Memory

Edited by John Sutton (Macquarie University)
Assistant editor: Sadegh Balal Niaki (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

Remembering takes many distinctive forms. Philosophers have primarily discussed the form of memory in which I remember episodes and experiences in my own past. Such ‘personal’ (or ‘experiential’ or ‘episodic’) memories seem to represent the past events to which they refer, and to depend on certain kinds of causal connections between past and present. In ‘factual’ or ‘semantic’ memory, in contrast, I need not have personally experienced what I now remember. ‘Declarative’ memory of both these forms aims at truth, but can go wrong in minor or dramatic ways. We also remember both to do certain things (‘prospective’ memory), and how to do certain things (‘procedural’ memory). Philosophers discuss the nature, functions, and mechanisms of memory; its relations to perception, imagination, dreams, emotions, and knowledge; and its connections with personal identity, responsibility, and our moral and social lives. Memory is an active topic of interdisciplinary research between philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences.

Key works Theories of memory in the premodern history of philosophy are discussed by Draaisma 2000, Krell 1990, and Sutton 1998. Rich and wide-ranging theoretical treatments include Campbell 2003, Hacking 1995, and Middleton & Brown 2005. The causal theory of memory is developed in Martin & Deutscher 1966, while important work on personal or autobiographical memory includes Campbell 1997, Hoerl 1999, and Goldie 2012. Casey 1987 offers a phenomenological treatment of memory, while Stern 1991 develops a Wittgensteinian approach. Sheets-Johnstone 2003 discusses kinesthetic or bodily memory. Ideas about social aspects of memory are developed by Wegner et al 1985.
Introductions Warnock 1987 is a fine, wide-ranging first read on the philosophy of memory, while Engel 1999 and Schacter 1996 offer provocative introductions to the psychology of memory. Sutton 2009 surveys a range of ideas about situated and social memory, while Boyer & Wertsch 2009 is a good collection of interdisciplinary essays.
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  1. Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic with Memory.Alexandru Baltag, Aybüke Özgün & Ana Lucia Vargas Sandoval - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 52 (1):53-110.
    We introduce Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic with Memory (APALM), obtained by adding to the models a ‘memory’ of the initial states, representing the information before any communication took place (“the prior”), and adding to the syntax operators that can access this memory. We show that APALM is recursively axiomatizable (in contrast to the original Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic, for which the corresponding question is still open). We present a complete recursive axiomatization, that includes a natural finitary rule, and study this (...)
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  2. Decolonizing Memory.Laurence J. Kirmayer - 2023 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (4):243-248.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Decolonizing MemoryLaurence J. Kirmayer*, MD (bio)In this far-reaching essay, Emily Walsh explores the significance of memory for coming to grips with the enduring legacy of colonialism in psychiatry. She argues that "for reasons of self-preservation, racialized individuals should reject collective memories underwritten by colonialism." Psychiatry can enable this process or collude with the structures of domination to silence and disable those who bear the brunt of the colonialist history (...)
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  3. Memory and the Instituting Social Imaginary.Nancy Nyquist Potter - 2023 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (4):241-242.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Memory and the Instituting Social ImaginaryNancy Nyquist Potter*, PhD (bio)Emily Walsh's Article on the way that colonialism is perpetuated in psychiatry through dominant collective memory is simultaneously exciting and challenging, and merits active engagement toward making changes (Walsh, 2022). This presents a challenge to clinicians to address entrenched, often subconscious, ways of being with and helping racialized people with historical memories and current experiences.Such changes are necessary in that (...)
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  4. Memory, Colonialism, and Psychiatry How Collective Memories Underwrite Madness.Emily Walsh - 2023 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 29 (4):223-239.
    Abstract:This article defends the idea that colonialism still has a grasp on a valuable tool in the construction of our reality: memory. Developments in cognitive neuroscience and interdisciplinary memory studies propose that memory is far more creative and tied to one's imaginal capacities than we used to believe, suggesting that remembering is not simply a reproductive process, but a complex reconstructive process. Drawing on the psychiatric works of Frantz Fanon, in Alienation & Freedom; Black Skin, White Masks; and Wretched of (...)
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  5. Sensory Memories and Recollective Images.Dominic Gregory - 2018 - In Fiona Macpherson & Fabian Dorsch (eds.), Perceptual Imagination and Perceptual Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 28-45.
    [Late draft.] The paper examines the roles that may be played by sensory images in relation to the contents of sensory memories. It argues that the images may serve either simply to characterise putative past states of the world or to capture putative past sensory experiences of the subject. It uses the resulting account to shed light on various phenomena involving sensory memories, such as the status of 'observer memories'.
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  6. Ethics of Amnestics and Analgesics: The Role of Memory in Mediating Pain and Harm.Marina Salis & Connor T. A. Brenna - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 5 (4):60-67.
    Analgesia and amnesia represent two complimentary pillars of anesthesia directed, respectively, at mitigating the experience of pain and the processes of encoding that experience into memory. These elements are typically combined in modern anesthetic techniques, but some circumstances exist – such as conscious sedation – in which the conditions of amnesia are satisfied while analgesia plays an auxiliary and often incomplete role. These activities reflect a widely held yet underrecognized belief in clinical practice that although pain experiences may be short-lived, (...)
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  7. The miracle of memory: Working-through Ricoeur on Freud’s Nachträglichkeit.Michael Funk Deckard - 2022 - In Azadeh Thiriez-Arjangi, Geoffrey Dierckxsens, Michael Funk Deckard & Andrés Bruzzone (eds.), Le mal et la symbolique: Ricœur lecteur de Freud. De Gruyter. pp. 203-224.
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  8. Revising the Bioethics Story: Memory and Story in Precarious Times.John A. Lynch - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (4):521-528.
    ABSTRACT:The foundation story of bioethics is, as Susan Reverby (2009) argues, one of a trinity of horror stories culminating in what we commonly call the "Tuskegee Syphilis Study." The foundation story emphasizes that medical researchers violated participant autonomy by deceiving them about their medical conditions, the goals of the study, and the treatments they would receive, and by failing to consider the health and best interests of the research participant. While this story reflects some key elements of the Tuskegee study, (...)
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  9. The Making of the Sambucana: On Memory, the Body, and the Production of Bioheritage.Paolo Palladino - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-25.
    This paper develops the concept of _bioheritage_. It does so by considering the work of a local and distinct breed of sheep, the Sambucana, detailing how this sheep has enabled the integration of otherwise centrifugal relations between markets for the meat, cheese, and wool derived from the many other sheep that have traversed the same locality over the past three centuries. Such integration binds bodies, memory, and consumption in a manner that illustrates the distinctiveness of bioheritage and advances understanding of (...)
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  10. Memory as the Route to Imagination:
 A Simulationist Account of Affective Forecasting.Andrea Blomkvist - 2017 - Track Changes 10.
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  11. The Ethics of Memory Modification: Personal Narratives, Relational Selves and Autonomy.Przemysław Zawadzki - 2022 - Neuroethics 16 (1).
    For nearly two decades, ethicists have expressed concerns that the further development and use of memory modification technologies (MMTs)—techniques allowing to intentionally and selectively alter memories—may threaten the very foundations of who we are, our personal identity, and thus pose a threat to our well-being, or even undermine our “humaneness.” This paper examines the potential ramifications of memory-modifying interventions such as changing the valence of targeted memories and selective deactivation of a particular memory as these interventions appear to be at (...)
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  12. Behavioral Signatures of Memory Resources for Language: Looking beyond the Lexicon/Grammar Divide.Dagmar Divjak, Petar Milin, Srdan Medimorec & Maciej Borowski - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (11):e13206.
    Although there is a broad consensus that both the procedural and declarative memory systems play a crucial role in language learning, use, and knowledge, the mapping between linguistic types and memory structures remains underspecified: by default, a dual-route mapping of language systems to memory systems is assumed, with declarative memory handling idiosyncratic lexical knowledge and procedural memory handling rule-governed knowledge of grammar.We experimentally contrast the processing of morphology (case and aspect), syntax (subordination), and lexical semantics (collocations) in a healthy L1 (...)
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  13. Consciousness as a Memory System.Andrew E. Budson, Kenneth A. Richman & Elizabeth A. Kensinger - forthcoming - Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology.
    We suggest that there is confusion between why consciousness developed and what additional functions, through continued evolution, it has co-opted. Consider episodic memory. If we believe that episodic memory evolved solely to accurately represent past events, it seems like a terrible system—prone to forgetting and false memories. However, if we believe that episodic memory developed to flexibly and creatively combine and rearrange memories of prior events in order to plan for the future, then it is quite a good system. We (...)
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  14. Can forgetting be constructive? - The hermeneutics of memory, forgiveness and reconciliation.Małgorzata Hołda - 2019 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 55 (1):5.
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  15. Buddhist Path, Buddhist Teachings: Studies in Memory of L.S. Cousins, edited by Naomi Appleton and Peter Harvey.Olivia Porter - 2021 - Buddhist Studies Review 38 (1):109-112.
    Buddhist Path, Buddhist Teachings: Studies in Memory of L.S. Cousins, edited by Naomi Appleton and Peter Harvey. Equinox Publishing, 2019. 324pp. Hb. $53, ISBN-13: 9781781798928.
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  16. Part III. Memory, Mourning and Commemoration. Béranger's Napoleonic songs : mourning, memory, and the future / Sophie-Anne Leterrier ; Paul Hindemith's Minimax and the Trauma of War / Lesley Hughes ; A transatlantic repertoire of resistance and mourning in the post-war years : The songs from the ghettos and camps collected by Shmerke Kaczerginski (Vilnius, New York, Buenos Aires) / Jean-Sébastien Noël ; Singing the Unspeakable in Rwanda in the Summer of 1994 : Music in the Context of the Genocidal Abyss through a Portrait of the Artist.Assumpta Mugiraneza & Benjamin Chemouni - 2023 - In Anaïs Fléchet, Martin Guerpin, Philippe Gumplowicz & Barbara L. Kelly (eds.), Music and Postwar Transitions in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Berghahn Books.
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  17. Perception, Imagery, Memory and Consciousness.Magnus Johnsson - 2022 - Filozofia i Nauka. Studia Filozoficzne I Interdyscyplinarne 10:229-244.
    I propose and discuss some principles that I believe are substantial for perception, various kinds of memory, expectations and the capacity for imagination in the mammal brain, as well as for the design of a biologically inspired artificial cognitive architecture. I also suggest why these same principles could explain our ability to represent novel concepts and imagine non-existing and perhaps impossible objects, while there are still limits to what we can imagine and think about. Some ideas regarding how these principles (...)
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  18. Philosophical Perspectives on Memory and Imagination.Anja Berninger & Íngrid Vendrell Ferran (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book explores the structure and function of memory and imagination, as well as the relation and interaction between the two states. It is the first book to offer an integrative approach to these two emerging areas of philosophical research. The essays in this volume deal with a variety of forms of imagining and remembering. The contributors come from a range of methodological backgrounds: empirically minded philosophers, analytic philosophers engaging mainly in conceptual analysis, and philosophers informed by the phenomenological tradition. (...)
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  19. Conjuring Caliban's Woman: Moving beyond Cinema's Memory of Man_ in _Praise House.Ayanna Dozier - 2021 - Hypatia 36 (3):503-518.
    Julie Dash's experimental short film, Praise House, situates conjuring as both a narrative and formal device to invent new memories around Black womanhood that exceed our representation within the epistemes of Man. I view Praise House as an example of conjure-cinema with which we can evaluate how Black feminist filmmakers, primarily working in experimental film, manipulate the poetic structure and aesthetics of film to affect audiences rather than rely on representational narrative alone. Following the scholarship of Sylvia Wynter, I use (...)
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  20. Mental Imagery and the Epistemology of Testimony.Daniel Munro - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (4):428-449.
    Mental imagery often occurs during testimonial belief transmission: a testifier often episodically remembers or imagines a scene while describing it, while a listener often imagines that scene as it’s described to her. I argue that getting clear on imagery’s psychological roles in testimonial belief transmission has implications for some fundamental issues in the epistemology of testimony. I first appeal to imagery cases to argue against a widespread “internalist” approach to the epistemology of testimony. I then appeal to the same sort (...)
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  21. Magic and the Dignity of Man: Pico della Mirandola and His ‘Oration’ in Modern Memory. [REVIEW]Lora Sigler - 2022 - The European Legacy 27 (7-8):866-868.
    An impressive work of scholarship, Brian P. Copenhaver’s study of Pico della Mirandola, Magic and the Dignity of Man deserves to be called definitive. A hefty 682 pages, although a goodly part is g...
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  22. Capturing Dynamic Performance in a Cognitive Model: Estimating ACT‐R Memory Parameters With the Linear Ballistic Accumulator.Maarten Velde, Florian Sense, Jelmer P. Borst, Leendert Maanen & Hedderik Rijn - 2022 - Topics in Cognitive Science 14 (4):889-903.
    The parameters governing our behavior are in constant flux. Accurately capturing these dynamics in cognitive models poses a challenge to modelers. Here, we demonstrate a mapping of ACT-R's declarative memory onto the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA), a mathematical model describing a competition between evidence accumulation processes. We show that this mapping provides a method for inferring individual ACT-R parameters without requiring the modeler to build and fit an entire ACT-R model. Existing parameter estimation methods for the LBA can be used, (...)
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  23. A festschrift in memory of Robert M. Veatch.Lainie F. Ross - 2022 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 43 (4):177-178.
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  24. Prayer, Magic and Memory in Plotinus’ Treatise on the Soul (Enneads iv 4 [28], 30-45).Wendy Elgersma Helleman - forthcoming - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition:1-24.
    In an environment where astrology was widely respected, Plotinus accepted the role of heavenly bodies in answering prayer. Considering them divine, he denied them the use of memory (iv 4, 6-8); how then could he explain response to prayer received after an interval of time? Plotinus was also concerned to deny attributing intentionality in any response given, for good or evil, since that would make the astral deities responsible also for morally dubious answers. In his treatment of the issue in (...)
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  25. Looking into Death: Trauma, Memory and Human Face.Patrizia Violi - 2022 - Topoi 41 (4):809-819.
    This article analyses the relationship of human faces with trauma and death, in particular focalizing on the use of snap shot and ID kinds of photos in site of memory, memorials an public art.
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  26. The Role of Memory Science in the Philosophy of Memory.Sarah Robins - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (10):e12880.
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  27. The heretical archive: digital memory at the end of film.Domietta Torlasco - 2013 - London: University of Minnesota Press.
    Introduction -- Against house arrest -- Digital impressions: writing memory after Agnès Varda -- Folding time: toward a new theory of montage -- Archiving disappearance: from Michelangelo Antonioni to new media.
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  28. Tracing the role of memory and attention for the meta-informative validation of utterances.Franz J. Stachowiak - 2013 - In Hélène Wlodarczyk & André Wlodarczyk (eds.), Meta-informative centering of utterances between semantics and pragmatics. John Benjamins.
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  29. Semantic and episodic memory with respect to the ontological grounding of the old and new meta-informative status.Franz J. Stachowiak - 2013 - In Hélène Wlodarczyk & André Wlodarczyk (eds.), Meta-informative centering of utterances between semantics and pragmatics. John Benjamins.
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  30. The future of the past : memory, forgetting, and personal identity.Claudia Welz - 2013 - In Marius Timmann Mjaaland, Ulrik Houlind Rasmussen & Philipp Stoellger (eds.), Impossible time: past and future in the philosophy of religion. Mohr Siebeck.
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  31. And its Sense for "the Impossible" in the Chiasm of Memory and Imagination (Between past's Future and future's Past).Philipp Stoellger - 2013 - In Marius Timmann Mjaaland, Ulrik Houlind Rasmussen & Philipp Stoellger (eds.), Impossible time: past and future in the philosophy of religion. Mohr Siebeck.
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  32. The self in question: memory, the body, and self-consciousness.Andy Hamilton - 2013 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  33. Mnemo-psychography : the origin of mind and the problem of biological memory storage.Frank Scalambrino - 2013 - In Liz Stillwaggon Swan (ed.), Origins of mind. Springer.
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  34. Ipomnesi: la memoria e l'archivio.Martino Feyles - 2013 - Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.
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  35. Functioning of Declarative Memory: Intersection between Neuropsychology and Mathematics.Federica Doronzo & Gianvito Calabrese - 2022 - Elementa 1 (1-2):163-179.
    The understanding of memory has been a constant challenge for scientific research for centuries. The mnemonic processes, which determine the identity of the human being, have been investigated through multiple points of view, such as the psychological, neurophysiological and physical ones. The result is complex and multifaceted visions that should be integrated to provide a unitary and complete interpretation. A survey of the most recent scientific literature is carried out on the functioning of declarative memory, to analyse the relationship between (...)
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  36. The power of memory and the memory of power: wars and graves in Westerns and Jidaigeki.Inger S. B. Brodey - 2014 - In David LaRocca (ed.), The philosophy of war films. University Press of Kentucky.
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  37. The power of memory and the memory of power: wars and graves in Westerns and Jidaigeki.Inger S. B. Brodey - 2014 - In David LaRocca (ed.), The philosophy of war films. University Press of Kentucky.
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  38. Architects of Memory: Information and Rhetoric in a Networked Archival Age.Rachel Stroup - 2022 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 55 (3):324-330.
    The role of public memory in a digital information age beckons us to explore how information is stored, managed, and circulated throughout various networks. Engaging with questions of public memory allows us to meditate on how we and future generations have developed processes and methods of information management that shape how knowledge emerges today. In order to understand how public memory interacts with networks of information, we must look at the systems and technologies that store, manage, and make publicly accessible (...)
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  39. The ethics of memory in a digital age: interrogating the right to be forgotten.Ângela Guimarães Pereira - 2014 - Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Following the trend of sharing, and associating being on-line with being 'on-life', many people are now demanding the ownership and control of their data across all processing phases, including the erasure of their presence on the web. In Europe, recent proposals for regulation include an explicit 'Right to be Forgotten'; this right stated in the European Commission Proposal for Regulation COM 2011/12 does not emerge without controversy. It is being criticised on several grounds, including clashing with other rights, such as (...)
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  40. Pamięć i afekty.Zofia Budrewicz, Roma Sendyka & Ryszard Nycz (eds.) - 2014 - Warszawa: Instytut Badań Literackich PAN Wydawnictwo.
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  41. Monument and memory.Jonna Bornemark, Mattias Martinson & Jayne Svenungsson (eds.) - 2015 - Zürich: Lit.
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  42. Ji yi zhe xue =.Jie Bai - 2014 - Beijing: Zhong yang bian yi chu ban she.
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  43. World cinema and cultural memory.Inez Hedges - 2015 - New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Cinema has long played a crucial role in the way that societies remember and represent themselves. In the last quarter century, film has been an important medium in the public debate around the memory of the Holocaust and of Hiroshima; of the Algerian war for independence and of the Spanish Civil War; of the Allende legacy in Chile, the utopian dreams of 1968, and the aborted project of the German Democratic Republic; in identity formation in Palestine and in the African (...)
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  44. Eyes wide shut: mimesis and historical memory in Stanley Kubrick's The shining.David Humbert - 2015 - In Scott Cowdell, Chris Fleming & Joel Hodge (eds.), Mimesis, movies, and media. Bloomsbury Academic.
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  45. Violence, memory, time : towards a cosmopolitan project of learning from atrocity.Tracey Skillington - 2015 - In A. Marinopoulou (ed.), Cosmopolitan modernity. Peter Lang.
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  46. Memory, justice, and post-terror futures.Mark Pendleton - 2015 - In Klaus Neumann & Janna Thompson (eds.), Historical justice and memory. The University of Wisconsin Press.
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  47. Memories in transition: the Spanish law of historical memory.Patrizia Violi - 2015 - In Klaus Neumann & Janna Thompson (eds.), Historical justice and memory. The University of Wisconsin Press.
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  48. The politics of memory, victimization and activism in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina.Elazar Barkan & Belma Becirbasic - 2015 - In Klaus Neumann & Janna Thompson (eds.), Historical justice and memory. The University of Wisconsin Press.
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  49. Memory culture and human rights: a new constellation.Andreas Huyssen - 2015 - In Klaus Neumann & Janna Thompson (eds.), Historical justice and memory. The University of Wisconsin Press.
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  50. Historical justice and memory.Klaus Neumann & Janna Thompson (eds.) - 2015 - Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
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