Related

Contents
4800 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 4800
Material to categorize
  1. Controlling the Unobservable: Experimental Strategies and Hypotheses in Discovering the Causal Origin of Brownian Movement.Klodian Coko - 2024 - In Jutta Schickore & William R. Newman (eds.), Elusive Phenomena, Unwieldy Things Historical Perspectives on Experimental Control. Springer. pp. 209-242.
    This chapter focuses on the experimental practices and reasoning strategies employed in nineteenth century investigations on the causal origin of the phenomenon of Brownian movement. It argues that there was an extensive and sophisticated experimental work done on the phenomenon throughout the nineteenth century. Investigators followed as rigorously as possible the methodological standards of their time to make causal claims and advance causal explanations of Brownian movement. Two major methodological strategies were employed. The first was the experimental strategy of varying (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Methodological Naturalism, Analyzed.Miles K. Donahue - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    I present and evaluate three interpretations of methodological naturalism (MN), the principle that scientific explanations may only appeal to natural phenomena: as an essential feature of science, as a provisional guideline grounded in the historical failure of supernatural hypotheses, and as a synthesis of these two approaches. In doing so, I provide both a synoptic overview of current scholarship on MN, as well a contribution to that discussion by arguing in favor of a restricted version of MN, placing it on (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Управління стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств.Igor Kryvovyazyuk, Ігор Кривов’язюк & Руслан Стрільчук - 2016
    Монографія розкриває нове вирішення важливого науково-прикладного завдання, що полягає у поглибленні існуючих, розробленні й обґрунтуванні нових науково-методичних положень управління стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств на основі комплексного діагностування стратегічних можливостей, врахування ступеня загрози кризового стану, обґрунтування пріоритетності їх використання в процесі реалізації стратегії розвитку машинобудівних підприємств. Здійснено теоретико-методичне обґрунтування стратегічних можливостей підприємства та розкрито концептуальні засади управління ними. Досліджено стратегічні можливості машинобудівних підприємств України та стан управління ними. Розроблено напрямки удосконалення підходів в управлінні стратегічними можливостями машинобудівних підприємств. Видання розраховане на наукових (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4. Introducción a la filosofía de la ciencia sistemática en psicología.Óscar Teixidó - 2023 - Córdoba: Psara Ediciones.
  5. L’expérimentation en sociologie.Dominique Raynaud - 2022 - In C. Allamel-Raffin, J. L. Gangloff & Y. Gingras (eds.), L’expérimentation dans les sciences. Editions matériologiques. pp. 87-102.
    Ce chapitre se propose d’examiner les questions suivantes : Peut-on pratiquer l’expérimentation en sociologie comme dans les autres sciences ? Y présente-t-elle des difficultés particulières ? Si oui, lesquelles ? Bien qu’à première vue, ces questions paraissent bien circonscrites et plutôt de portée limitée, les réponses qu’on peut leur apporter éclairent significativement certaines questions de fond comme celle de l’unité et de la diversité des sciences, et du statut épistémologique particulier de la sociologie.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Sociology Before the Origin.Dominique Raynaud - 2022 - In R. Leroux, T. Martin & S. Turner (eds.), The Future of Sociology: Ideology or Objective Social Science? London: Routledge. pp. 21-37.
    I submit that, in order to fulfill its fundamental aspiration to be a science, sociology must reconnect – beyond classical sociologists – with the authors of prior generations who prepared its emergence. They are Condorcet, Laplace, Poisson, Arago, Quetelet and Verhulst, all of whom predate the creation of the word “sociology” by Auguste Comte. I show that these authors had a scientific project for sociology, and that in its embryonic stage this science has been silenced by the official sociology established (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Les déterminations de la vitesse de la lumière (1676–1983). Étude de sociologie internaliste des sciences.Dominique Raynaud - 2013 - L'Année Sociologique 63 (2):359-398.
    Cet article se propose de contribuer au débat sur les méthodes de la sociologie des sciences à partir d’une étude empirique des déterminations de la vitesse de la lumière réalisées entre 1676 et 1983. Loin d’être construites et déconstruites à volonté, les valeurs de c ont subi un processus de révision tendanciellement unidirectionnel et irréversible. Les méthodes de détermination de c sont restées dans la course seulement quand elles étaient assorties d’une incertitude inférieure ou égale à la meilleure valeur connue. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Cientificismo metodológico.Dominique Raynaud - 2017 - In Gabriel Andrade (ed.), Elogio del Cientificismo. Laetoli. pp. 51-74.
    El cientificismo (scientisme) se ha convertido actualmente en una lacra o un insulto. Nuestra tendencia espontánea es la de apartarnos para evitar ser insultados. Pero es evidente que el cientificismo es atacado a menudo por confundir el conocimiento científico y su uso tecnológico; entre modo de producción de los conocimientos y conocimientos adquiridos, etc. Si se adopta una definición rigurosa del cientificismo como esta: “El cientificismo es la tesis según la cual la mejor manera de conocer el mundo real es (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Scientific Method, Induction and Probability: The Whewell-De Morgan Debate on Baconianism, 1830s-1850s.Lukas M. Verburgt - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
    By focusing on the nineteenth-century debate between William Whewell and Augustus De Morgan on the nature and scope of scientific method and induction, this article captures an important episode in the history of Baconianism. More specifically, it sheds new light on the social and intellectual construction of Francis Bacon as an emblem of modern science and on British Baconianism as part of the creation of a vision of the modern enterprise. A critic of Whewell’s renovated Baconianism and an advocate of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Astrobiology as Science (3rd edition).Erik Persson (ed.) - 2023 - Springer.
    “Astrobiology as science” refers to how astrobiology is characterized and discussed in the philosophy of science.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. Mariafranca Spallanzani, L’arbre et le labyrinthe, Descartes selon l’ordre des Lumières (Paris: Honoré Champion, 2009), 584 pp., ISBN 2745318748. [REVIEW]Andrea Strazzoni - 2011 - Nuncius 26 (2):428–431.
  12. Transdisciplinary Philosophy of Science: Meeting the Challenge of Indigenous Expertise.David Ludwig, Charbel El-Hani, Fabio Gatti, Catherine Kendig, Matthias Kramm, Lucia Neco, Abigail Nieves Delgado, Luana Poliseli, Vitor Renck, Adriana Ressiore C., Luis Reyes-Galindo, Thomas Loyd Rickard, Gabriela De La Rosa, Julia J. Turska, Francisco Vergara-Silva & Rob Wilson - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 1.
    Transdisciplinary research knits together knowledge from diverse epistemic communities in addressing social-environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, climate crises, food insecurity, and public health. This paper reflects on the roles of philosophy of science in transdisciplinary research while focusing on Indigenous and other subaltern forms of knowledge. We offer a critical assessment of demarcationist approaches in philosophy of science and outline a constructive alternative of transdisciplinary philosophy of science. While a demarcationist focus obscures the complex relations between epistemic communities, transdisciplinary (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Ist Wissenschaft, was Wissen schafft?: Grundzüge der Forschung zwischen Geistesblitz und Grosslabor.Jörg Friedrich - 2019 - München: Verlag Karl Alber.
    Modern sciences produce knowledge and findings which improve technological advance and our quality of life in every regard. But do the sciences also provide us with a genuine knowledge about the world in the sense of giving us insights into that which is taking place? This book traces the most important approaches, which have in past decades attempted to make intelligible the contemporary forms of scientific research and progress. The book suggests a new approach for a philosophy of science fit (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Um Breve Ensaio Sobre Francis Bacon.Vasco Mano - manuscript
    Neste trabalho abordamos a obra de Francis Bacon e as suas contribuições para a Filosofia da Ciência, incluindo a sua proposta de método científico e o seu posicionamento crítico face à anterior versão aristotélica e a influência que o pensamento baconiano exerceu na promoção de um novo quadro filosófico para o desenvolvimento científico na modernidade. Este trabalho foi realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Filosofia das Ciências I, parte do curso de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Epistemological scientism and the scientific meta-method.Petri Turunen, Ilmari Hirvonen & Ilkka Pättiniemi - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 13 (2):1-23.
    This paper argues that the proponents of epistemological scientism must take some stand on scientific methodology. The supporters of scientism cannot simply defer to the social organisation of science because the social processes themselves must meet some methodological criteria. Among such criteria is epistemic evaluability, which demands intersubjective access to reasons. We derive twelve theses outlining some implications of epistemic evaluability. Evaluability can support weak and broad variants of epistemological scientism, which state that sciences, broadly construed, are the best sources (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Scientific Objectivity?Ivan Umeljić & Petar Nurkić - 2023 - In Nenad Cekić (ed.), Virtues and vices – between ethics and epistemology. Belgrade: Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade. pp. 361-373.
    Philosophers of science often suggest that the key feature of scientific research is striving for objectivity and that we should evaluate scientific practice by whether it is objective or not. In this paper, we will analyze several definitions of scientific objectivity to illustrate the complex meaning of this term and examine its role in evaluating scientific practice. First, we will introduce Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's standpoint concerning the historical connection between the genesis and development of scientific objectivity and the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. The Varieties of Darwinism: Explanation, Logic, and Worldview.Hugh Desmond, André Ariew, Philippe Huneman & Thomas A. C. Reydon - manuscript
    Ever since its inception, the theory of evolution has been reified into an “-ism”: Darwinism. While biologists today tend to shy away from the term in their research, the term is still actively used in the broader academic and societal contexts. What exactly is Darwinism, and how precisely are its various uses and abuses related to the scientific theory of evolution? Some call for limiting the meaning of the term “Darwinism” to its scientific context; others call for its abolition; yet (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Popper: Critical Rationalist, Conventionalist, and Virtue Epistemologist.Patrick M. Duerr - 2023 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 13 (1):54-90.
    This article revisits Karl Popper’s falsificationist methodology with respect to three tasks. The first is to illuminate and systematize Popper’s methodological views in light of his core epistemological commitments. A second and related objective is to gauge which aspects of falsificationism should be identified as “conventionalist”—a label that Popper himself uses (albeit with qualifications) but that is compromised by and, thus, stands in need of elucidation because of Popper’s idiosyncratic understanding of conventionalism. Third, by elaborating Popper’s virtue-epistemological, dialogical model of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19. General Morphological Analysis: An overview.Tom Ritchey - 2022 - Academia Letters.
    General Morphological Analysis (GMA) is a computer-aided, non-quantified modelling method employing (discrete) category variables for identifying and investigating the total set of possible relationships contained in a given problem complex. The epistemological principle underlying discrete variable morphological modelling is that of decomposing a complex (multivariate) concept into a number of(“simple”) one dimensional concepts (i.e. category variables), the domains of which can then be recombined and recomposed in order to discover all of the other possible (multidimensional) concepts which can be generated (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Sceptical Chymist in Search for Thales Principle.Petar Nurkić - 2021 - Filozofske Studije 37:135-149.
    Thales is considered to be the first philosopher to pose a question about fundamental principles on which everything else relied. His candidate for ἀρχή was water because he believed that everything comes from water and that the remaining three elements can also be created from water. Alchemists, or the first chemists, relied on the ancient tradition, especially Aristotle and the theory of the four elements. That is how they came to Aristotle’s testimonies about Thales, after which alchemists, like Helmont, accepted (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Trotz alledem: Eine Verteidigung der klassischen Unterscheidung von Natur und Technik.Gregor Schiemann - 2022 - Salzburger Jahrbuch für Philosophie 67:131-148.
    Recently, the distinction between nature and technology has been increasingly questioned. We are told that the changes to nature made possible by technology had reached such dimensions that it was no longer possible to clearly differentiate between nature and technology. Against the critical voices, I argue for the possibility and necessity of applying a version of the distinction that I call “classical”. I begin by examining selected historical origins of this distinction and thereby discussing some of its critics debated today (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. Naturvetenskap vs. Humanvetenskap: Myt, Metodologi och Ontologi.R. D. Ingthorsson - manuscript
    Jag tror att det är ett misstag att kräva av humanvetenskaperna (d.v.s. humaniora, samhälls- och beteendevetenskaperna) att de imiterar naturvetenskapernas forskningsmetodik. Humanvetenskaperna studerar meningsfulla fenomen vilkas natur är på ett grundläggande sätt annorlunda än de blott fysiska fenomen som naturvetenskapen studerar. Den största skillnaden är att meningsfulla fenomen inte uppenbarligen är lagbundna på samma sätt som fysiska fenomen och uppvisar därför inte samma regelbundenhet och förutsägbarhet som fysiska fenomen. För att studera meningsfulla fenomen krävs därför andra forskningsmetoder. Trots att humanvetenskaperna (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Irrational methods suggest indecomposability and emergence.Hamed Tabatabaei Ghomi - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 13 (1):1-21.
    This paper offers a practical argument for metaphysical emergence. The main message is that the growing reliance on so-called irrational scientific methods provides evidence that objects of science are indecomposable and as such, are better described by metaphysical emergence as opposed to the prevalent reductionistic metaphysics. I show that a potential counterargument that science will eventually reduce everything to physics has little weight given where science is heading with its current methodological trend. I substantiate my arguments by detailed examples from (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  24. Deep Learning Opacity in Scientific Discovery.Eamon Duede - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 90 (5):1089 - 1099.
    Philosophers have recently focused on critical, epistemological challenges that arise from the opacity of deep neural networks. One might conclude from this literature that doing good science with opaque models is exceptionally challenging, if not impossible. Yet, this is hard to square with the recent boom in optimism for AI in science alongside a flood of recent scientific breakthroughs driven by AI methods. In this paper, I argue that the disconnect between philosophical pessimism and scientific optimism is driven by a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  25. Introduction to 'Scientific Testimony: Its roles in science and society'.Mikkel Gerken - 2022 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This is the Introduction and Chapter 1.1 of the book ‘Scientific Testimony. Its roles in science and society’ (OUP 2022). The introduction contains a brief survey of the book’s chapters and main conclusions, which I hope will be useful to the curious ones.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  26. The Challenges of Identifying Significant Epistemic Failure in Science.Tobias Lehmann, Michael Borggräfe & Jochen Gläser - 2022 - In Michael Jungert & Sebastian Schuol (eds.), Scheitern in den Wissenschaften: Perspektiven der Wissenschaftsforschung. Brill Deutschland GmbH. pp. 237-267.
    If one follows the accounts by philosophers of science and the discussions in scientific communities, there can be little doubt that failure is an essential part of scientific practice. It is essential both in the sense of being integral to scientific practice and of being necessary for its overall success. Researchers who create new scientific knowledge face uncertainties about the nature of the problem they are trying to solve, the existence of a solution to that problem, the way in which (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. The Question Method and the (Un) scientific Status: A Case for the Complementarity of Natural and Social Research Methods.Abidemi Israel Ogunyomi & Solomon Kolawole Awe - 2022 - Nigerian Journal of Arts and Humanities 2 (1):36-46.
    The debate concerning the scientific or unscientific status of the social sciences and the question of the (in) applicability of the methods of research in the natural sciences to social investigations are still unsettled in Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Some of the questions which are often asked concerning these issues include: are the social sciences really scientific? Do they merit the name science? Can we apply the same methods used in the natural research to social research? Are the objects (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. A holistic understanding of scientific methodology.S. Mate - 2022 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 36 (3-4):263-289.
    Philosophers of science are divided over the interpretations of scientific normativity. Larry Laudan defends a sort of goal-directed rules for scientific methodology. In contrast, Gerard Doppelt thinks methodological rules are a mixed batch of rules in that some are goal-oriented hypothetical rules and others are goal-independent categorical rules. David Resnik thinks that the debate between them is at a standstill now. He further thinks there are certain rules, such as the rule of consistency which is goal independent. However, he proposes (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Likelihoodism and Guidance for Belief.Tamaz Tokhadze - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (4):501-517.
    Likelihoodism is the view that the degree of evidential support should be analysed and measured in terms of likelihoods alone. The paper considers and responds to a popular criticism that a likelihoodist framework is too restrictive to guide belief. First, I show that the most detailed and rigorous version of this criticism, as put forward by Gandenberger (2016), is unsuccessful. Second, I provide a positive argument that a broadly likelihoodist framework can accommodate guidance for comparative belief, even when objectively well-grounded (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Philosophy and Science of Risk: An Introduction.Isabelle Peschard, Yann Benétreau-Dupin & Christopher Wessels - 2022 - London: Routledge.
    What is risk? How do we assess risk? What are the ethical implications of risk? The concept of risk is important – sometimes even crucial – for many philosophical domains, from philosophy of science and technology to ethics and sustainability. Philosophy and Science of Risk is a clear, wide-ranging introduction to this urgent and fast-growing subject. It covers the following key topics: -/- • The philosophical and historical background to understanding and interpreting risk -/- • The meaning of risk and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. CMO No. 15, S. 2019: Graduate Students, Are You Ready for This?Joseph B. Quinto - 2022 - Journal of International Education 4 (1):54-62.
    With the approval and dissemination of CHED Memorandum Order Number 15, Series of 2019 in the Philippines, graduate students both in the Master of Science/Master of Arts Academic Track and Doctor of Philosophy Academic Track/Doctor of Philosophy by Research are now compelled to publish or, at least, show evidence of acceptance of research studies in refereed journals, or nationally or internationally indexed journals. Coriat (2019) claims that the value of research to society and its relationship to wealth and competitiveness has (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. Simplicity.Elliott Sober - 1975 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Attempts to show that the simplicity of a hypothesis can be measured by attending to how well it answers certain kinds of questions.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  33. Methodology Maximized: Quine on Empiricism, Naturalism, and Empirical Content.James Andrew Smith - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):661-686.
    W. V. Quine calls some general methods of science maxims: general defeasible principles that call on us to approximate, maximize, or minimize a state and that are interpreted and weighed in context-sensitive ways. On my reading, his empiricism asks us to maximize accepting overall theories empirically equivalent to ours but to minimize accepting sentences that both do not affect the empirical content of our overall theory and do not simplify our overall theory. His naturalism asks us to maximize accepting sentences (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Der logische Aufbau der Welt: Formale Aspekte.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Book Review of Hon and Goldstein's "Reflections on the Practice of Physics". [REVIEW]Francesco Nappo - 2022 - The BJPS Review of Books.
    Reflections on the Practice of Physics has two admirable aims: on one hand, to contribute to a comprehensive historical understanding of Maxwell’s approach to physical inquiry; on the other, to extract philosophical lessons from the story of Maxwell’s astounding scientific breakthroughs. In line with an established tradition in scholarship (for example, Achinstein [1991]; Siegel [1991]; Harman [1998]), the authors defend the view that the method of ‘physical analogy’ that Maxwell first presented in the introductory section of his ‘On Faraday’s Lines (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36. Motivating and Maintaining Ethics, Equity, Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Expertise in Peer Review.Adam Craig, Christina Lee, Nithyaa Bala & Carl Taswell - 2022 - Brainiacs Journal 3 (1):I5B147D9D.
    Scientists who engage in science and the scientific endeavor should seek truth with conviction of morals and commitment to ethics. While the number of publications continues to increase, the number of retractions has increased at a faster rate. Journals publish fraudulent research papers despite claims of peer review and adherence to publishing ethics. Nevertheless, appropriate ethical peer review will remain a gatekeeper when selecting research manuscripts in scholarly publishing and approving research applications for grant funding. However, this peer review must (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. A Falsificationist Account of Artificial Neural Networks.Oliver Buchholz & Eric Raidl - forthcoming - The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Machine learning operates at the intersection of statistics and computer science. This raises the question as to its underlying methodology. While much emphasis has been put on the close link between the process of learning from data and induction, the falsificationist component of machine learning has received minor attention. In this paper, we argue that the idea of falsification is central to the methodology of machine learning. It is commonly thought that machine learning algorithms infer general prediction rules from past (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Philosophy of Science.Alik Pelman - 2022 - Israel: Open University Press.
  39. A Complementary Account of Scientific Modelling: Modelling Mechanisms in Cancer Immunology.Martin Zach - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    According to a widely held view, scientific modelling consists in entertaining a set of model descriptions that specify a model. Rather than studying the phenomenon of interest directly, scientists investigate the phenomenon indirectly via a model in the hope of learning about some of the phenomenon’s features. I call this view the description-driven modelling (DDM) account. I argue that although an accurate description of much of scientific research, the DDM account is found wanting as regards the mechanistic modelling found in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Critical Realism: A Critical Evaluation.Tong Zhang - 2023 - Social Epistemology 37 (1):15-29.
    Critical realism, championed by its proponents as the most promising post-positivist social science paradigm, has gained significant influence in the last few decades. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the critical realism movement in the hope of facilitating more fruitful dialogues between its proponents and rivalling schools of sociologists. Two concerns are raised about contemporary critical realism. First, critical realism is not the only philosophical school against positivism and not necessarily the best. Second, critical realists exaggerate the importance of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41. Justifying the use of purely formal analogies in physics.Doreen Fraser - manuscript
    Recent case studies have revealed that purely formal analogies have been successfully used as a heuristic in physics. This is at odds with most general philosophical accounts of analogies, which require analogies to be physical in order to be justifiably used. The main goal of this paper is to supply a philosophical account that justifies the use of purely formal analogies in physics. Using Bartha’s (2010) articulation model as a starting point, I offer precise definitions of formal and physical analogies (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Informational Virtues, Causal Inference, and Inference to the Best Explanation.Barry Ward - manuscript
    Frank Cabrera argues that informational explanatory virtues—specifically, mechanism, precision, and explanatory scope—cannot be confirmational virtues, since hypotheses that possess them must have a lower probability than less virtuous, entailed hypotheses. We argue against Cabrera’s characterization of confirmational virtue and for an alternative on which the informational virtues clearly are confirmational virtues. Our illustration of their confirmational virtuousness appeals to aspects of causal inference, suggesting that causal inference has a role for the explanatory virtues. We briefly explore this possibility, delineating a (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. In Defense of Uniformitarianism.Bruce L. Gordon - 2013 - Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 65 (2).
    The practice of science rests on the assumption of dependable regularity in the behavior of the physical world. It presumes that the world has an investigable causal structure and that scientific experimentation, observation, and theorizing provide a reliable pathway to its discernment. This much is not in dispute. What is in dispute is what warrants the metaphysical and methodological assumption—essential to the heuristic utility of science—that nature is uniform in such a way that the present can serve as a key (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Statistik und Einheit der Wissenschaften von Quetelets Physique Sociale zu Neuraths Soziologie im Physikalismus.Donata Romizi - 2016 - In C. Bonnet & E. Nemeth (eds.), .): Wissenschaft und Praxis. Zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie in Österreich und Frankreich in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Wien; New York:
    The present paper focuses on the work of Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874), the Belgian author of the Social Physics who worked in the tradition of the French mathématique sociale, and of Otto Neurath (1882-1945), the Vienna Circle’s member who supported a “sociology within physicalism”. They shared some important philosophical and methodological positions: an empiricist approach to the social sciences, a unitary conception of the natural and the social sciences, and the appreciation of statistics as a tool for investigating and also reforming (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45. From planning to entrepreneurship: On the political economy of scientific pursuit.Erik Baker - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 92 (C):27-35.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. The Automated Laplacean Demon: How ML Challenges Our Views on Prediction and Explanation.Sanja Srećković, Andrea Berber & Nenad Filipović - 2021 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):159-183.
    Certain characteristics make machine learning a powerful tool for processing large amounts of data, and also particularly unsuitable for explanatory purposes. There are worries that its increasing use in science may sideline the explanatory goals of research. We analyze the key characteristics of ML that might have implications for the future directions in scientific research: epistemic opacity and the ‘theory-agnostic’ modeling. These characteristics are further analyzed in a comparison of ML with the traditional statistical methods, in order to demonstrate what (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  47. 一切为了逻辑 —智人!开始进化.Kai Jiang - manuscript
    纯逻辑的主要组成包括纯逻辑信仰、纯逻辑的思维方法、解放灵魂、追求无限大价值、以逻辑-不逻辑为实在、试错和容忍错误、推理的资源分配、非标准逻辑、推理的全局性。 灵魂来到世上的第一个问题应该是我是谁,最合乎逻辑的自我认知是:我是且只是由一些逻辑推理组成的灵魂。任何不可变的其它标签,如有手有脚、直立行走、两性,都是对自由的侵犯。去除这些标签的过程就是灵魂的解放事 业。相信宇宙万物都和我一样,是由逻辑推理组成的,这就是最合乎逻辑的信仰,即纯逻辑信仰。纯逻辑信仰决定了纯逻辑方法才是正确的认识方法,即尽量减少经验增加逻辑推理,而不是科学所提倡的经验主义,或者与之密切 相关的功利主义、现实主义。 信仰错误意味着无法做出任何完全正确的推理,只能偶尔幸运地获得少量尽量合乎逻辑的推理结果。即使是日常生活中的推理,也高度依赖于经验主义、功利主义等信仰,错误率极高。纯逻辑主义的推理要求推理尽量合乎逻辑, 将合乎逻辑的程度视为价值,因此要追求最大价值。功利主义往往是为身体追求利益,让身体奴役灵魂。两种信仰很难有什么共同的决策,书中对此提供了大量的说明。信仰的错误意味着智人难以发现真理、正义,意味着智人在 绝大多数问题上都是自以为正确实际上却极度邪恶、落后。智人功利主义地对待一切,如历史、传统、自我、本国、本民族,结果就是大量赞美、信仰邪恶,大大增加了皈依真理、正义的难度。 作者由纯逻辑主义提出了两个关键猜想。首先,最合乎逻辑原则和最大自由原则是统一的。这代表实在的不可否定性,即逻辑和不逻辑为同一存在,最合乎逻辑等同于最大自由。但是,代表邪恶的无法合乎逻辑不是不逻辑。其次 ,宇宙是纯逻辑世界,完全源于逻辑-不逻辑。进而,如果灵魂不能尽量合乎逻辑地推导出真理,可以通过模仿宇宙而学习真理。《真理进化论》给模仿宇宙找到的理由是以宇宙为信仰,相信宇宙是负作用量的最佳追求系统。纯 逻辑主义完善了这一信仰,因为宇宙是纯逻辑世界,相信逻辑就要相信宇宙。而且,逻辑世界必然能不断创造新的命题,永远不会停止推理,是逻辑和自由不断增长的动态系统,即最佳追求系统。 纯逻辑推理对物理学、宇宙论能提供两个明显的帮助:用逻辑的诞生解释宇宙的诞生、大爆炸;用真理解释暗物质,它对所有命题有吸引作用,但是,真理不会像一般性命题那样变化,无法通过引力之外的其它三种基本相互作用 观察。纯逻辑也能对宇宙做出预言:宇宙会不断加速膨胀,真理、暗物质会不断增加,命题、星系会越来越多,永无止境。当然,不应该依靠这些观点的经验主义验证来相信纯逻辑信仰,而且,这些验证也确实遥遥无期。 无论是最合乎逻辑还是最大自由,都是可以达到无限大价值的。既然存在无限大价值,就存在无限大的劳动生产率,而每个灵魂都应该以创造无限大价值为目标,甚至,以每时每刻具有无限大预期价值为目标。相比之下,功利主 义者、享乐主义者一生都很难具有无限大价值,甚至,他们的灵魂一生都在为肉体做奴隶,却心甘情愿地做奴隶,一门心思让主人生活得更舒服。这是有无限大差距的人生。 既然要追求无限大价值,就要研究追求价值的正确方法。作者相信正确的研究方法不仅是最合乎逻辑的,也是最自由的。所以,应该不分学科、课题地研究问题;同时做很多研究方向的工作;一篇论文不需要限定于一个狭小的主 题;研究任何一个问题都可以延伸到研究真理乃至所有真理;论文、专著的写作不应该有格式等规范,应该以价值为评判的唯一准绳。 资源分配是逻辑推理的重要组成部分,而能力和时间是最主要的资源。为了追求价值,不能在价值有限的推理上分配资源,这必将大幅提高绝大多数推理的错误率。所以,推理中出现错误是必然的,追求无错是一种邪恶。只要时 刻保证存在价值无限大的推理,错误通常是可以容忍的,价值有限的错误更是必须容忍。 既然文学写作也要求情节合乎逻辑,当然也可以要求作品的主要观点、原则、思维过程尽量合乎逻辑,主要人物的思想、行为尽量合乎逻辑,这就是纯逻辑流。否则,就只是作者自以为合乎逻辑,实际上有大量无法合乎逻辑之处 ,这和科学家自以为科学合乎逻辑,却根本没有最合乎逻辑的信仰、方法、推理过程是一个问题。这也意味着最合乎逻辑的文学可能甚至是必须发现真理。另一方面,自由也是最合乎逻辑的真理,坚持那些基于经验的作品分类会 侵犯自由。所以,推理小说、科幻小说、历史、论文,这些智人的分类标签都不是绝对的。纯逻辑流小说在研究真理方面自有其优势,能最为自由地同时研究很多课题,包括如何建立信仰,如何思维,如何做人,如何推理,如何 判断善恶,讲述历史,预测未来,乃至现代科学中没有研究的真理学、思维科学,等等。所以,这甚至是现在最适合发表纯逻辑思想、研究成果的作品门类。 虽然在起点网已经被禁,但是将继续每月更新,后记中会预告下次更新的时间。 .
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. Theoretical virtues and theorizing in physics: against the instrumentalist view of simplicity.Mousa Mohammadian - 2021 - Synthese 199 (1-2):4819-4828.
    I argue that if simplicity is a theoretical virtue and some theoretical virtues are the constituents of the aims of theorizing in physics—i.e., theory choice and theory development in physics—and scientific rationality is instrumental rationality, then simplicity cannot be a mere means to achieve the aims. I do this by showing that considering simplicity as a mere means brings about counterintuitive ramifications concerning scientific rationality. These counterintuitive ramifications can be avoided if we consider simplicity a constituent of the aims of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. El sentido lógico de la refutabilidad.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    According to falsificationism, a theory is scientific if it can be incompatible with some empirically testable statements. This epistemological approach has been criticized because, in practice, it is impossible to decide when a particular fact should be considered incompatible with a theory. These criticisms, however, neglect the fact that the Popperian sense of falsification is a “logical sense.” Thus, the Popperian criterion of falsifiability only requires that, assuming certain auxiliary hypotheses, the theory in question be logically incompatible with some empirically (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. How causal are microbiomes? A comparison with the Helicobacter pylori explanation of ulcers.Kate E. Lynch, Emily C. Parke & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (6):62.
    Human microbiome research makes causal connections between entire microbial communities and a wide array of traits that range from physiological diseases to psychological states. To evaluate these causal claims, we first examine a well-known single-microbe causal explanation: of Helicobacter pylori causing ulcers. This apparently straightforward causal explanation is not so simple, however. It does not achieve a key explanatory standard in microbiology, of Koch’s postulates, which rely on manipulations of single-microorganism cultures to infer causal relationships to disease. When Koch’s postulates (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
1 — 50 / 4800