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  1. Logic in knowledge representation and reasoning: Central topics via readings.Luis M. Augusto - manuscript
    Logic has been a—disputed—ingredient in the emergence and development of the now very large field known as knowledge representation and reasoning. In this book (in progress), I select some central topics in this highly fruitful, albeit controversial, association (e.g., non-monotonic reasoning, implicit belief, logical omniscience, closed world assumption), identifying their sources and analyzing/explaining their elaboration in highly influential published work.
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  2. On the Logical Structure of Reality and Conceptual Relativism.Stephen Gutwald - manuscript
    A reconstruction of Kant’s Copernican Revolution is given using the linguistic version of conceptual schemes together with mathematical tools from Model Theory. In response to Davidson’s criticisms against conceptual relativism, untranslatable conceptual schemes are shown to exist. Arguments from the Tractatus are used to formulate the conditions required for an isomorphism between a representation and the structure of reality. It is argued that the scientific accuracy of a representation does not require a structural isomorphism with reality. Finally, a conception of (...)
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  3. Tuples all the way down?Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    We can introduce singular terms for ordered pairs by means of an abstraction principle. Doing so proves useful for a number of projects in the philosophy of mathematics. However there is a question whether we can appeal to the abstraction principle in good faith, since a version of the Caesar Problem can be generated, posing the worry that abstraction fails to introduce expressions which refer determinately to the requisite sort of object. In this short paper I will pose the difficulty, (...)
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  4. Mathematics as the Science of Pure Structure.John-Michael Kuczynski - manuscript
    A brief but rigorous description of the logical structure of mathematical truth.
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  5. Brouwer's Intuition of Twoity and Constructions in Separable Mathematics.Bruno Bentzen - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-21.
    My first aim in this paper is to use time diagrams in the style of Brentano to analyze constructions in Brouwer's separable mathematics more precisely. I argue that constructions must involve not only pairing and projecting as basic operations guaranteed by the intuition of twoity, as sometimes assumed in the literature, but also a recalling operation. My second aim is to argue that Brouwer's views on the intuition of twoity and arithmetic lead to an ontological explosion. Redeveloping the constructions of (...)
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  6. Equality and Near-Equality in a Nonstandard World.Bruno Dinis - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-14.
    In the context of nonstandard analysis, the somewhat vague equality relation of near-equality allows us to relate objects that are indistinguishable but not necessarily equal. This relation appears to enable us to better understand certain paradoxes, such as the paradox of Theseus’s ship, by identifying identity at a time with identity over a short period of time. With this view in mind, I propose and discuss two mathematical models for this paradox.
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  7. Logical Form, Conditionals, Pseudo-Conditionals.Andrea Iacona - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-18.
    This paper raises some questions about the formalization of sentences containing ‘if’ or similar expressions. In particular, it focuses on three kinds of sentences that resemble conditionals in some respects but exhibit distinctive logical features that deserve separate consideration: whether-or-not sentences, biscuit conditionals, and concessive conditionals. As will be suggested, the examples discussed show in different ways that an adequate formalization of a sentence must take into account the content expressed by the sentence. This upshot is arguably what one should (...)
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  8. Two arguments against the generic multiverse.Toby Meadows - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-33.
    This paper critically examines two arguments against the generic multiverse, both of which are due to W. Hugh Woodin. Versions of the first argument have appeared a number of times in print, while the second argument is relatively novel. We shall investigate these arguments through the lens of two different attitudes one may take toward the methodology and metaphysics of set theory; and we shall observe that the impact of these arguments depends significantly on which of these attitudes is upheld. (...)
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  9. Is Causal Reasoning Harder Than Probabilistic Reasoning?Milan Mossé, Duligur Ibeling & Thomas Icard - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-26.
    Many tasks in statistical and causal inference can be construed as problems of entailment in a suitable formal language. We ask whether those problems are more difficult, from a computational perspective, for causal probabilistic languages than for pure probabilistic (or “associational”) languages. Despite several senses in which causal reasoning is indeed more complex—both expressively and inferentially—we show that causal entailment (or satisfiability) problems can be systematically and robustly reduced to purely probabilistic problems. Thus there is no jump in computational complexity. (...)
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  10. Buddhist Logic.Koji Tanaka - forthcoming - Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy.
    Buddhist philosophers have investigated the techniques and methodologies of debate and argumentation which are important aspects of Buddhist intellectual life. This was particularly the case in India, where Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy originated. But these investigations have also engaged philosophers in China, Japan, Korea and Tibet, and many other parts of the world that have been influenced by Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy. Several elements of the Buddhist tradition of philosophy are thought to be part of this investigation. -/- There are (...)
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  11. The Therapeutic vs. Constructive Approach to the Transformative Character of Collective Intentionality. The Interpersonal Level of Explanation.Daniel Żuromski - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    In their article, Andrea Kern and Henrike Moll (2017) argue in support of a certain vision of shared/collective intentionality and its role in understanding our cognitive capacities. This vision is based on two aspects: a negative one, i.e. a theoretical diagnosis of the contemporary debate on shared/collective intentionality, and a positive one, referring to the proposals for shared/collective intentionality. As regards the negative aspect, the main thesis concerns the arbitrary assumptions underlying the whole debate on shared/collective intentionality. According to Kern (...)
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  12. Nesoulad mezi morfosyntaxí a sémantikou podmínkových souvětí.Filip Tvrdý - 2024 - Filozofia 79 (2):150-167.
    The semantic analysis of conditional sentences does not entirely align with their morphosyntactic structure. I substantiate this hypothesis with instances from both Czech and English that extend beyond conventional textbook examples. I also highlight that logicians and philosophers often make terminological errors when they disregard the insights from linguistic disciplines. Despite the early analytic philosophy’s emphasis on terminological precision, the practical application falls significantly short of this ideal. I firmly believe that a proper understanding of the morphosyntax and semantics of (...)
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  13. How Can Christian Philosophers Improve Their Arguments?Marcin Będkowski & Jakub Pruś - 2023 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 28 (1):63-83.
    The purpose of this paper is to analyse and compare two concepts which tend to be treated as synonymous, and to show the difference between them: these are critical thinking and logical culture. Firstly, we try to show that these cannot be considered identical or strictly equivalent: i.e. that the concept of logical culture includes more than just critical thinking skills. Secondly, we try to show that Christian philosophers, when arguing about philosophical matters and teaching philosophy to students, should not (...)
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  14. John MacFarlane, Philosophical Logic: A Contemporary Introduction, Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy, Routledge, New York, and London, 2021, xx + 238 pp. [REVIEW]Bruno Bentzen - 2023 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 29 (3):456-457.
  15. From thin objects to thin concepts?Massimiliano Carrara, Ciro De Florio & Francesca Poggiolesi - 2023 - Theoria 89 (3):256-265.
    In this short paper we consider Linnebo's thin/thick dichotomy: first, we show that it does not overlap with the very common one between abstract/concrete objects; second, on the basis of some difficulties with the distinction, we propose, as a possible way out, to move from thin/thick objects to thin/thick concepts.
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  16. Peirce and the Coimbra Jesuit Course: A Bond Far More Pervasive Than Commonly Believed.Robert Junqueira - 2023 - Phicare (Philosophy and Care Repository).
    This paper has been presented at the Charles S. Peirce Society’s 10-Minute Thesis Initiative: “His Glassy Essence in Relation” on February 18, 2023, where papers were also presented by Professor Doctor António Manuel Martins and Professor Doctor Mohammad Shafiei, respectively affiliated to the Coimbra Institute for Philosophical Studies and Shahid Beheshti University. -/- The edition “His Glassy Essence in Relation” of the Charles S. Peirce Society’s 10-Minute Thesis Initiative has been jointly organized by Aaron Wilson, António Manuel Martins, Mohammad Shafiei, (...)
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  17. Existential Import : an Extensional Approach.Yusuke Kaneko - 2023 - The Basis : The Annual Bulletin of Research Center for Liberal Education, Musashino University 13 (1):85-102.
    The original interest of this article lies in existential import. It provides a broader view on the problem by reference to modern, symbolic logic (ch.1). Gradually, however, our interest will change into the amalgamated expressions often used in logic; that is, why are such expressions as “x is a round triangle” applied in logic? We critically discuss this question from an extensional viewpoint, namely model theoretic semantics (ch.2). We also touch on Church’s λ-calculus in the appendix (app.2).
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  18. Conciliatory Reasoning, Self-Defeat, and Abstract Argumentation.Aleks Https://Orcidorg Knoks - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (3):740-787.
    According to conciliatory views on the significance of disagreement, it’s rational for you to become less confident in your take on an issue in case your epistemic peer’s take on it is different. These views are intuitively appealing, but they also face a powerful objection: in scenarios that involve disagreements over their own correctness, conciliatory views appear to self-defeat and, thereby, issue inconsistent recommendations. This paper provides a response to this objection. Drawing on the work from defeasible logics paradigm and (...)
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  19. O que é um Objeto para um Lógico?André Porto - 2023 - In Lia Levy, Carolina Araujo, Ethel Rocha, Markos Guerrero & Fábio Almeida (eds.), Substância na História da Filosofia. Pelotas, Brazil: NEPFil online. pp. 495-512.
    Trata-se de capítulo de um livro sobre a noção de "substância" na história da filosofia e contém uma discussão sobre a noção ordinária de "corpo" do ponto de vista da filosofia analítica.
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  20. An Axiomatic System for Concessive Conditionals.Eric Raidl, Andrea Iacona & Vincenzo Crupi - 2023 - Studia Logica 1:1-21.
    According to the analysis of concessive conditionals suggested by Crupi and Iacona, a concessive conditional \(p{{\,\mathrm{\hookrightarrow }\,}}q\) is adequately formalized as a conjunction of conditionals. This paper presents a sound and complete axiomatic system for concessive conditionals so understood. The soundness and completeness proofs that will be provided rely on a method that has been employed by Raidl, Iacona, and Crupi to prove the soundness and completeness of an analogous system for evidential conditionals.
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  21. Symmetric relations, symmetric theories, and Pythagrapheanism.Tim Button - 2022 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (3):583-612.
    It is a metaphysical orthodoxy that interesting non-symmetric relations cannot be reduced to symmetric ones. This orthodoxy is wrong. I show this by exploring the expressive power of symmetric theories, i.e. theories which use only symmetric predicates. Such theories are powerful enough to raise the possibility of Pythagrapheanism, i.e. the possibility that the world is just a vast, unlabelled, undirected graph.
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  22. The entanglement of logic and set theory, constructively.Laura Crosilla - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (6).
    ABSTRACT Theories of sets such as Zermelo Fraenkel set theory are usually presented as the combination of two distinct kinds of principles: logical and set-theoretic principles. The set-theoretic principles are imposed ‘on top’ of first-order logic. This is in agreement with a traditional view of logic as universally applicable and topic neutral. Such a view of logic has been rejected by the intuitionists, on the ground that quantification over infinite domains requires the use of intuitionistic rather than classical logic. In (...)
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  23. Bilateral Inversion Principles.Nils Kürbis - 2022 - Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science 358:202–215.
    This paper formulates a bilateral account of harmony that is an alternative to one proposed by Francez. It builds on an account of harmony for unilateral logic proposed by Kürbis and the observation that reading the rules for the connectives of bilateral logic bottom up gives the grounds and consequences of formulas with the opposite speech act. I formulate a process I call 'inversion' which allows the determination of assertive elimination rules from assertive introduction rules, and rejective elimination rules from (...)
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  24. Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. [REVIEW]Koji Tanaka - 2022 - Mind 131 (521):292-301.
    Book Review of Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
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  25. Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. 12th International Conference, Diagrams 2021, Virtual, September 28–30, 2021, Proceedings.A. Basu, G. Stapleton, S. Linker, C. Legg, E. Manalo & P. Viana (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
  26. Tennant’s Conjecture for Self-Referential Paradoxes and its Classical Counterexample.Seungrak Choi - 2021 - Korean Journal of Logic 1 (24):1-30.
    In his paper, “On paradox without self-reference”, Neil Tennant proposed the conjecture for self-referential paradoxes that any derivation formalizing self-referential paradoxes only generates a looping reduction sequence. According to him, the derivation of the Liar paradox in natural deduction initiates a looping reduction sequence and the derivation of the Yablo's paradox generates a spiral reduction. The present paper proposes the counterexample to Tennant's conjecture for self-referential paradoxes. We shall show that there is a derivation of the Liar paradox which generates (...)
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  27. Susan Stebbing’s Logical Interventionism.Alexander X. Douglas & Jonathan Nassim - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (2):101-117.
    We examine a contribution L. Susan Stebbing made to the understanding of critical thinking and its relation to formal logic. Stebbing took expertise in formal logic to authorise logical intervention in public debate, specifically in assessing of the validity of everyday reasoning. She held, however, that formal logic is purely the study of logical form. Given the problems of ascertaining logical form in any particular instance, and that logical form does not always track informal validity, it is difficult to see (...)
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  28. The Deduction Theorem (Before and After Herbrand).Curtis Franks - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (2):129-159.
    Attempts to articulate the real meaning or ultimate significance of a famous theorem comprise a major vein of philosophical writing about mathematics. The subfield of mathematical logic has supplie...
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  29. Dom i svijet hrvatske filozofije: struktura i povijesni aspekti [The home and the world of Croatian philosophy: Structure and historical aspects].Srećko Kovač - 2021 - In Stipe Kutleša (ed.), Domovina, zavičaj, svijet: Zbornik radova povodom 90 godina života Ede Pivčevića. Zagreb: Institute of Philosophy. pp. 155-176.
    The structure "home - world - ideals" is presented as the structure of "philosophical striving" (F. Marković). It could be formally described as a model consisting of a domain, relations and a valuation. On that basis, the identity, openness, and the significance of Croatian philosophy is investigated. The programme of the renewal of Croatian philosophy (as proposed 1882 by Franjo Marković) is re-examined, and some unsolved historical-cultural discontinuities within the programme are described. The written beginnings of Croatian philosophical thought are (...)
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  30. Wittgenstein on Logic as The Method of Philosophy. Re-examining the Roots and Development of Analytic Philosophy.T. Lampert - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (2):194-197.
    In his Lecture on Ethics, Wittgenstein mentions the difficulty a recipient of his philosophy has in ‘seeing both the road he is led and the goal which it leads to’. Oskari Kuusela's b...
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  31. Kant, Frege, and the normativity of logic: MacFarlane 's argument for common ground.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):988-1009.
  32. Reduction Techniques for Proving Decidability in Logics and Their Meet–Combination.João Rasga, Cristina Sernadas & Walter Carnielli - 2021 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):39-66.
    Satisfaction systems and reductions between them are presented as an appropriate context for analyzing the satisfiability and the validity problems. The notion of reduction is generalized in order to cope with the meet-combination of logics. Reductions between satisfaction systems induce reductions between the respective satisfiability problems and (under mild conditions) also between their validity problems. Sufficient conditions are provided for relating satisfiability problems to validity problems. Reflection results for decidability in the presence of reductions are established. The validity problem in (...)
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  33. Towards a Non-classical Meta-theory for Substructural Approaches to Paradox.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (5):1007-1055.
    In the literature on self-referential paradoxes one of the hardest and most challenging problems is that of revenge. This problem can take many shapes, but, typically, it besets non-classical accounts of some semantic notion, such as truth, that depend on a set of classically defined meta-theoretic concepts, like validity, consistency, and so on. A particularly troubling form of revenge that has received a lot of attention lately involves the concept of validity. The difficulty lies in that the non-classical logician cannot (...)
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  34. Philosophical Logic = Philosophy + Logic?Ricardo Sousa Silvestre - 2021 - In J.-Y. Beziau, J.-P. Desclés, A. Moktefi & A. Pascau (eds.), Logic-in-Question (Workshop at the Sorbonne 2011-2019). Basiléia, Suíça: pp. 299-327.
    My purpose in this paper is to shed some light on two questions: In what sense is logic philosophical? And what is philosophical logic? I take these two questions as co-extensive: an answer to one of them is also (or can easily be converted into) an answer to the other. I approach the problem from three perspectives: a conceptual, a descriptive and a prescriptive perspective. In other words, I try to answer the following questions: (i) In what sense can logic (...)
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  35. The Role of the Common in Cognitive Prosperity: Our Command of the Unspeakable and Unwriteable.John Woods - 2021 - Logica Universalis 15 (4):399-433.
    There are several features of law which rightly draw the interest of philosophers, especially those whose expertise lies in ethics and social and political philosophy. But the law also has features which haven’t stirred much in the way of philosophical investigation. I must say that I find this surprising. For the fact is that a well-run criminal trial is a master-class in logic and epistemology. Below I examine the logical and epistemological properties of greatest operational involvement in a criminal proceedings, (...)
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  36. T. Button and S. Walsh. Philosophy and Model Theory. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018, xvi + 517 pp. [REVIEW]Andrew Arana - 2020 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 26 (3-4):287-292.
  37. Some Logical Notations for Pragmatic Assertions.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2020 - Logique Et Analyse 251:297 - 315.
    The pragmatic notion of assertion has an important inferential role in logic. There are also many notational forms to express assertions in logical systems. This paper reviews, compares and analyses languages with signs for assertions, including explicit signs such as Frege’s and Dalla Pozza’s logical systems and implicit signs with no specific sign for assertion, such as Peirce’s algebraic and graphical logics and the recent modification of the latter termed Assertive Graphs. We identify and discuss the main ‘points’ of these (...)
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  38. Infinitesimal Gunk.Lu Chen - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (5):981-1004.
    In this paper, I advance an original view of the structure of space called Infinitesimal Gunk. This view says that every region of space can be further divided and some regions have infinitesimal size, where infinitesimals are understood in the framework of Robinson’s nonstandard analysis. This view, I argue, provides a novel reply to the inconsistency arguments proposed by Arntzenius and Russell, which have troubled a more familiar gunky approach. Moreover, it has important advantages over the alternative views these authors (...)
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  39. Between Atomism and Superatomism.T. Scott Dixon - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (6):1215-1241.
    There are at least three vaguely atomistic principles that have come up in the literature, two explicitly and one implicitly. First, standard atomism is the claim that everything is composed of atoms, and is very often how atomism is characterized in the literature. Second, superatomism is the claim that parthood is well-founded, which implies that every proper parthood chain terminates, and has been discussed as a stronger alternative to standard atomism. Third, there is a principle that lies between these two (...)
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  40. The logical relation of consequence.Basil Evangelidis - 2020 - Humanities Bulletin 3 (2):77-90.
    The present endeavour aims at the clarification of the concept of the logical consequence. Initially we investigate the question: How was the concept of logical consequence discovered by the medieval philosophers? Which ancient philosophical foundations were necessary for the discovery of the logical relation of consequence and which explicit medieval contributions, such as the notion of the formality (formal validity), led to its discovery. Secondly we discuss which developments of modern philosophy effected the turn from the medieval concept of logical (...)
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  41. Swahili conditional constructions in embodied Frames of Reference: Modeling semantics, pragmatics, and context-sensitivity in UML mental spaces.Roderick Fish - 2020 - Dissertation, Trinity Western University
    Studies of several languages, including Swahili [swa], suggest that realis (actual, realizable) and irrealis (unlikely, counterfactual) meanings vary along a scale (e.g., 0.0–1.0). T-values (True, False) and P-values (probability) account for this pattern. However, logic cannot describe or explain (a) epistemic stances toward beliefs, (b) deontic and dynamic stances toward states-of-being and actions, and (c) context-sensitivity in conditional interpretations. (a)–(b) are deictic properties (positions, distance) of ‘embodied’ Frames of Reference (FoRs)—space-time loci in which agents perceive and from which they contextually (...)
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  42. Hájek’s Faulty Discussion of Philosophical Heuristics.Danny Frederick - 2020 - In Against thec Philosophical Tide. Yeovil: Critias Publishing. pp. 191-193.
    I point out some logical errors and infelicities in Hájek’s discussion of philosophical heuristics.
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  43. Immanuel Kant: Logic.Srećko Kovač - 2020 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The article focuses on Kant's formal logic (formal theory of concepts, judgments, and inference, general methodology) in the systematic order of logical forms and presents the main characteristics of his transcendental logic (theory of categories and transcendental ideas). Kant's problem of the foundations of logic and its completeness is addressed. The relevance and influence of Kant's account of logic in the development of modern logic is outlined. The article gives a selection of primary and secondary sources.
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  44. On causality as the fundamental concept of Gödel’s philosophy.Srećko Kovač - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1803-1838.
    This paper proposes a possible reconstruction and philosophical-logical clarification of Gödel's idea of causality as the philosophical fundamental concept. The results are based on Gödel's published and non-published texts (including Max Phil notebooks), and are established on the ground of interconnections of Gödel's dispersed remarks on causality, as well as on the ground of his general philosophical views. The paper is logically informal but is connected with already achieved results in the formalization of a causal account of Gödel's onto-theological theory. (...)
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  45. What the heck is Logic? Logics-as-formalizations, a nihilistic approach.Aadil Kurji - 2020 - Dissertation,
    Logic is about reasoning, or so the story goes. This thesis looks at the concept of logic, what it is, and what claims of correctness of logics amount to. The concept of logic is not a settled matter, and has not been throughout the history of it as a notion. Tools from conceptual analysis aid in this historical venture. Once the unsettledness of logic is established we see the repercussions in current debates in the philosophy of logic. Much of the (...)
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  46. Prospects for a Theory of Decycling.Jon Erling Litland - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (3):467-499.
    Seemingly natural principles about the logic of ground generate cycles of ground; how can this be if ground is asymmetric? The goal of the theory of decycling is to find systematic and principled ways of getting rid of such cycles of ground. In this paper—drawing on graph-theoretic and topological ideas—I develop a general framework in which various theories of decycling can be compared. This allows us to improve on proposals made earlier by Fine and Litland. However, it turns out that (...)
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  47. The logic of ground.Adam Lovett - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (1):13-49.
    I explore the logic of ground. I first develop a logic of weak ground. This logic strengthens the logic of weak ground presented by Fine in his ‘Guide to Ground.’ This logic, I argue, generates many plausible principles which Fine’s system leaves out. I then derive from this a logic of strict ground. I argue that there is a strong abductive case for adopting this logic. It’s elegant, parsimonious and explanatorily powerful. Yet, so I suggest, adopting it has important consequences. (...)
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  48. Bocheński's Formalization of Summa Theologiae (Ia,75,6) Reconsidered.Paolo Maffezioli - 2020 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (2):191-198.
    I investigate Bocheński's first-order logic formalization of the argument for the incorruptibility of the human soul given by Aquinas in Summa Theologiae (Ia,75,6). I suggest a slightly different axiomatization that reflect better Aquinas' informal argument. Along the way, I also fix a mistake in Bocheński's derivation that the human soul is not corruptible per se.
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  49. Logical Predictivism.Ben Martin & Ole Hjortland - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (2):285-318.
    Motivated by weaknesses with traditional accounts of logical epistemology, considerable attention has been paid recently to the view, known as anti-exceptionalism about logic, that the subject matter and epistemology of logic may not be so different from that of the recognised sciences. One of the most prevalent claims made by advocates of AEL is that theory choice within logic is significantly similar to that within the sciences. This connection with scientific methodology highlights a considerable challenge for the anti-exceptionalist, as two (...)
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  50. The Formalization of Arguments.Robert Michels - 2020 - Dialectica 74 (2).
    The purpose of this introduction is to give a rough overview of the discussion of the formalization of arguments, focusing on deductive arguments. The discussion is structured around four important junctions: i) the notion of support, which captures the relation between the conclusion and premises of an argument, ii) the choice of a formal language into which the argument is translated in order to make it amenable to evaluation via formal methods, iii) the question of quality criteria for such formalizations, (...)
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