Discourse

Edited by Emar Maier (University of Groningen)
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  1. Coping With Imaginative Resistance.Daniel Altshuler & Emar Maier - forthcoming - Journal of Semantics.
    We propose to characterize imaginative resistance as the failure or unwillingness of the reader to take a fictional description of a deviant reality at face value. The goal of the paper is to explore how readers deal with such a breakdown of the default Face Value interpretation strategy. We posit two distinct interpretative ‘coping’ strategies which help the reader engage with the resistance-inducing fiction by attributing the offending content to one of the fictional characters. We present novel empirical evidence that (...)
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  2. Introduction to the Special Issue.Fabrizio Macagno & Alice Toniolo - 2022 - Informal Logic 42 (1):1-23.
    Douglas Walton’s work is extremely vast, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary. He developed theoretical proposals that have been used in disciplines that are not traditionally related to philosophy, such as law, education, discourse analysis, artificial intelligence, or medical communication. Through his papers and books, Walton redefined the boundaries not only of argumentation theory, but also logic and philosophy. He was a philosopher in the sense that his interest was developing theoretical models that can help explain reality, and more importantly interact with it. (...)
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  3. Argumentation Profiles.Fabrizio Macagno - 2022 - Informal Logic 42 (1):83-138.
    An argumentation profile is defined as a methodological instrument for analyzing argumentative discourse considering distinct and interrelated dimensions: the types of argument used, their quality, and the emotions triggered. Walton’s theoretical contributions are developed as a coherent analytical and multifaceted toolbox for capturing these aspects. Argumentation schemes are used to detect and quantify the types of argument. Fallacy analysis and the assessment of the implicit premises retrieved through the schemes allow evaluating arguments. Finally, the frequency of emotive words signals the (...)
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  4. Argumentation Profiles and the Manipulation of Common Ground. The Arguments of Populist Leaders on Twitter.Fabrizio Macagno - 2022 - Journal of Pragmatics 191:67-82.
    The detection of hate speech and fake news in political discourse is at the same time a crucial necessity for democratic societies and a challenge for several areas of study. However, most of the studies have focused on what is explicitly stated: false article information, language that expresses hatred, derogatory expressions. This paper argues that the explicit dimension of manipulation is only one – and the least problematic – of the risks of political discourse. The language of the unsaid is (...)
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  5. Discourse Ethics and Eristic.Jens Lemanski - 2022 - Polish Journal of Aesthetics 62:151-162.
    Eristic has been studied more and more intensively in recent years in philosophy, law, communication theory, logic, proof theory, and A.I. Nevertheless, the modern origins of eristic, which almost all current researchers see in the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, are considered to be a theory of the illegitimate use of logical and rhetorical devices. Thus, eristic seems to violate the norms of discourse ethics. In this paper, I argue that this interpretation of eristic is based on prejudices that contradict the original (...)
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  6. Reporting and Interpreting Intentions in Defamation Law.Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - In Alessandro Capone, Ferenc Kiefer & Franco Lo Piparo (eds.), Indirect Reports and Pragmatics. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 593-619.
    The interpretation and the indirect reporting of a speaker’s communicative intentions lie at the crossroad between pragmatics, argumentation theory, and forensic linguistics. Since the leading case Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc., in the United States the legal problem of determining the truth of a quotation is essentially equated with the correctness of its indirect reporting, i.e. the representation of the speaker’s intentions. For this reason, indirect reports are treated as interpretations of what the speaker intends to communicate. Theoretical considerations, (...)
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  7. Types of Dialogue and Pragmatic Ambiguity.Fabrizio Macagno & Sarah Bigi - 2018 - In Steve Oswald, Thierry Herman & ‎Jérôme Jacquin (eds.), Argumentation and Language — Linguistic, Cognitive and Discursive Explorations. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 191-218.
    The purpose of this chapter is twofold. On the one hand, our goal is theoretical, as we aim at providing an instrument for detecting, analyzing, and solving ambiguities based on the reasoning mechanism underlying interpretation. To this purpose, combining the insights from pragmatics and argumentation theory, we represent the background assumptions driving an interpretation as presumptions. Presumptions are then investigated as the backbone of the argumentative reasoning that is used to assess and solve ambiguities and drive (theoretically) interpretive mechanisms. On (...)
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  8. Definitions in Law.Fabrizio Macagno - 2010 - Bulletin Suisse de Linguistique Appliquée 2:199-217.
    Legal definitions will be examined from three perspectives: their pragmatic function, their propositional structure, and their argumentative role. In law, definitions can be used for different pragmatic purposes: they can be uttered to describe a concept, or to establish a new meaning for a term. The propositional content of definitional speech acts can be different. In law, like in ordinary conversation, there might be different types of definition: we can define by providing examples, or showing the fundamental characteristics of the (...)
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  9. The Logic of Academic Writing.Fabrizio Macagno & Chrysi Rapanta - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Wessex.
    The logic of academic writing is the argumentative strategy on which our papers, our sections, and our paragraphs are based. It is a strategy, as it is a plan that connects different steps and has a specific goal, namely convincing the audience of an original and important idea. And it is argumentative, for two reasons. First, we can defend our idea and we can convince our audience only through arguments, which only in very few disciplines are formal deductions. In most (...)
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  10. Manipulating Emotions. Value-Based Reasoning and Emotive Language.Fabrizio Macagno - 2015 - Argumentation and Advocacy 51:103-122.
    There are emotively powerful words that can modify our judgment, arouse our emotions, and influence our decisions. The purpose of this paper is to provide instruments for analyzing the structure of the reasoning underlying the inferences that they trigger, in order to investigate their reasonableness conditions and their persuasive effect. The analysis of the mechanism of persuasion triggered by such words involves the complex systematic relationship between values, decisions, and emotions, and the reasoning mechanisms that have been investigated under the (...)
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  11. Symposium: The Contribution of Laclau’s Discourse Theory to International Relations and International Political Economy: Introduction.Frank A. Stengel & Dirk Nabers - 2019 - New Political Science 41 (2):248-262.
    This symposium explores the value of Poststructuralist (or Political) Discourse Theory (PDT) for the analysis of world politics. PDT was originally developed by the late Argentine political theorist Ernesto Laclau, in early works together with Chantal Mouffe, and has entered the margins of International Relations (IR) in recent years, mainly by bringing in poststructuralist concepts that had previously been ignored by the more critical strands of theorizing. Against this background, the introduction (1) discusses the disconnect between PDT and research on (...)
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  12. Argument Relevance and Structure. Assessing and Developing Students’ Uses of Evidence.Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - International Journal of Educational Research 79:180–194.
    The purpose of this paper is to show whether the two crucial dimensions used for assessing the quality of argumentation, argument-as-a-product (argument structure) and argument-as-a-process (relevance), are interrelated, and how they can be used to assess the effect of argumentative mode on students’ arguments. To this purpose, a twofold coding scheme will be developed, aimed at capturing: a) the argumentative function of evidence use and b) the dialogical relevance of evidence use. A study will be described in which students’ use (...)
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  13. Understanding Misunderstandings. Presuppositions and Presumptions in Doctor-Patient Chronic Care Consultations.Fabrizio Macagno & Sarah Bigi - 2017 - Intercultural Pragmatics 1 (14):49–75.
    Pragmatic presupposition is analyzed in this paper as grounded on an implicit reasoning process based on a set of presumptions, which can define cultural differences. The basic condition for making a presupposition can be represented as a reasoning criterion, namely reasonableness. Presuppositions, on this view, need to be reasonable, namely as the conclusion of an underlying presumptive reasoning that does not or may not contain contradictions with other presumptions, including the ordering of the hierarchy of presumptions. Presumptions are in turn (...)
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  14. Analizzare l’argomentazione sui social media. Il caso dei tweet di Salvini.Fabrizio Macagno - 2019 - Sistemi Intelligenti 3 (31):601-632.
    Twitter is an instrument used not only for sharing public or personal information, but also for persuading the audience. While specific platforms and software have been developed for analyzing macro-analytical data, and specific studies have focused on the linguistic dimension of the tweets, the argumentative dimension of the latter is unexplored to this date. This paper intends to propose a method grounded on the tools advanced in argumentation theory for capturing, coding, and assessing the different argumentative dimensions of the messages (...)
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  15. Metaphors and Problematic Understanding in Chronic Care Communication.Fabrizio Macagno & Maria Grazia Rossi - 2019 - Journal of Pragmatics 151:103-117.
    Metaphors can be used as crucial tools for reaching shared understanding, especially where an epistemic imbalance of knowledge is at stake. However, metaphors can also represent a risk in intercultural or cross-cultural interactions, namely in situations characterised by little or deficient common ground between interlocutors. In such cases, the use of metaphors can lead to misunderstandings and cause communicative breakdowns. The conditions defining when metaphors promote, and hinder understanding have not been analyzed in detail, especially in intracultural contexts. This study (...)
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  16. How Can Metaphors Communicate Arguments?Fabrizio Macagno - 2020 - Intercultural Pragmatics 3 (17):335-363.
    Metaphors are considered as instruments crucial for persuasion. However, while their emotive, communicative and persuasive effects are the focus of different studies and discussions, the core of their persuasive function, namely their argumentative dimension, is almost neglected. This paper addresses the problem of explaining how metaphors can communicate arguments, and how it is possible to reconstruct and justify them. To this purpose, a distinction is drawn between the arguments that are communicated metaphorically and reconstructed “top down,” namely based on relevance (...)
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  17. Degrees of Acceptance.Alexander Dinges - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    While many authors distinguish belief from acceptance, it seems almost universally agreed that no similar distinction can be drawn between degrees of belief, or credences, and degrees of acceptance. I challenge this assumption in this paper. Acceptance comes in degrees and acknowledging this helps to resolve problems in at least two philosophical domains. Degrees of acceptance play vital roles when we simplify our reasoning, and they ground the common ground of a conversation if we assume context probabilism, i.e., that the (...)
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  18. The Language of Fiction.Emar Maier & Andreas Stokke (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together new research on fiction from the fields of philosophy and linguistics. Fiction has long been a topic of interest in philosophy, but recent years have also seen a surge in work on fictional discourse at the intersection between linguistics and philosophy of language. In particular, there has been a growing interest in examining long-standing issues concerning fiction from a perspective that is informed both by philosophy and linguistic theory. -/- Following a detailed introduction by the editors, (...)
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  19. Balancing Information-Structure and Semantic Constraints on Construction Choice: Building a Computational Model of Passive and Passive-Like Constructions in Mandarin Chinese.Ben Ambridge & Li Liu - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (3):349-388.
    A central tenet of cognitive linguistics is that adults’ knowledge of language consists of a structured inventory of constructions, including various two-argument constructions such as the active, the passive and “fronting” constructions. But how do speakers choose which construction to use for a particular utterance, given constraints such as discourse/information structure and the semantic fit between verb and construction? The goal of the present study was to build a computational model of this phenomenon for two-argument constructions in Mandarin. First, we (...)
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  20. You Hoboken! Semantics of an expressive label maker.Kate Hazel Jain - 2022 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (2):365-391.
    ‘You bastard’ is insulting because ‘bastard’ is an expletive, but what’s wrong with ‘You Hoboken’ or ‘You big wet noodle’? This paper explores the semantics of a vocative construction that is particularly efficient at coining what I call ‘expressive labels’; these are affect-transmitting expressions that present themselves as apt for identifying their discourse target via speaker affect. Building on work by Portner On information structure, meaning and form. Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2007) and Gutzmann, I show how discourse properties direct and constrain (...)
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  21. Emojis as Pictures.Emar Maier - manuscript
    I argue that emojis are pictures, not a species of words, gestures, or expressives. ???? means that the world looks like that, from some viewpoint. I formalize this in terms of geometric projection with stylization. Since such a pictorial semantics delivers only very minimal contents I add an account of pragmatic enrichment, driven by coherence and metaphor. The apparent semantic distinction between emojis depicting entities and those depicting facial expressions I analyze as a difference between truth-conditional and use-conditional pictorial content: (...)
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  22. Convergence, Community, and Force in Aesthetic Discourse.Nick Riggle - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Philosophers often characterize discourse in general as aiming at some sort of convergence (in beliefs, plans, dispositions, feelings, etc.), and many views about aesthetic discourse in particular affirm this thought. I argue that a convergence norm does not govern aesthetic discourse. The conversational dynamics of aesthetic discourse suggest that typical aesthetic claims have directive force. I distinguish between dynamic and illocutionary force and develop related theories of each for aesthetic discourse. I argue that the illocutionary force of aesthetic utterances is (...)
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  23. Pragmatic Particularism.Ray Buchanan & Henry Ian Schiller - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    For the Intentionalist, utterance content is wholly determined by a speaker’s meaning-intentions; the sentence uttered serves merely to facilitate the audience’s recovering these intentions. We argue that Intentionalists ought to be Particularists, holding that the only “principles” of meaning recovery needed are those governing inferences to the best explanation; “principles” that are both defeasible and, in a sense to be elaborated, variable. We discuss some ways in which some theorists have erred in trying to tame the “wild west” of pragmatics (...)
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  24. Anaphora and negation.Karen S. Lewis - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (5):1403-1440.
    One of the central questions of discourse dynamics is when an anaphoric pronoun is licensed. This paper addresses this question as it pertains to the complex data involving anaphora and negation. It is commonly held that negation blocks anaphoric potential, for example, we cannot say “Bill doesn’t have a car. It is black”. However, there are many exceptions to this generalization. This paper examines a variety of types of discourses in which anaphora on indefinites under the scope of negation is (...)
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  25. Information Structure and Word Order Canonicity in the Comprehension of Spanish Texts: An Eye-Tracking Study.Carolina A. Gattei, Luis A. París & Diego E. Shalom - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Word order alternation has been described as one of the most productive information structure markers and discourse organizers across languages. Psycholinguistic evidence has shown that word order is a crucial cue for argument interpretation. Previous studies about Spanish sentence comprehension have shown greater difficulty to parse sentences that present a word order that does not respect the order of participants of the verb's lexico-semantic structure, irrespective to whether the sentences follow the canonical word order of the language or not. This (...)
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  26. Drilling for Fissures and Exploiting Common Ground in the Discourse of Oil Production : An Enhanced Eco-Discourse Analysis, Part 2.Wenge Chen, Tom Bartlett & Huiling Peng - 2021 - Pragmatics and Society 12 (2):167-188.
    This is the second part of a two-part article which proposes an enhanced approach to eco-discourses after weighing the advantages of mainstream Critical Discourse Analysis and Positive Discourse Analysis. Part I explored the theoretical grounding for an enhanced PDA, introduced the research method and then, based on the adapted analytic framework of Stibbe, undertook a critical analysis of the discourses of Shell Oil Company. Part II uses the same analytic framework to analyse Greenpeace USA’s discourse and compare it to the (...)
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  27. Causality, Subjectivity and Mental Spaces: Insights From on-Line Discourse Processing.Ted J. M. Sanders, Willem M. Mak & Suzanne Kleijn - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (1):35-65.
    Research has shown that it requires less time to process information that is part of an objective causal relation describing states of affairs in the world, than information that is part of a subjective relation expressing a claim or conclusion and a supporting argument. Representing subjectivity seems to require extra cognitive operations. In Mental Spaces Theory the difference between these two relation types can be described in terms of an extra mental space in the discourse representation of subjective relations: representing (...)
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  28. Automated Discourse Generation Using Discourse Structure Relations.Eduard H. Hovy - 1993 - Artificial Intelligence 63 (1-2):341-385.
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  29. Discourse, Diversity, and Free Choice.Wolfgang Schwarz - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 99 (1):48-67.
    ABSTRACT ‘You may have beer or wine’ suggests that you may have beer and you may have wine. Following Klinedinst, I argue that this ‘free choice’ effect is a special kind of scalar implicature, arising from the application of an unspecific predicate to a plurality. I show that the implicature can be derived from general norms of cooperative communication, without postulating new grammatical rules or hidden lexical items. The derivation calls for an extension to the classical neo-Gricean model. I give (...)
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  30. Inégalité(s) dans le discours de la presse française :usages discursifs et dimensions sémantiques d’un mot.Pascale Brunner & Michele Pordeus-Ribeiro - 2020 - Corela. Cognition, Représentation, Langage 18.
    L’inégalité est une thématique sociale, abordée de façon récurrente dans les médias. Appliquant une approche de « sémantique discursive », nous examinerons l’usage d’inégalité dans le discours de presse en circonscrivant les principales dimensions sémantiques du nom à travers ses fonctionnements préférentiels en cotexte, étroit ou élargi. Après quelques questionnements sémantico-référentiels autour du mot, l’étude du corpus – constitué d’articles issus des journaux Le Monde, Libération et Le Figaro – montrera qu’inégalité fonctionne, à la fois, comme un lieu d’observation, d’évaluation (...)
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  31. Varieties of Logical Form.Mark Sainsbury - 2020 - Disputatio 12 (58):223-250.
    The paper reviews some conceptions of logical form in the light of Andrea Iacona’s book Logical Form. I distinguish the following: logical form as schematization of natural language, provided by, for example, Aristotle’s syllogistic; the relevance to logical form of formal languages like those used by Frege and Russell to express and prove mathematical theorems; Russell’s mid-period conception of logical form as the structural cement binding propositions; the conceptions of logical form discussed by Iacona; and logical form regarded as an (...)
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  32. File Change Semantics for Preschoolers.Josef Perner & Johannes L. Brandl - 2005 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 6 (3):483-501.
    We develop a new theory of the cognitive changes around 4 years of age by trying to explain why understanding of false belief and of alternative naming emerge at this age. We make use of the notion of discourse referents as it is used in File Change Semantics, one of the early forms of the more widely known Discourse Representation Theory. The assumed cognitive change exists in how children can link DRs in their mind to external referents. The younger children (...)
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  33. Constraints in Discourse 3: Representing and Inferring Discourse Structure.[author unknown] - 2012
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  34. Book Review: Anton Benz, Manfred Stede and Peter Kühnlein (Eds), Constraints in Discourse 3: Representing and Inferring Discourse Structure. [REVIEW]Wang Rongbin - 2014 - Discourse Studies 16 (4):587-588.
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  35. Contextual Boundness and Discourse Patterns Revisited.Eva Hajičová - 2013 - Discourse Studies 15 (5):535-550.
    Two issues relevant to discourse description and analysis are discussed, namely which property of the sentence structure reflects its discourse anchoring, and how to combine the ‘dynamic’ view of language and discourse with the description of sentence syntax. To this aim, our approach to the information structure of the sentence is briefly summarized, introducing then the notion of the hierarchy of activation of the elements of the stock of knowledge assumed by the speaker to be shared by him and the (...)
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  36. Discourse Structure of Academic Talk in University Office Hour Interactions.Holger Limberg - 2007 - Discourse Studies 9 (2):176-193.
    In line with some promising studies dealing with particular academic speech events at university level, this article analyses recordings of another established form of spoken academic discourse at university outside the classroom; viz. office hour interactions between faculty and students. Office hour appointments at two German universities were video-recorded and subsequently transcribed according to conventional transcription notations. The study draws upon two levels of analysis. First, a phasal sectioning is performed to highlight different stages in the organization of office hour (...)
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  37. Book Review: Douglas Biber, Ulla Connor and Thomas A. Upton, Discourse on the Move: Using Corpus Analysis to Describe Discourse Structure. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2007. XII + 290 Pp., Hardback, 105.00/$142.00. [REVIEW]Elaine W. Vine - 2009 - Discourse Studies 11 (1):123-125.
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  38. The Research Article and the Science Popularization Article: A Probabilistic Functional Grammar Perspective on Direct Discourse Representation.Adriana Silvina Pagano & Janaina Minelli de Oliveira - 2006 - Discourse Studies 8 (5):627-646.
    This article discusses the results of an investigation on discourse representation in a corpus of 34 million words constituted by texts in Brazilian Portuguese from two different genres: the research article and the science popularization article. Drawing on a systemic functional grammar perspective of language and pursuing a probabilistic approach, it focuses on the realization of lexicogrammatical systems of direct discourse representation as enacting interpersonal and social relationships. It is argued that the citation practices employed by writers in the genres (...)
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  39. Book Review: Mary Talbot, Media Discourse: Representation and Interaction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007, IX + 198 Pp. [REVIEW]Song Guo - 2009 - Discourse and Communication 3 (4):453-454.
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  40. National Voice: A Discourse Analysis of China Central Television’s News Simulcast.Debing Feng - 2013 - Discourse and Communication 7 (3):255-273.
    News Simulcast, the flagship news program for China Central Television, has been widely studied by Chinese scholars. However, little attention has been paid to its representation of ideological meanings. To address this issue, the present study, drawing upon Van Dijk’s framework of three-level analysis of discourse structure, carries out a comprehensive discourse analysis of the news broadcast on this program. A corpus of 10 episodes of News Simulcast was selected as the database, from which a subset of four episodes were (...)
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  41. Process Narratives, Grey Boxes, and Discourse Frameworks: Cognition, Interaction, and Constraint in Understanding Genetics and Medicine.Barry Saferstein - 2007 - European Journal of Social Theory 10 (3):424-447.
    The article presents a model of understanding that takes into account interaction, cultural knowledge, and the constraints of organizations and institutions. It analyzes discourse and cognition in high school biology classes and clinical consultations involving discussions of genetics. The analytical lenses of constraint satisfaction, coherence-based reasoning, and collective cognition reveal multilayered social, cultural, and interactional components of authority and agency that influence understanding. The analysis reveals similarities across settings in discourse structure and the ways that participants relate to local constraints. (...)
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  42. A Computational Model for Measuring Discourse Complexity.Wenxin Xiong & Kun Sun - 2019 - Discourse Studies 21 (6):690-712.
    In past studies, the few quantitative approaches to discourse structure were mostly confined to the presentation of the frequency of discourse relations. However, quantitative approaches should take into account both hierarchical and relational layers in the discourse structure. This study considers these factors and addresses the issue of how discourse relations and discourse units are related. It draws upon the available corpora of discourse structure ) from a new perspective. Since an RST tree can be converted into a syntactic dependency (...)
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  43. Culture and Discourse Structure: A Comparative Study of Dutch and Iranian News Texts.José Sanders, Wilbert Spooren & Afrooz Rafiee - 2018 - Discourse and Communication 12 (1):58-79.
    Many studies of structure in present-day Western news texts have shown that the dominant structure is the inverted pyramid, even if the use of a chronological narrative structure is acknowledged. However, the relevant literature has exclusively investigated Western news texts. In this study, we challenge the dominance of the inverted news structure by including a non-Western and less-investigated culture and ask whether textual structure of news texts can differ between cultural contexts. In total, 100 crime news texts from national Iranian (...)
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  44. Adverbs of Change.Todor Koev - 2019 - In Daniel Altshuler & Jessica Rett (eds.), The Semantics of Plurals, Focus, Degrees, and Times: Essays in Honor of Roger Schwarzschild. Springer Verlag. pp. 283-303.
    Adverbs of change like quickly or slowly are known to give rise to a number of interpretations. For example, Selena ran quickly says that the rate of running is high while Selena quickly noticed the plane implies that the distance between the event of noticing the plane and some previous event is short. Existing accounts take rate readings as primary but struggle to derive additional interpretations. By contrast, I argue that adverbs of change measure the temporal distance between two salient (...)
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  45. Understanding Focus: Pitch, Placement and Coherence.Julian J. Schlöder & Alex Lascarides - 2020 - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    This paper presents a novel account of focal stress and pitch contour in English dialogue. We argue that one should analyse and treat focus and pitch contour jointly, since (i) some pragmatic interpretations vary with contour (e.g., whether an utterance accepts or rejects; or whether it implicates a positive or negative answer); and (ii) there are utterances with identical prosodic focus that in the same context are infelicitous with one contour, but felicitous with another. We offer an account of two (...)
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  46. The structure of communicative acts.Sarah E. Murray & William B. Starr - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 44 (2):425-474.
    Utterances of natural language sentences can be used to communicate not just contents, but also forces. This paper examines this topic from a cross-linguistic perspective on sentential mood. Recent work in this area focuses on conversational dynamics: the three sentence types can be associated with distinctive kinds of conversational effects called sentential forces, modeled as three kinds of updates to the discourse context. This paper has two main goals. First, it provides two arguments, on empirical and methodological grounds, for treating (...)
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  47. Origins of weak crossover: when dynamic semantics meets event semantics.Gennaro Chierchia - 2020 - Natural Language Semantics 28 (1):23-76.
    Approaches to anaphora generally seek to explain the potential for a DP to covary with a pronoun in terms of a combination of factors, such as the inherent semantics of the antecedent DP, its scope properties, and its structural position. A case in point is Reinhart’s classic condition on bound anaphora, paraphrasable as A DP can antecede a pronoun pro only if the DP c-commands pro at S-structure, supplemented with some extra machinery to allow indefinites to covary with pronouns beyond (...)
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  48. Discourse, Structure and Linguistic Choice: The Theory and Applications of Molecular Sememics.T. Price Caldwell - 2018 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume presents eight papers and a draft monograph by T. Price Caldwell on topics in linguistics, semiotics and philosophy of language. From the beginning of his professional career onwards, Caldwell wrote short fiction and poetry, and he taught English literature. The relevance to these of philosophy of language, semiotics and certain areas of linguistics increasingly caught his interest. This book presents the fruits of this later work. Of the papers included here, two are abstract and theoretical, focusing on linguistic (...)
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  49. Persuasion Strategies in Media Discourse About Russia: Linguistic Ambiguity and Uncertainty.Douglas Mark Ponton, Vladimir Ozyumenko & Tatiana Larina - 2019 - Lodz Papers in Pragmatics 15 (1):3-22.
    The paper explores the role of the media in influencing public opinion from an inferential-pragmatic perspective. It presents preliminary results of the study focused on representation of Russia in Western newspapers. Drawing on Critical Discourse Analysis and media linguistics the study centres around the linguistic means of construing ambiguity/uncertainty, viewed as a strategy of persuasion. We mostly focus on the semantics of certain groups of words and other textual features such as indefinite pronouns, epistemic modality, passive voice, present perfect tense, (...)
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  50. Extracting Fictional Truth From Unreliable Sources.Emar Maier & Merel Semeijn - 2021 - In Emar Maier & Andreas Stokke (eds.), The Language of Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    A fictional text is commonly viewed as constituting an invitation to play a certain game of make-believe, with the individual sentences written by the author providing the propositions we are to imagine and/or accept as true within the fiction. However, we can’t always take the text at face value. What narratologists call ‘unreliable narrators’ may present a confused or misleading picture of the fictional world. Meanwhile there has been a debate in philosophy about so-called ‘imaginative resistance’ in which we are (...)
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