Results for 'Melanie Weismann'

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  1.  18
    Uterustransplantation. Ethisch gerechtfertigt?Is the transplant of uterus ethically acceptable?Claudia Bozzaro, Franziska Krause & Melanie Weismann - 2019 - Ethik in der Medizin 31 (2):113-129.
    ZusammenfassungDie Uterustransplantation ermöglicht Frauen mit einer absoluten uterinen Infertilität eine Schwangerschaft mit biologisch eigenem Kind. Das neuartige experimentelle Verfahren wirft eine Reihe von ethischen Fragen auf. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, relevante ethische Problemkonstellationen im Kontext der Uterustransplantation überblickshaft darzulegen und kritisch zu diskutieren. Als systematischer Rahmen der Darstellung dienen die vier Prinzipien der Medizinethik Autonomie, Nicht-Schaden, Wohltun und Gerechtigkeit nach Beauchamp und Childress. Nach eingehender ethischer Betrachtung plädieren die Autorinnen mit Blick auf die Akkumulation schwerwiegender ethischer Probleme für die (...)
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  2. 179 Melanie Klein.Melanie Klein - 2007 - In Diarmuid Costello & Jonathan Vickery (eds.), Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers. Berg. pp. 178.
  3. Weismann Rules! OK? Epigenetics and the Lamarckian Temptation.David Haig - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):415-428.
    August Weismann rejected the inheritance of acquired characters on the grounds that changes to the soma cannot produce the kind of changes to the germ-plasm that would result in the altered character being transmitted to subsequent generations. His intended distinction, between germ-plasm and soma, was closer to the modern distinction between genotype and phenotype than to the modern distinction between germ cells and somatic cells. Recently, systems of epigenetic inheritance have been claimed to make possible the inheritance of acquired (...)
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  4. Genocide Denial as Testimonial Oppression.Melanie Altanian - 2021 - Social Epistemology 35 (2):133-146.
    This article offers an argument of genocide denial as an injustice perpetrated not only against direct victims and survivors of genocide, but also against future members of the victim group. In particular, I argue that in cases of persistent and systematic denial, i.e. denialism, it perpetrates an epistemic injustice against them: testimonial oppression. First, I offer an account of testimonial oppression and introduce Kristie Dotson’s notion of testimonial smothering as one form of testimonial oppression, a mechanism of coerced silencing particularly (...)
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  5. August Weismann on Germ-Plasm Variation.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):517-555.
    August Weismann is famous for having argued against the inheritance of acquired characters. However, an analysis of his work indicates that Weismann always held that changes in external conditions, acting during development, were the necessary causes of variation in the hereditary material. For much of his career he held that acquired germ-plasm variation was inherited. An irony, which is in tension with much of the standard twentieth-century history of biology, thus exists – Weismann was not a Weismannian. (...)
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  6.  29
    Weismann Versus Morgan Revisited: Clashing Interpretations on Animal Regeneration. [REVIEW]Maurizio Esposito - 2013 - Journal of the History of Biology 46 (3):511-541.
    This paper has three principal aims: first, through a detailed analysis of the hypotheses and assumptions underlying Weismann’s and Morgan’s disagreement on the nature of animal regeneration, it seeks to readdress the imbalance in coverage of their discussion, providing, at the same time, a fascinating case-study for those interested in general issues related to controversies in science. Second, contrary to Morgan’s beliefs according to which Weismann employed a speculative and unempirical method of scientific investigation, the article shows that (...)
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  7.  2
    Weismann’s Barrier and Crick’s Barrier Still Preclude Two Kinds of Lamarckism.Koen B. Tanghe - 2021 - Biosemiotics 14 (3):675-682.
    In his target article ‘The Illusions of the Modern Synthesis’, Denis Noble argues that the Modern Synthesis is undermined by the major findings of molecular biology. The supposed falsification of Weisman’s Barrier and of standard interpretations of Francis Crick’s Central Dogma has paved the way for Lamarckian forms of inheritance which are prohibited by that theory of evolution. I argue that August Weismann postulated two barriers against two kinds of Lamarckism. However, his second barrier was speculative. It was made (...)
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  8.  69
    Complexity: A Guided Tour.Melanie Mitchell - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    What enables individually simple insects like ants to act with such precision and purpose as a group? How do trillions of individual neurons produce something as extraordinarily complex as consciousness? What is it that guides self-organizing structures like the immune system, the World Wide Web, the global economy, and the human genome? These are just a few of the fascinating and elusive questions that the science of complexity seeks to answer. In this remarkably accessible and companionable book, leading complex systems (...)
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  9.  26
    Weismann and Evolution.Ernst Mayr - 1985 - Journal of the History of Biology 18 (3):295-329.
  10.  76
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
    A problem that has troubled both neo-Darwinists and neo-Lamarckians is whether instincts involve knowledge. This paper discusses the contributions to this problem of the evolutionary biologist August Weismann and the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. Weismann discussed an empirical homunculus fallacy: Lamarck’s theory mistakenly presupposes a homunculus in the germ cells. Wittgenstein discussed a conceptual homunculus fallacy which applies to Lamarck’s theory: it is mistaken to suppose that knowledge is stored in the brain or DNA. The upshot of these two (...)
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  11. Epistemic Injustice and Collective Wrongdoing: Introduction to Special Issue.Melanie Altanian & Nadja El Kassar - 2021 - Social Epistemology 35 (2):99-108.
    In this introduction to the special issue ‘Epistemic Injustice and Collective Wrongdoing,’ we show how the eight contributions examine the collective dimensions of epistemic injustice. First, we contextualize the articles within theories of epistemic injustice. Second, we provide an overview of the eight articles by highlighting three central topics addressed by them: i) the effects of epistemic injustice and collective wrongdoing, ii) the underlying epistemic structures in collective wrongdoing, unjust relations and unjust societies, and iii) the remedies and strategies of (...)
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  12.  21
    August Weismann Embraces the Protozoa.Frederick B. Churchill - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (4):767 - 800.
    This paper examines the contents and institutional context of August Weismann's long essay on Amphimixis (1891). Therein he presented detailed discussions of his on-going studies of reduction division and parthenogenesis, but more to the point, he included an elaborate examination of Émile Maupas's two major publications in protozoology. To understand the relevance of this part to the other two, the author briefly reviews highpoints in earlier nineteenth century protozoology and concludes that only in the mid-1870s and 1880s did protozoa (...)
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  13.  24
    August Weismann and a Break From Tradition.Frederick B. Churchill - 1968 - Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):91-112.
  14.  47
    Social Media, E‐Health, and Medical Ethics.Mélanie Terrasse, Moti Gorin & Dominic Sisti - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (1):24-33.
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  15.  36
    MIREOT: The Minimum Information to Reference an External Ontology Term.Mélanie Courtot, Frank Gibson, Allyson L. Lister, James Malone, Daniel Schober, Ryan R. Brinkman & Alan Ruttenberg - 2011 - Applied ontology 6 (1):23-33.
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  16.  37
    August Weismann's Theory of the Germ-Plasm and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives.P. Kyle Stanford - 2005 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 27 (2):163 - 199.
    I have argued elsewhere that scientific realism is most significantly challenged neither by traditional arguments from underdetermination of theories by the evidence, nor by the traditional pessimistic induction, but by a rather different historical pattern: our repeated failure to conceive of alternatives to extant scientific theories, even when those alternatives were both (1) well-confirmed by the evidence available at the time and (2) sufficiently scientifically serious as to be later embraced by actual scientific communities. Here I use August Weismann's (...)
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  17.  34
    Costly False Beliefs: What Self-Deception and Pragmatic Encroachment Can Tell Us About the Rationality of Beliefs.Melanie Sarzano - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (2):95-118.
    Melanie Sarzano | : In this paper, I compare cases of self-deception and cases of pragmatic encroachment and argue that confronting these cases generates a dilemma about rationality. This dilemma turns on the idea that subjects are motivated to avoid costly false beliefs, and that both cases of self-deception and cases of pragmatic encroachment are caused by an interest to avoid forming costly false beliefs. Even though both types of cases can be explained by the same belief-formation mechanism, only (...)
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  18. No-Report Paradigms: Extracting the True Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Naotsugu Tsuchiya, Melanie Wilke, Stefan Frässle & Victor A. F. Lamme - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (12):757-770.
  19.  20
    Weismann, Wittgenstein and the Homunculus Fallacy.Harry Smit - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):263-271.
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  20.  28
    August Weismann and Theoretical Biology.Manfred D. Laubichler & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (2):195-198.
  21.  26
    The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind.Melanie Killen, Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Cameron Richardson, Noah Jampol & Amanda Woodward - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):197-215.
  22.  38
    Minding Theory of Mind.Melanie Yergeau & Bryce Huebner - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (3):273-296.
  23.  19
    The Germ Plasm: A Theory of Heredity.A. Weismann - 1893 - Philosophical Review 2:373.
  24. Self‐Representation and Perspectives in Dreams.Melanie Rosen & John Sutton - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1041-1053.
    Integrative and naturalistic philosophy of mind can both learn from and contribute to the contemporary cognitive sciences of dreaming. Two related phenomena concerning self-representation in dreams demonstrate the need to bring disparate fields together. In most dreams, the protagonist or dream self who experiences and actively participates in dream events is or represents the dreamer: but in an intriguing minority of cases, self-representation in dreams is displaced, disrupted, or even absent. Working from dream reports in established databanks, we examine two (...)
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  25.  6
    Hertwig, Weismann, and the Meaning of Reduction Division Circa 1890.Frederick B. Churchill - 1970 - Isis 61 (4):429-457.
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  26.  4
    Twenty-Five Years of Peer-Assisted Learning: A Review of Philosophy Proctoring at the University of Leeds.Melanie Prideaux, Nicholas Jones & Emily Paul - 2022 - Journal of Peer Learning 14.
    What happens when a peer-assisted learning scheme becomes “business as usual” rather than innovation? The proctoring scheme in undergraduate philosophy programmes at the University of Leeds has been running for over 25 years, making it one of the oldest continuously running higher education peer-assisted learning schemes in the country. Over time, the centrality of the scheme in the teaching environment has changed, particularly in the shared understanding of philosophy learning and teaching and in the practical constraints of curriculum and timetable (...)
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  27.  41
    How Bizarre? A Pluralist Approach to Dream Content.Melanie G. Rosen - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 62:148-162.
  28.  49
    Dreaming of a Stable World: Vision and Action in Sleep.Melanie Rosen - 2019 - Synthese (Suppl 17):1-36.
    Our eyes, bodies, and perspectives are constantly shifting as we observe the world. Despite this, we are very good at distinguishing between self-caused visual changes and changes in the environment: the world appears mostly stable despite our visual field moving around. This, it seems, also occurs when we are dreaming. As we visually investigate the dream environment, we track moving objects with our dream eyes, examine objects, and shift focus. These movements, research suggests, are reflected in the rapid movements or (...)
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  29. Stories of Minds and Bodies: The Role of Evolutionary Perspectives in Understanding Narrative.Melanie C. Green - 2017 - Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 1 (1):71-74.
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  30.  32
    Privileged Ignorance, “World”-Traveling, and Epistemic Tourism.Melanie Bowman - 2020 - Hypatia 35 (3):475-489.
    In this article I am concerned with how relatively privileged people who wish to act in anti-oppressive ways respond to their own ignorance in ways that fall short of what is necessary for building coalitions against oppression. I consider María Lugones's sense of “world”-travel and José Medina's notion of epistemic friction-seeking as strategies for combating privileged ignorance, and assess how well they fare when put into practice by those suffering from privileged ignorance. Drawing on the resources of tourism studies, I (...)
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  31. Individual Responsibility for Climate Change.Melany Banks - 2013 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (1):42-66.
    As we become more aware of the potential causes and consequences of climate change we are left wondering: who is responsible? Climate change has the potential to harm large portions of the global population and, arguably, is already doing so. Further, climate change is argued to be human-caused. If this is true, then it seems to be the case that we can analyze climate change in terms of responsibility. I argue that we can approach environmental harms, such as climate change, (...)
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  32. Toward a Philosophy of Blockchain: A Symposium: Introduction.Melanie Swan & Primavera de Filippi - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (5):603-619.
    This article introduces the symposium “Toward a Philosophy of Blockchain,” which provides a philosophical contemplation of blockchain technology, the digital ledger software underlying cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, for the secure transfer of money, assets, and information via the Internet without needing a third-party intermediary. The symposium offers philosophical scholarship on a new topic, blockchain technology, from a variety of perspectives. The philosophical themes discussed include mathematical models of reality, signification, and the sociopolitical institutions that structure human life and interaction. The (...)
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  33.  12
    Melanie Klein.Julia Kristeva - 2001 - Columbia University Press.
    In her first biography of a fellow psychoanalyst, the prolific Kristeva considers Klein's life and intellectual development, weaving a narrative that covers the history of psychoanalysis and illuminates Kristeva's own life and work.
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  34. What I Make Up When I Wake Up: Anti-Experience Views and Narrative Fabrication of Dreams.Melanie Rosen - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    I propose a narrative fabrication thesis of dream reports, according to which dream reports are often not accurate representations of experiences that occur during sleep. I begin with an overview of anti-experience theses of Norman Malcolm and Daniel Dennett who reject the received view of dreams, that dreams are experiences we have during sleep which are reported upon waking. Although rejection of the first claim of the received view, that dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, is implausible, I evaluate (...)
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  35.  63
    Werner Weismann: Kirche und Schauspiele. Die Schauspiele im Urteil der lateinischen Kirchenväter unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Augustin, in: Sammlung CASSICIACUM, hrgg. von A. Kunzelmann OSA und A. Zumkeller OSA, Band XXVII. Augustinus-Verlag Würzburg 1972, 243 pp. [REVIEW]Hans G. Klemm - 1973 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 25 (3):277-278.
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  36.  22
    In Weismann's Footsteps: The Cyto-Rebellion of CD Darlington.Oren Harman - 2008 - In Oren Harman & Michael Dietrich (eds.), Rebels, Mavericks, and Heretics in Biology. Yale University Press. pp. 103.
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  37. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: The Failure of the Self-Regulatory Model of Corporate Governance in the Global Business Environment.Miriam F. Weismann - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (4):615-661.
    The American regulatory model of corporate governance rests on the theory of self-regulation as␣the most effective and efficient means to achieve corporate self-restraint in the marketplace. However, that model fails to achieve regular compliance with baseline ethical and legal behaviors as evidenced by a century of repeated corporate debacles, the most recent being Enron, WorldCom, and Refco. Seemingly impervious to its domestic failure, Congress imprinted the same self-regulation paradigm on legislation restraining global business behavior, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. This (...)
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  38. Auditory Processing in Severely Brain Injured Patients: Differences Between the Minimally Conscious State and the Persistent Vegetative State.Melanie Boly, Marie-Elisabeth E. Faymonville & Philippe Peigneux - 2004 - Archives of Neurology 61 (2):233-238.
  39.  48
    Working Together: Critical Perspectives on Six Cross-Sector Partnerships in Southern Africa.Melanie Rein & Leda Stott - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (S1):79 - 89.
    This paper examines six cross-sector partnerships in South Africa and Zambia. These partnerships were part of a research study undertaken between 2003 and 2005 and were selected because of their potential to contribute to poverty reduction in their respective countries. This paper examines the context in which the partnerships were established, their governance and accountability mechanisms and the engagement and participation of the partners and the intended beneficiaries in the partnerships. We argue that a partnership approach which has proven successful (...)
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  40.  11
    Ethical Decision-Making Models: A Taxonomy of Models and Review of Issues.Melanie K. Johnson, Sean N. Weeks, Gretchen Gimpel Peacock & Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez - 2022 - Ethics and Behavior 32 (3):195-209.
    ABSTRACT A discussion of ethical decision-making literature is overdue. In this article, we summarize the current literature of ethical decision-making models used in mental health professions. Of 1,520 articles published between 2001 and 2020 that met initial search criteria, 38 articles were included. We report on the status of empirical evidence for the use of these models along with comparisons, limitations, and considerations. Ethical decision-making models were synthesized into eight core procedural components and presented based on the composition of steps (...)
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  41.  18
    The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Why It Fails to Deter Bribery as a Global Market Entry Strategy.Miriam F. Weismann, Christopher A. Buscaglia & Jason Peterson - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (4):591-619.
    Recent studies :98–144, 2002; Weismann, J Bus Ethics 88:615–66, 2009) revealed that in the first 28 years of its existence, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act was not enforced by the federal government. The Weismann study further concluded that the FCPA, designed by Congress as a self-regulatory model of corporate governance, failed to achieve the regulatory goal of deterring global bribery by U.S. companies. The current article addresses the reasons that the FCPA remains an ineffective measure to control bribery (...)
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  42.  20
    How to Read an Ethics Paper.Melanie Jansen & Peter Ellerton - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):810-813.
    In recent decades, evidence-based medicine has become one of the foundations of clinical practice, making it necessary that healthcare practitioners develop keen critical appraisal skills for scientific papers. Worksheets to guide clinicians through this critical appraisal are often used in journal clubs, a key part of continuing medical education. A similar need is arising for health professionals to develop skills in the critical appraisal of medical ethics papers. Medicine is increasingly ethically complex, and there is a growing medical ethics literature (...)
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  43.  91
    Higher Education Pedagogies: A Capabilities Approach.Melanie Walker - 2005 - Open University Press.
    This book sets out to generate new ways of reflecting ethically about the purposes and values of contemporary higher education in relation to agency, learning, public values and democratic life, and the pedagogies which support these.
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  44. All Must Have Prizes.Melanie Phillips - 1997 - British Journal of Educational Studies 45 (3):324-325.
     
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  45.  11
    Impulsivity Relates to Striatal Gray Matter Volumes in Humans: Evidence From a Delay Discounting Paradigm.Melanie Tschernegg, Belinda Pletzer, Philipp Schwartenbeck, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Uta Hoffmann & Martin Kronbichler - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  46. Dr. Weismann on Heredity and Progress.C. L. Morgan - 1894 - Philosophical Review 3:238.
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  47. Do Family Interventions Improve Outcomes in Early Psychosis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Melanie Claxton, Juliana Onwumere & Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  48.  14
    Prolonged Immigration Detention, Complicity and Boycotts.Melanie Jansen, Alanna Sue Tin & David Isaacs - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (2):138-142.
    Australia’s punitive policy towards people seeking asylum deliberately causes severe psychological harm and meets recognised definitions of torture. Consequently, there is a tension between doctors’ obligation not to be complicit in torture and doctors’ obligation to provide best possible care to their patients, including those seeking asylum. In this paper, we explore the nature of complicity and discuss the arguments for and against a proposed call for doctors to boycott working in immigration detention. We conclude that a degree of complicity (...)
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  49. Studies in the Theory of Descent.August Weismann - 1975
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  50.  27
    Beyond Cognition: Understanding Affective Impairments in Korsakoff Syndrome.Mélanie Brion, Fabien D’Hondt, Donald A. Davidoff & Pierre Maurage - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (4):376-384.
    As earlier research on Korsakoff syndrome, a frequent neurological complication of alcohol-dependence, mainly focused on cognition, affective impairments have been little investigated despite their crucial impact in AD. This article proposes new research avenues on this topic by combining two theoretical frameworks: dual-process models, positing that addictions are due to an imbalance between underactivated reflective system and overactivated affective-automatic one; continuity theory, postulating a gradual worsening of cognitive impairments from AD to KS. We suggest that this joint perspective may renew (...)
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