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1099 found
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  1. Conditionals and Truth Functionality.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    The material interpretation of conditionals is commonly recognized as involving some paradoxical results. I here argue that the truth functional approach to natural language is the reason for the inadequacy of this material interpretation, since the truth or falsity of some pair of statements ‘p’ and ‘q’ cannot per se be decisive for the truth or falsity of a conditional relation ‘if p then q’. This inadequacy also affects the ability of the overall formal system to establish whether or not (...)
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  2. Paul Grice on Indicative Conditionals.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    Grice argues that indicative conditionals ‘if p then q’ have conventional, truth conditional meaning according to the material conditional ‘p  q’. In order to explain away the known paradoxes with this interpretation, he distinguishes between truth conditions and assertion conditions, attempting to demonstrate that the assumed connection between ‘p’ and ‘q’ (the Indirectness Condition) is a conversational implicature; hence a matter only relevant for the assertion conditions of a conditional. This paper argues that Grice fails to demonstrate i) that (...)
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  3. All men are animals: hypothetical, categorical, or material?Rani Lill Anjum & Johan Arnt Myrstad - manuscript
    The conditional interpretation of general categorical statements like ‘All men are animals’ as universally quantified material conditionals ‘For all x, if x is F, then x is G’ suggests that the logical structure of law statements is conditional rather than categorical. Disregarding the problem that the universally quantified material conditional is trivially true whenever there are no xs that are F, there are some reasons to be sceptical of Frege’s equivalence between categorical and conditional expressions. -/- Now many philosophers will (...)
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  4. Homo deceptus: How language creates its own reality.Bruce Bokor - manuscript
    Homo deceptus is a book that brings together new ideas on language, consciousness and physics into a comprehensive theory that unifies science and philosophy in a different kind of Theory of Everything. The subject of how we are to make sense of the world is addressed in a structured and ordered manner, which starts with a recognition that scientific truths are constructed within a linguistic framework. The author argues that an epistemic foundation of natural language must be understood before laying (...)
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  5. On the philosophical motivations for the logics of formal consistency and inconsistency.Walter Carnielli & Rodrigues Abilio - manuscript
    We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account of paraconsistency.
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  6. On Logical and Scientific Strength.Luca Incurvati & Carlo Nicolai - manuscript
    The notion of strength has featured prominently in recent debates about abductivism in the epistemology of logic. Following Williamson and Russell, we distinguish between logical and scientific strength and discuss the limits of the characterizations they employ. We then suggest understanding logical strength in terms of interpretability strength and scientific strength as a special case of logical strength. We present applications of the resulting notions to comparisons between logics in the traditional sense and mathematical theories.
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  7. Defining a Decidability Decider.Pete Olcott - manuscript
    By extending the notion of a Well Formed Formula to include syntactically formalized rules for rejecting semantically incorrect expressions we recognize and reject expressions that have the semantic error of Pathological self-reference(Olcott 2004). The foundation of this system requires the notion of a BaseFact that anchors the semantic notions of True and False. When-so-ever a formal proof from BaseFacts of language L to a closed WFF X or ~X of language L does not exist X is decided to be semantically (...)
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  8. How Gödelian Ontological Arguments Fail.Matthew Parker - manuscript
    Ontological arguments like those of Gödel (1995) and Pruss (2009; 2012) rely on premises that initially seem plausible, but on closer scrutiny are not. The premises have modal import that is required for the arguments but is not immediately grasped on inspection, and which ultimately undermines the simpler logical intuitions that make the premises seem plausible. Furthermore, the notion of necessity that they involve goes unspecified, and yet must go beyond standard varieties of logical necessity. This leaves us little reason (...)
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  9. Random Formula Generators.Ariel Jonathan Roffé & Joaquín Toranzo Calderón - manuscript
    In this article, we provide three generators of propositional formulae for arbitrary languages, which uniformly sample three different formulae spaces. They take the same three parameters as input, namely, a desired depth, a set of atomics and a set of logical constants (with specified arities). The first generator returns formulae of exactly the given depth, using all or some of the propositional letters. The second does the same but samples up-to the given depth. The third generator outputs formulae with exactly (...)
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  10. Lógica Básica.Carlos Romero - manuscript
    Un libro de texto de lógica, argumentación y razonamiento probabilístico que he estado escribiendo durante los últimos años. Lo he usado para clases en bachillerato, licenciatura y posgrado. Está incompleto todavía, pero las primeras tres partes (argumentación, lógica proposicional, y cuantificación) están completas a un 85%, aproximadamente. Si lo usas, me ayudarías mucho mandándome comentarios, críticas y cualquier sugerencia.
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  11. Active logic semantics for a single agent in a static world.Michael Anderson, Walid Gomaa, John Grant & Don Perlis - manuscript
    Artificial Intelligence, in press. Abstract: For some time we have been developing, and have had significant practical success with, a time-sensitive, contradiction-tolerant logical reasoning engine called the active logic machine (ALMA). The current paper details a semantics for a general version of the underlying logical formalism, active logic. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general (and of beliefs about the current time in particular), very tight controls on what can be derived from direct (...)
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  12. 18th Amsterdam Colloquium.M. Aloni (ed.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  13. Content Recarving as Subject Matter Restriction.Vincenzo Ciccarelli - forthcoming - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 42 (1).
    In this article I offer an explicating interpretation of the procedure of content recarving as described by Frege in §64 of the Foundations of Arithmetic. I argue that the procedure of content recarving may be interpreted as an operation that while restricting the subject matter of a sentence, performs a generalization on what the sentence says about its subject matter. The characterization of the recarving operation is given in the setting of Yablo’s theory of subject matter and it is based (...)
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  14. A Mereological Reading of the Dictum de Omni et Nullo.Phil Corkum - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    When Aristotle introduces the perfect moods, he refers back to the dictum de omni et nullo, a semantic condition for universal affirmations and negations. There recently has been renewed interest in the question whether the dictum validates the assertoric syllogistic. I rehearse evidence that Aristotle provides a mereological semantics for universal affirmations and negations, and note that this semantics entails a nonstandard reading of the dictum, under which the dictum, in the presence of a minimal logical apparatus, indeed validates the (...)
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  15. Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic?Phil Corkum - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic.
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but rather exhibits certain (...)
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  16. The Centre for Logic in Campinas and the development of logic in Brazil.Iml D'Ottaviano, Wa Carnielli & Eh Alves - forthcoming - Logique Et Analyse.
  17. Twelfth asian logic conference.Rod Downey - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
  18. Possible Limits of Conceptual Engineering: Magnetism, Fixed Points and Inescapability.Matti Eklund - forthcoming - Argumenta.
    In contemporary philosophy there is much focus on conceptual engineering: the enterprise of revising and replacing concepts. In this talk, I focus on a theoretical issue that has not yet received much attention. What principled limits are there to this sort of enterprise? Are there concepts that for principled reasons cannot or should not be revised or replaced? Examples discussed include logical concepts and normative concepts.
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  19. 2012 north american annual meeting of the association for symbolic logic.Bradd Hart - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
  20. Institute of Social Research National University of Mexico.Regina Jimenez-Ottalengo - forthcoming - Semiotics.
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  21. 'Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting of the International Association for Computing and Philosophy'.Khudairi Hasen - forthcoming
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  22. The Logic of Hyperlogic. Part A: Foundations.Alexander W. Kocurek - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-27.
    Hyperlogic is a hyperintensional system designed to regiment metalogical claims (e.g., "Intuitionistic logic is correct" or "The law of excluded middle holds") into the object language, including within embedded environments such as attitude reports and counterfactuals. This paper is the first of a two-part series exploring the logic of hyperlogic. This part presents a minimal logic of hyperlogic and proves its completeness. It consists of two interdefined axiomatic systems: one for classical consequence (truth preservation under a classical interpretation of the (...)
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  23. The collapse of logical contextualism.Timo Meier - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The most serious objection to Beall and Restall’s case-based logical pluralism is the so-called collapse argument. According to the collapse argument, logical pluralism is not genuinely pluralistic and collapses into a single privileged relation of logical consequence. In response, Caret offered an account of logical contextualism that supposedly maintains the merits of Beall and Restall’s case-based logical pluralism while circumventing the collapse argument. In this paper, I first point out a gap in the collapse argument in that it does not (...)
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  24. Dialogue, Rationality, Formalism. Interdisciplinary Works in Logic, Epistemology, Psychology and Linguistics.Manuel Rebuschi, Martine Batt, Gerhard Heinzmann, Franck Lihoreau, Michel Musiol & Alain Trognon (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  25. Supervaluationism, Modal Logic, and Weakly Classical Logic.Joshua Schechter - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-51.
    A consequence relation is strongly classical if it has all the theorems and entailments of classical logic as well as the usual meta-rules (such as Conditional Proof). A consequence relation is weakly classical if it has all the theorems and entailments of classical logic but lacks the usual meta-rules. The most familiar example of a weakly classical consequence relation comes from a simple supervaluational approach to modelling vague language. This approach is formally equivalent to an account of logical consequence according (...)
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  26. How Logic Speals.Charles Travis - forthcoming - In Alan Berger (ed.), a Festschrift for Hilary Putnam.
    This is to appear in a Festschrift for Hilary Putnam on his 85th birthday. This is a pre-publication, not final, version.
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  27. Where Words Fail.Charles Travis - forthcoming - In Sofia Miguens (ed.), The Logical Alien at 20. HUP.
  28. The 1994 Annual Meeting of the Japan Society for Buddhist-Christian Studies.Jan Van Bragt - forthcoming - Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  29. An Axiomatic System Based on Ladd-Franklin's Antilogism.Fangzhou Xu - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-21.
    This paper sketches the antilogism of Christine Ladd-Franklin and historical advancement about antilogism, mainly constructs an axiomatic system Atl based on first-order logic with equality and the wholly-exclusion and not-wholly-exclusion relations abstracted from the algebra of Ladd-Franklin, with soundness and completeness of Atl proved, providing a simple and convenient tool on syllogistic reasoning. Atl depicts the empty class and the whole class differently from normal set theories, e.g. ZFC, revealing another perspective on sets and set theories. Two series of Dotterer (...)
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  30. Inferential Role and the Ideal of Deductive Logic.Thomas Hofweber - 209 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5.
    Although there is a prima facie strong case for a close connection between the meaning and inferential role of certain expressions, this connection seems seriously threatened by the semantic and logical paradoxes which rely on these inferential roles. Some philosophers have drawn radical conclusions from the paradoxes for the theory of meaning in general, and for which sentences in our language are true. I criticize these overreactions, and instead propose to distinguish two conceptions of inferential role. This distinction is closely (...)
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  31. What are acceptable reductions? Perspectives from proof-theoretic semantics and type theory.Sara Ayhan - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Logic 20 (3):412-428.
    It has been argued that reduction procedures are closely connected to the question about identity of proofs and that accepting certain reductions would lead to a trivialization of identity of proofs in the sense that every derivation of the same conclusion would have to be identified. In this paper it will be shown that the question, which reductions we accept in our system, is not only important if we see them as generating a theory of proof identity but is also (...)
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  32. Prior's puzzle generalized.Justin D'Ambrosio - 2023 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 106 (1):196-220.
    Prior’s puzzle is standardly taken to be the puzzle of why, given the assumption that that-clauses denote propositions, substitution of “the proposition that P” for “that P” within the complements of many propositional attitude verbs is invalid. I show that Prior’s puzzle is much more general than is ordinarily supposed. There are two variants on the substitutional form of the puzzle—a quantificational variant and a pronominal variant—and all three forms of the puzzle arise in a wide range of grammatical positions, (...)
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  33. justifying what ? - two basic types of knowledge claims revisited.Friedrich Wilhelm Grafe - 2023 - Archive.Org.
    ”It is often assumed that knowledge claims must be justified. But what kind of justification is required for knowledge ? . . . ” (*) -/- presupposition: the kind of epistemic justification depends on the type of the knowledge claim and its respective knowledge claim tradeoff ’vague vs. precise’. -/- procedere: in two - almost purely logical - case studies I account for this tradeoff and question in each case what (if any) were its general outcome wrt justification -/- first (...)
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  34. Valid Arguments as True Conditionals.Andrea Iacona - 2023 - Mind 132 (526):428-451.
    This paper explores an idea of Stoic descent that is largely neglected nowadays, the idea that an argument is valid when the conditional formed by the conjunction of its premises as antecedent and its conclusion as consequent is true. As it will be argued, once some basic features of our naıve understanding of validity are properly spelled out, and a suitable account of conditionals is adopted, the equivalence between valid arguments and true conditionals makes perfect sense. The account of validity (...)
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  35. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic, written by Cohnitz, D. & Estrada-González, L. [REVIEW]Sanderson Molick - 2023 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 26 (1):156-159.
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  36. Logical Realism and the Riddle of Redundancy.Óscar Antonio Monroy Pérez - 2023 - Mind 131 (524):1083-1107.
    According to an influential view, when it comes to representing reality, some words are better suited for the job than others. This is elitism. There is reason to believe that the set of the best, or elite, words should not be redundant or arbitrary. However, we are often forced to choose between these two theoretical vices, especially in cases involving theories that seem to be mere notational variants. This is the riddle of redundancy: both redundancy and arbitrariness are vicious, but (...)
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  37. Logical Pluralism and Logical Consequence.Erik Stei - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Logical pluralism is the view that there is more than one correct logic. This is not necessarily a controversial claim but in its most exciting formulations, pluralism extends to logics that have typically been considered rival accounts of logical consequence – to logics, that is, which adopt seemingly contradictory views about basic logical laws or argument forms. The logical pluralist challenges the philosophical orthodoxy that an argument is either deductively valid or invalid by claiming that there is more than one (...)
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  38. With Good Reason: An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Argument Mapping.Jonathan Surovell - 2023 - Austin: Argumentation.
    An accessible introduction to critical thinking and argument mapping with over 30 exercises per chapter, authentic examples, and examples drawn from diverse philosophical sources. Integration with the Argumentation argument mapping app allows readers to fully engage with argument maps with screen readers and key commands. Argumentation's inference boxes make possible novel explanations of inference objections, arguments for and against analogical arguments, inference rules, and the distinction between co-premises and independent arguments.
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  39. Necessity, Theism, and Evidence.Mike Almeida - 2022 - Logique Et Analyse 259 (1):287-307.
    The minimal God exemplifies essential omnipotence, omniscience, and moral perfection, but none of the other properties of the traditional God. I examine the consequences of the minimal God in augmented S5, S4, and Kρσ. The metaphysical consequences for the minimal God in S5 include the impossibility that God—or any other object—might acquire, lose, or exchange an essential property. It is impossible that an essentially divine being might become essentially human, for instance. The epistemological consequences include the impossibility of agnosticism—it is (...)
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  40. Structural Relativity and Informal Rigour.Neil Barton - 2022 - In Gianluigi Oliveri, Claudio Ternullo & Stefano Boscolo (eds.), Objects, Structures, and Logics, FilMat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer. pp. 133-174.
    Informal rigour is the process by which we come to understand particular mathematical structures and then manifest this rigour through axiomatisations. Structural relativity is the idea that the kinds of structures we isolate are dependent upon the logic we employ. We bring together these ideas by considering the level of informal rigour exhibited by our set-theoretic discourse, and argue that different foundational programmes should countenance different underlying logics (intermediate between first- and second-order) for formulating set theory. By bringing considerations of (...)
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  41. On Representations of Intended Structures in Foundational Theories.Neil Barton, Moritz Müller & Mihai Prunescu - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (2):283-296.
    Often philosophers, logicians, and mathematicians employ a notion of intended structure when talking about a branch of mathematics. In addition, we know that there are foundational mathematical theories that can find representatives for the objects of informal mathematics. In this paper, we examine how faithfully foundational theories can represent intended structures, and show that this question is closely linked to the decidability of the theory of the intended structure. We argue that this sheds light on the trade-off between expressive power (...)
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  42. Philosophical Approaches to the Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: In Honor of Professor Stanisław Krajewski. [REVIEW]F. M. Bertato - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 44 (3):350-352.
    Mathematics is a formal science, and it has historically established itself as a paradigm of rigor and precision for other sciences. This is because, over the centuries, mathematics was considered...
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  43. Taking Up Thagard’s Challenge: A Formal Model of Conceptual Revision.Sena Bozdag & Matteo De Benedetto - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (4):791-824.
    Thagard presented a framework for conceptual change in science based on conceptual systems. Thagard challenged belief revision theorists, claiming that traditional belief-revision systems are able to model only the two most conservative types of changes in his framework, but not the more radical ones. The main aim of this work is to take up Thagard’s challenge, presenting a belief-revision-like system able to mirror radical types of conceptual change. We will do that with a conceptual revision system, i.e. a belief-revision-like system (...)
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  44. A Pragmatic-Semiotic Defence of Bivalence.Marc Champagne - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (2):143-157.
    Since Peirce defined the first operators for three-valued logic, it is usually assumed that he rejected the principle of bivalence. However, I argue that, because bivalence is a principle, the strategy used by Peirce to defend logical principles can be used to defend bivalence. Construing logic as the study of substitutions of equivalent representations, Peirce showed that some patterns of substitution get realized in the very act of questioning them. While I recognize that we can devise non-classical notations, I argue (...)
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  45. Smooth Infinitesimals in the Metaphysical Foundation of Spacetime Theories.Lu Chen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (4):857-877.
    I propose a theory of space with infinitesimal regions called smooth infinitesimal geometry based on certain algebraic objects, which regiments a mode of reasoning heuristically used by geometricists and physicists. I argue that SIG has the following utilities. It provides a simple metaphysics of vector fields and tangent space that are otherwise perplexing. A tangent space can be considered an infinitesimal region of space. It generalizes a standard implementation of spacetime algebraicism called Einstein algebras. It solves the long-standing problem of (...)
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  46. Modal Pluralism and Higher‐Order Logic.Justin Clarke-Doane & William McCarthy - 2022 - Philosophical Perspectives 36 (1):31-58.
    In this article, we discuss a simple argument that modal metaphysics is misconceived, and responses to it. Unlike Quine's, this argument begins with the simple observation that there are different candidate interpretations of the predicate ‘could have been the case’. This is analogous to the observation that there are different candidate interpretations of the predicate ‘is a member of’. The argument then infers that the search for metaphysical necessities is misguided in much the way the ‘set-theoretic pluralist’ claims that the (...)
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  47. Bunge y la validez de la adición.Luis Estrada González & Christian Romero-Rodríguez - 2022 - In German Guerrero-Pino (ed.), Ciencia, Realismo y materialismo. Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia: pp. 191-202.
    En The paradox of Addition and its dissolution (1969), Mario Bunge presenta algunos argumentos para mostrar que la Regla de Adición puede ocasionar paradojas o problemas semánticos. Posteriormente, Margáin (1972) y Robles (1976) mostraron que las afirmaciones de Bunge son insostenibles, al menos desde el punto de vista de la lógica clásica. Aunque estamos de acuerdo con las críticas de Margáin y Robles, no estamos de acuerdo en el diagnóstico del origen del problema y tampoco con la manera en la (...)
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  48. A Rossian Account of the Normativity of Logic.R. M. Farley & Deke Caiñas Gould - 2022 - Southwest Philosophy Review 38 (1):103-113.
    Normativism is the view that logic provides rules for correct reasoning. Some influential critics of normativism, such as Gilbert Harman, claim that logical rules provide reasoners with bad or misleading standards. Others, such as Gillian Russell, claim that logic is a descriptive subject and thus cannot, given Hume’s law, provide rules for reasoning. We think these critics are mistaken. Our aim in this paper is to defend normativism by sketching an alternative way of thinking about the normative force of logical (...)
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  49. On the Necessity of the Categories.Anil Gomes, Andrew Stephenson & Adrian Moore - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (2):129–168.
    For Kant, the human cognitive faculty has two sub-faculties: sensibility and the understanding. Each has pure forms which are necessary to us as humans: space and time for sensibility; the categories for the understanding. But Kant is careful to leave open the possibility of there being creatures like us, with both sensibility and understanding, who nevertheless have different pure forms of sensibility. They would be finite rational beings and discursive cognizers. But they would not be human. And this raises a (...)
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  50. Husserl on Kant and the critical view of logic.Mirja Hartimo - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (6):707-724.
    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to clarify Husserl’s critical remarks about Kant’s view of logic by comparing their respective views of logic. In his Formal and Transcendental Logic Husserl criticizes Kant for not asking transcendental questions about formal logic, but rather ascribing an ‘extraordinary apriority’ to it. He thinks the reason for Kant’s uncritical attitude to logic lies in Kant’s view of logic as directed toward the subjective, instead of being concerned with a ‘“world” of ideal Objects’. Whereas for Kant, general (...)
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