts and Religious Metaphors: New Perspectives on Phenomenology and Theology.Cristian Ciocan - 2009 - Studia Phaenomenologica 9:7-13.
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  18. Lerner on Husserl on Foundation, Person and Rationality.Sebastian Luft - 2012 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 10 (1).
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  19. Fenomenologia della vita: senso, valore, cura.Patrizia Manganaro (ed.) - 2022 - Lanciano: Carabba.
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  20. The ethical night of libertinism: Beauvoir's reading of Sade.Anna Petronella Foultier - 2022 - Continental Philosophy Review (not yet assigned):1-21.
    This paper examines Simone de Beauvoir’s reading of the 18th century writer and libertine Marquis de Sade, in her essay “Must we Burn Sade?”; a difficult and bewildering text, both in pure linguistic terms and philosophically. In particular, Beauvoir’s insistence on Sade as a “great moralist” seems hard to reconcile with her emphasis, in The Ethics of Ambiguity, on the interdependency of human beings and her exhortation to us to promote other people’s freedom, as well as the aspiration of The (...)
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  21. On the Importance of a Human-Scale Breadth of View: Reading Tallis' Freedom.Jan Halák - 2022 - Human Affairs 32 (4):439-452.
    This paper is my commentary on Raymond Tallis’ book Freedom: An Impossible Reality (2021). Tallis argues that the laws described by science are dependent on human agency which extracts them from nature. Consequently, human agency cannot be explained as an effect of natural laws. I agree with Tallis’ main argument and I appreciate that he helps us understand the systematic importance of a human-scale breadth of view regarding any theoretical investigation. In the main part of the paper, I critically comment (...)
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  22. Screened Intercorporeality. Reflections on Gestures in Videoconferences.Christian Ferencz-Flatz - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-15.
    This article brings a phenomenological perspective to the question of how bodily and inter-bodily experience is involved in interacting via audio-visual media like videoconferencing platforms. Contemporary discussions in interaction studies point to a certain suspension of bodily involvement in these mediated interactions, which leads to a visible loss of function in the case of gestures. Such observations have led phenomenologists to voice concern as to whether phenomenology is indeed still suited to account for the “digital world” in general. The following (...)
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  23. Ricoeur e la fenomenologia ermeneutica della religione.Chiara Cotifava - 2014 - In Stefano Caroti & Alberto Siclari (eds.), Filosofia e religione. Studi in onore di Fabio Rossi. Parma: E-theca OnLineOpenAccess Edizioni. pp. 419-450.
    This contribution offers an analysis of the essays gathered and published by François Courtine in 1992 (Phénoménologie et Théologie), and authored by Jean-Louis Chrétien, Michel Henry, Jean-Luc Marion, and Paul Ricoeur. Attention is paid to the possibility of investigating the phenomena of the ‘religious sphere’, by taking into account the historical-cultural context typical of contemporary society, the role of art, and the problem of intersubjectivity. -/- .
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  24. Phenomenological Idealism as Method: The Hidden Completeness of Cassirer’s Matrix of the Symbolic.Tobias Endres - 2021 - In Luigi Filieri & Anne Pollok (eds.), The Method of Culture. Ernst Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Pisa: Editioni ETS. pp. 121-147.
    This paper defends the idea that Cassirer's methodology is idealistic in regard to validity claims and the structuralist views he holds and at the same time empiric in regard to the facts and genealogy of culture. This perspective is best to be unfolded along Cassirer's model of representation. The author does so by showing that Cassirer's triad of symbolic articulation (expressive, presentational, significative) and the triad of symbolic development (mimetic, analogical, symbolic) form a coherent and exhaustive theory of symbolic formation. (...)
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  25. Ephemeral climates: Plato's geographic myths and the phenomenological nature of climate and its changes.Maximilian Gregor Hepach - 2022 - Journal of Historical Geography (X):1-10.
    Historical and cultural approaches to climate generally consider climate to be a stabilising concept between weather and culture. Different historical and cultural concepts of climate signify different ways of learning to live with the weather. However, anthropogenic climate change evidences the limit of this approach: instead of stabilising, climates ephemeralise together with the ways we have come to adapt to them. Changing climates require a concept of climate that captures how climates are experienced both as stable and ephemeral. To create (...)
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  26. From Phenomenological-Hermeneutical Approaches to Realist Perspectivism.Mahdi Khalili - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (4):1-26.
    This paper draws on the phenomenological-hermeneutical approaches to philosophy of science to develop realist perspectivism, an integration of experimental realism and perspectivism. Specifically, the paper employs the distinction between “manifestation” and “phenomenon” and it advances the view that the evidence of a real entity is “explorable” in order to argue that instrumentally-mediated robust evidence indicates real entities. Furthermore, it underpins the phenomenological notion of the horizonal nature of scientific observation with perspectivism, so accounting for scientific pluralism even in the cases (...)
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  27. Gestalt Epistemology: From Gestalt Psychology to Phenomenology in the Work of Michael Polanyi.John Preston - forthcoming - Philosophia Scientiae:233-254.
    Gestalt psychology of perception was one of the main inspirations behind the philosophical work of the Hungarian polymath Michael Polanyi. Seeing scientists and philosophers backing away from its implications, he proposed instead to take those implications seriously. I detail four ways in which he did so, the result of which was his theory of “tacit knowing”. This can be thought of as a Gestalt epistemology, because it takes the figure/ground relation as the model for all knowing. Polanyi took his Gestalt (...)
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  28. A fenomenológia keletkezése.Péter András Varga - 2013 - Budapest: L'Harmattan-Magyar Filozófiai Társaság.
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  29. The new phenomenology: a philosophical introduction.J. Aaron Simmons - 2013 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Welcome to the family -- The sources of new phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger -- How to be a phenomenological heretic: the origins and development of new phenomenology -- Phenomenology and onto-theology -- Phenomenology and theology reconsidered -- New phenomenology on the existence and nature of God -- The call, prayer, and Christian philosophy -- Proposals for new phenomenology and analytic philosophy of religion -- Normativity: ethics, politics, and society -- Possible futures for new phenomenology.
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  30. Logika i fenomenologii︠a︡ obʺektivnogo dukha: k voprosu o filosofskom metode: monografii︠a︡.I︠U︡. G. Sedov - 2013 - Gatchina: Izdatelʹstvo GIĖFPT.
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  31. En voie du réel.Alexander Schnell - 2013 - Paris: Hermann.
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  32. Kritische Grundlegung der Mathematik: eine phänomenologisch-logische Analyse.Hermann Schmitz - 2013 - München: Verlag Karl Alber.
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  33. Phénoménologie de l'intotalisable.Philippe Grosos - 2013 - Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf.
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  34. Phenomenology explained: from experience to insight.David Detmer - 2013 - Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing Company.
    Phenomenology is one of the most important and influential philosophical movements of the last one hundred years. It began in 1900, with the publication of a massive two-volume work, Logical Investigations, by a Czech-German mathematician, Edmund Husserl. It proceeded immediately to exert a strong influence on both philosophy and the social sciences. For example, phenomenology provided the central inspiration for the existentialist movement, as represented by such figures as Martin Heidegger in Germany and Jean-Paul Sartre in France.
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  35. Fenomenologia hoje: fenomenologia, ciência e técnica.Marco Antonio Casanova & Rebeca Furtado de Melo (eds.) - 2013 - Rio de Janeiro: Viaverita Editora.
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  36. Phénoménologie de l'espace-temps chez Marc Richir.Robert Alexander - 2013 - Grenoble: Jérôme Millon.
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  37. Il senso delle cose: per un realismo fenomenologico.Angela Ales Bello - 2013 - Roma: Castelvecchi.
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  38. Polska fenomenologia przedwojenna: antologia tekstów.Dariusz Bęben & Marta Ples-Bęben (eds.) - 2013 - Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
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  39. Analytic philosophy and continental philosophy : four confrontations.Dermot Moran - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  40. The philosophy of the concept.Pierre Cassou-Nogues - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  41. Religion and ethics.Felix O. Murchadha - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  42. Existential theology.Andreas Grossmann - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  43. The hermeneutic transformation of phenomenology.Daniel L. Tate - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  44. Continental aesthetics : phenomenology and antiphenomenology.Galen A. Johnson - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  45. Existentialism / S.K Keltner and Samuel J. Julian- Sartre and phenomenology.William L. McBride - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  46. Dialectic, difference and th other : the Hegelianizing of French phenomenology.John Russon - 2013 - In Leonard Lawlor (ed.), Phenomenology: Responses and Developments. Routledge.
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  47. From the nature of meaning to a phenomenological refiguring of nature.David Morris - 2013 - In Havi Carel & Darian Meacham (eds.), Phenomenology and Naturalism: Examining the Relationship Between Human Experience and Nature. Cambridge University Press.
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  48. Kant and Kierkegaard on freedom and evil.Alison Assiter - 2013 - In Havi Carel & Darian Meacham (eds.), Phenomenology and Naturalism: Examining the Relationship Between Human Experience and Nature. Cambridge University Press.
  49. The universe in the universe : German idealism and the natural history of mind.Iain Hamilton Grant - 2013 - In Havi Carel & Darian Meacham (eds.), Phenomenology and Naturalism: Examining the Relationship Between Human Experience and Nature. Cambridge University Press.
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  50. Science, ethics and observation.James Lenman - 2013 - In Havi Carel & Darian Meacham (eds.), Phenomenology and Naturalism: Examining the Relationship Between Human Experience and Nature. Cambridge University Press.
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1 — 50 / 40422