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  1. Conditionals, curry, and consequence: embracing deduction.Roy T. Cook & Nicholas Tourville - 2023 - Synthese 201 (2):1-27.
    We extend the Embracing Revenge account of the semantic paradoxes by constructing two distinct consequence relations that reflect, in different ways, the transfinitely-many-valued semantics developed in earlier work. In particular, we adapt the underlying ideas of “gappy” approaches based on K3, and “glutty” approaches based on LP, to the Embracing Revenge framework, by treating the infinitely many non-classical truth values as infinitely many ways that a sentence might fail to receive a classical truth value in the former case, and as (...)
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  2. Bernoulli Semantics and Ordinal Semantics for Conditionals.Stefan Kaufmann - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 52 (1):199-220.
    Conditionals with conditional constituents pose challenges for _the Thesis_, the idea that the probability of a conditional is the corresponding conditional probability. This note is concerned with two proposals for overcoming those challenges, both inspired by early work of van Fraassen: the _Bernoulli Semantics_ associated with Stalnaker and Jeffrey, and augmented with a mechanism for obtaining “local probabilities” by Kaufmann; and a proposal by Bacon which I dub _Ordinal Semantics_. Despite differences in mathematical details and emphasis of presentation, both proposals (...)
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  3. What a Clause Does: Raising Its Question and Answering It Too.Da Fan - 2021 - Dissertation, University of California, Davis
  4. Non-Propositionalism and The Suppositional Rule.Tom Beevers - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    It can often seem like the attitude we hold towards a conditional should be our attitude in the consequent on the supposition of the antecedent. Following by Williamson (Suppose and Tell: The Semantics and Heuristics of Conditionals. Oxford University Press, 2020), we call this The suppositional rule (SR). The Adams-style non-propositional theories of indicatives upholds some key implications of SR, allowing, for instance, our credence in a conditional to be the probability of the consequent given the antecedent. Williamson (Suppose and (...)
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  5. A Defence of Functional Kinds: Multiple Realisability and Explanatory Counterfactuals.Gareth Fuller - forthcoming - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science:1-15.
    In this paper, I defend an updated account of functional kinds, initially presented by Daniel Weiskopf, from the criticism that functional kinds will not qualify as scientific kinds. An important part of Weiskopf’s account is that functional kinds are multiply realisable. The criticisms I consider avoid discussion of multiple realisability. Instead, it is argued that functional kinds carry inferior counterfactual profiles when compared to other accounts of kinds. I respond to this charge by arguing that this criticism fails to take (...)
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  6. Causal and Evidential Conditionals.Mario Günther - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (4):613-626.
    We put forth an account for when to believe causal and evidential conditionals. The basic idea is to embed a causal model in an agent’s belief state. For the evaluation of conditionals seems to be relative to beliefs about both particular facts and causal relations. Unlike other attempts using causal models, we show that ours can account rather well not only for various causal but also evidential conditionals.
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  7. Philosophy as a system of conditionals.Edward Nieznański - 2020 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 56 (S1):85-93.
    Philosophical statements are often suppositions. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz proposes in Nouveaux Essais sur l’entendement humain, 1704, a method of the construction of assertive conditionals occurring between any philosophical suppositions. If we can infer a philosophical statement from any suppositions then the implication between these suppositions and the obtained statement is assertive. In the article, some examples of the application of Leibniz’s method are considered.
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  8. Spaces of real possibilities : counterfactuals and the impact of donors on the social sciences.Álvaro Morcillo Laiz - 2023 - In Didier Fassin & George Steinmetz (eds.), The Social Sciences in the Looking Glass: Studies in the Production of Knowledge. Duke University Press.
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  9. Connexivity and the Pragmatics of Conditionals.Andreas Kapsner - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (6):2745-2778.
    In this paper, I investigate whether the intuitions that make connexive logics seem plausible might lie in pragmatic phenomena, rather than the semantics of conditional statements. I conclude that pragmatics indeed underwrites these intuitions, at least for indicative statements. Whether this has any effect on logic choice (and what that effect might be), however, heavily depends on one’s semantic theory of conditionals and on how one chooses to logically treat pragmatic failures.
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  10. Logical connectives.Varol Akman - 2006 - In A. C. Grayling, Naomi Goulder & Andrew Pyle (eds.), The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy (4 volumes). London: Continuum. pp. 1939-1940.
    Logical connectives (otherwise known as 'logical constants' or 'logical particles') have seemed challenging to philosophers of language. This article gives a concise account of logical connectives.
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  11. ‘A Formula Which I Derived Many Years Ago’ Boole, Reichenbach and Popper on Probability and Conditionals.Hans Rott - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (4):383-390.
    This note presents a very brief history of the observation that the probability of the material conditional A⊃B is in general different from, but cannot be less than, the conditional probability of B given A. The difference between the two probabilities is significant for the interpretation of conditionals and for the possibility of inductive probability. It can be quantitatively specified in so-called ‘excess laws’ for which Popper appears to have claimed priority. I argue that such a priority claim should be (...)
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  12. Expression and expressivism. What would an expressivist semantics be? / Mark Richard ; Hard cases for combining expressivism and deflationist truth : conditionals and epistemic modals / Mark Schroeder ; Expression : acts, products, and meaning / Dorit Bar-On ; Global expressivism and the truth in representation / Allan Gibbard ; The limits of expressivism.Anandi Hattiangadi - 2015 - In Steven Gross, Nicholas Tebben & Michael Williams (eds.), Meaning Without Representation: Essays on Truth, Expression, Normativity, and Naturalism. Oxford University Press.
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  13. Notes on Foreknowledge, Truthmaking, and Counterfactuals from The Dead Zone.Tuomas W. Manninen - 2016 - In Jacob M. Held (ed.), Stephen King and Philosophy. Rowman & Littlefield.
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  14. Logic of Conditionals on Outback Trails.Johan van Benthem - forthcoming - Logic Journal of the IGPL.
    Conditional statements are ubiquitous, from promises and threats to reasoning and decision making. By now, logicians have studied them from many different angles, both semantic and proof-theoretic. This paper suggests two more perspectives on the meaning of conditionals, one dynamic and one geometric, that may throw yet more light on a familiar and yet in some ways surprisingly elusive and many-faceted notion.1.
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  15. Belief and Counterfactuals: A Study in Means-End Philosophy.Franz Huber - 2021 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    "This book is the first of two volumes on belief and counterfactuals. It consists of six of a total of eleven chapters. The first volume is concerned primarily with questions in epistemology and is expository in parts. Among others, it provides an accessible introduction to belief revision and ranking theory. Ranking theory specifies how conditional beliefs should behave. It does not tell us why they should do so nor what they are. This book fills these two gaps. The consistency argument (...)
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  16. Counterfactuals and Probability.Moritz Schulz - 2017 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Moritz Schulz explores counterfactual thought and language: what would have happened if things had gone a different way. Counterfactual questions may concern large scale derivations or small scale evaluations of minor derivations. A common impression, which receives a thorough defence in the book, is that oftentimes we find it impossible to know what would have happened. However, this does not mean that we are completely at a loss: we are typically capable of evaluating counterfactual questions probabilistically: we can say what (...)
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  17. DOUVEN, IGOR, The Epistemology of Indicative Conditionals. Formal and Empirical Approaches, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2016, 220 pp. [REVIEW]Carlos Ortiz de Landázuri - 2016 - Anuario Filosófico 49 (3):701-704.
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  18. Schiffer on Indeterminacy, Vagueness, and Conditionals.Dorothy Edgington - 2016 - In Gary Ostertag (ed.), Meanings and Other Things: Themes From the Work of Stephen Schiffer. Oxford University Press.
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  19. The argument from counterfactuals : counterfactuals, vagueness, and God.Alexander R. Pruss - 2018 - In Jerry L. Walls Trent Dougherty (ed.), Two Dozen (or so) Arguments for God: The Plantinga Project. Oxford University Press.
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  20. Paradoxy klasické logiky: filosofie a logika hypotetických vět.Vít Punčochář - 2019 - Praha: Filosofia.
    The book is mainly concerned with the problem of the logical analysis of hypothetical (conditional) statements.
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  21. Counterfactuals: paths of the might have been.Christopher Prendergast - 2019 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
    What are counterfactuals and what is their point? In many cases, none at all. It may be true that if kangaroos didn't have tails, they would fall over, but they do have tails and if they didn't they wouldn't be kangaroos (or would they?). This is the sort of thing that can give counterfactuals a bad name, as inhabitants of a La La Land of the mind. On the other hand, counterfactuals do useful service across a broad range of disciplines (...)
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  22. The science of can and can't: a physicist's journey through the land of counterfactuals.Chiara Marletto - 2021 - New York: Viking Press.
    There is a vast class of things that science has so far almost entirely neglected. They are central to the understanding of physical reality both at an everyday level and at the level of the most fundamental phenomena in physics, yet have traditionally been assumed to be impossible to incorporate into fundamental scientific explanations. They are facts not about what is--the actual--but about what could be: counterfactuals. According to physicist Chiara Marletto, laws about things being possible or impossible may generate (...)
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  23. If this / then that.Teddy Borth - 2022 - Minneapolis, Minnesota: Cody Koala, an imprint of Pop!.
    This title introduces the concept of "if this, then that" in coding by using relatable real-world examples. Vivid photographs and easy-to-read text aid comprehension for early readers. Features include an infographic, fun facts, Making Connections questions, a glossary, and an index. QR Codes in the book give readers access to book-specific resources to further their learning.
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  24. Williamson on conditionals and testimony.Karolina Krzyżanowska & Igor Douven - 2023 - Philosophical Studies 180 (1):121-131.
    In _Suppose and Tell_, Williamson makes a new case for the material conditional account. He tries to explain away apparently countervailing data by arguing that these have been misinterpreted because researchers have overlooked the role of heuristics in the processing of conditionals. Cases involving the receipt of apparently conflicting conditionals play an important dialectical role in Williamson’s book: they are supposed to provide evidence for the material conditional account as well as for the defeasibility of a key procedure underlying our (...)
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  25. Characterizing Counterfactuals and Dependencies over (Generalized) Causal Teams.Fausto Barbero & Fan Yang - 2022 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 63 (3):301-341.
    We analyze the causal-observational languages that were introduced in Barbero and Sandu (2018), which allow discussing interventionist counterfactuals and functional dependencies in a unified framework. In particular, we systematically investigate the expressive power of these languages in causal team semantics, and we provide complete natural deduction calculi for each language. Furthermore, we introduce a generalized semantics which allows representing uncertainty about the causal laws, and we analyze the expressive power and proof theory of the causal-observational languages over this enriched semantics.
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  26. Laws of nature, natural necessity, and counterfactual conditionals.Marc Lange - 2018 - In Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. Routledge.
  27. Counterfactual conditionals.Dorothy Edgington - 2018 - In Otávio Bueno & Scott A. Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. Routledge.
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  28. Counterfactuals and probability.Robert Stalnaker - 2021 - In Lee Walters & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conditionals, Paradox, and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington. Oxford University press.
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  29. Counterfactuals to the rescue.Cleo Condoravdi - 2021 - In Lee Walters & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conditionals, Paradox, and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington. Oxford University press.
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  30. Chasing hook : quantified indicative conditionals.Angelika Kratzer - 2021 - In Lee Walters & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conditionals, Paradox, and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington. Oxford University press.
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  31. A note on conditionals and restrictors.Daniel Rothschild - 2021 - In Lee Walters & John Hawthorne (eds.), Conditionals, Paradox, and Probability: Themes from the Philosophy of Dorothy Edgington. Oxford University press.
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  32. Bayesians Still Don’t Learn from Conditionals.Mario Günther & Borut Trpin - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-13.
    One of the open questions in Bayesian epistemology is how to rationally learn from indicative conditionals (Douven, 2016). Eva et al. (Mind 129(514):461–508, 2020) propose a strategy to resolve this question. They claim that their strategy provides a “uniquely rational response to any given learning scenario”. We show that their updating strategy is neither very general nor always rational. Even worse, we generalize their strategy and show that it still fails. Bad news for the Bayesians.
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  33. Dutch‐Booking Indicative Conditionals.Melissa Fusco - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Recent literature on Stalnaker's Thesis, which seeks to vindicate it from Lewis (1976)'s triviality results, has featured linguistic data that is prima facie incompatible with Conditionalization in iterated cases (McGee 1989, 2000; Kaufmann 2015; Khoo & Santorio, 2018). In a recent paper (2021), Goldstein & Santorio make a bold claim: they hold that these departures light the way to a new, non-conditionalizing theory of rational update.Here, I consider whether this new form of update is subject to a Dutch book. On (...)
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  34. Modality and Counterfactuals: Understanding the Role and Context of Metaphysical Underpinnings for Harm, Benefit and Identity Claims Arising from Genome Editing and Genetic Modification.Anthony Wrigley - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (9):52-54.
    Deriving ethical conclusions from arguments that rely heavily on metaphysical foundations, as Parfit (1984) does in generating his Nonidentity Problem, is an approach fraught with problems. Sparrow...
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  35. How to gain evidence for causation in disease and therapeutic intervention: from Koch’s postulates to counter-counterfactuals.David W. Evans - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (3):509-521.
    Researchers, clinicians, and patients have good reasons for wanting answers to causal questions of disease and therapeutic intervention. This paper uses microbiologist Robert Koch’s pioneering work and famous postulates to extrapolate a logical sequence of evidence for confirming the causes of disease: association between individuals with and without a disease; isolation of causal agents; and the creation of a counterfactual. This paper formally introduces counter-counterfactuals, which appear to have been used, perhaps intuitively, since the time of Koch and possibly earlier. (...)
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  36. Two-sided Sequent Calculi for FDE-like Four-valued Logics.Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-24.
    We present a method that generates two-sided sequent calculi for four-valued logics like "first degree entailment" (FDE). (We say that a logic is FDE-like if it has finitely many operators of finite arity, including negation, and if all of its operators are truth-functional over the four truth-values 'none', 'false', 'true', and 'both', where 'true' and 'both' are designated.) First, we show that for every n-ary operator * every truth table entry f*(x1,...,xn) = y can be characterized in terms of a (...)
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  37. Claro R. Ceniza on Conditionals, Probability, and Modality.Jeremiah Joven Joaquin - 2022 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy 23 (2):235-261.
    Claro R. Ceniza [1927-2001] is arguably one of the best philosophers that the Philippines has ever produced. However, it is quite unfortunate that some of his important contributions are not that well-known. This paper aims to rectify this by presenting an evaluation of his original insights on three outstanding problems in philosophy, viz., the paradoxes of material implication, the nature of probability, and the metaphysics of modality.
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  38. Truth, Marks of Truth, and Conditionals.Ian Rumfitt - 2022 - Philosophy 97 (3):295-320.
    This essay assesses the account of truth presented in Wiggins's 2002 paper ‘An indefinibilist cum normative view of truth and the marks of truth'. I agree with Wiggins that we should seek, not to define truth, but to elucidate it by unfolding its connections with other basic notions. However, I give reasons for preferring an elucidation based on Ramsey's account of truth to Wiggins's Tarski-inspired approach. I also cast doubt on Wiggins's thesis that convergence is a mark of truth, arguing (...)
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  39. Considering the exceptions: on the failure of cumulative transitivity for indicative conditionals.Ryan Simonelli - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-21.
    According to existing accounts of indicative conditionals, any argument of the following form is valid: ϕ → ψ, ( ϕ ∧ ψ ) → χ ∴ ϕ → χ. Here, I present a set of counterexamples to show that there exist invalid arguments of this form. I argue that this data poses serious problems to variably strict accounts of conditionals, as such accounts are structurally unable to accommodate it. Dynamic strict accounts, however, are a different story. While existing dynamic strict (...)
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  40. Conditionals: Logic, Linguistics and Psychology.Stefan Kaufmann, Over David & Ghanshyam Sharma (eds.) - 2022 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This edited book examines conditionals from a number of interdisciplinary perspectives, drawing on research from fields as diverse as linguistics, psychology, philosophy and logic. Across 13 chapters, the authors not only investigate and examine various commonly-held perceptions about conditionals, but they also challenge many of the assumptions underpinning current conditionals scholarship, setting an agenda for future research. Based in part on the papers presented at a unique international summer school - Conditionals in Paris - this volume represents the cutting edge (...)
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  41. Correction: Towards a theory of abduction based on conditionals.Rolf Pfister - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-1.
  42. The Meaning of "If".Justin Khoo - 2022 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Despite its small stature, "if" occupies a central place both in everyday language and the philosophical lexicon. In allowing us to talk about hypothetical situations, "if" raises a host of thorny philosophical puzzles about language and logic. Addressing them requires tools from linguistics, logic, probability theory, and metaphysics. Justin Khoo uses these tools to navigate a maze of interconnected issues about conditionals, some of which include: the nature of linguistic communication, the relationship between logical and natural languages, and the relationship (...)
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  43. Indicative Conditionals and the Expressive Conception of Logic.Spencer Paulson - 2022 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 3 (1):33-48.
    It is often thought that the test for whether an indicative conditional is assertible is to first suppose the antecedent and then check to see if the consequent is probable on that supposition. Call this procedure the “Ramsey Test”. Some influential accounts of indicative conditionals hold that the Ramsey Test works because indicative conditionals are used to express a high credence in the consequent conditional on the antecedent. In this paper I will argue that a different expressivist account, one inspired (...)
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  44. Valid Arguments as True Conditionals.Andrea Iacona - forthcoming - Mind.
    This paper explores an idea of Stoic descent that is largely neglected nowadays, the idea that an argument is valid when the conditional formed by the conjunction of its premises as antecedent and its conclusion as consequent is true. As it will be argued, once some basic features of our naıve understanding of validity are properly spelled out, and a suitable account of conditionals is adopted, the equivalence between valid arguments and true conditionals makes perfect sense. The account of validity (...)
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  45. Suppose and Tell: The Semantics and Heuristics of Conditionals: Timothy Williamson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. viii + 278 pp. £30.00. ISBN 978-0-19-886066-2.Dorothy Edgington - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (2):188-195.
    Conditional judgements—judgements employing ‘if’—are essential to practical reasoning about what to do, as well as to much reasoning about what is the case. We handle them well enough from an early...
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  46. Non-strict Interventionism: The Case Of Right-Nested Counterfactuals.Katrin Schulz, Sonja Smets, Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada & Kaibo Xie - 2022 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 31 (2):235-260.
    The paper focuses on a recent challenge brought forward against the interventionist approach to the meaning of counterfactual conditionals. According to this objection, interventionism cannot account for the interpretation of right-nested counterfactuals, the problem being its strict interventionism. We will report on the results of an empirical study supporting the objection. Furthermore, we will extend the well-known logic of intervention with a new operator expressing an alternative notion of intervention that does away with strict interventionism. This new notion of intervention (...)
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  47. A graph model for probabilities of nested conditionals.Anna Wójtowicz & Krzysztof Wójtowicz - 2022 - Linguistics and Philosophy 45 (3):511-558.
    We define a model for computing probabilities of right-nested conditionals in terms of graphs representing Markov chains. This is an extension of the model for simple conditionals from Wójtowicz and Wójtowicz. The model makes it possible to give a formal yet simple description of different interpretations of right-nested conditionals and to compute their probabilities in a mathematically rigorous way. In this study we focus on the problem of the probabilities of conditionals; we do not discuss questions concerning logical and metalogical (...)
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  48. Conditionals, Causal Claims and Objectivity.Michał Sikorski - 2020 - Dissertation, Università di Torino
    In my thesis, I develop two distinct themes. The first part of my thesis is devoted to indicative conditionals and approaching them from an empirically informed perspective. In the second part, I am developing classical topics of philosophy of science, specifically, scientific objectivity and the role of values in science, in connection to recent methodological developments, revolving around the Replication Crisis.
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  49. Acceptance and Certainty, Doxastic Modals, and Indicative Conditionals.Kurt Norlin - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (5):951-971.
    I give a semantics for a logic with two pairs of doxastic modals and an indicative conditional connective that all nest without restriction. Sentences are evaluated as accepted, rejected, or neither. Certainty is the necessity-like modality of acceptance. Inferences may proceed from premises that are certain, or merely accepted, or a mix of both. This semantic setup yields some striking results. Notably, the existence of inferences that preserve certainty but not acceptance very directly implies both failure of modus ponens for (...)
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  50. Towards a theory of abduction based on conditionals.Rolf Pfister - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-30.
    Abduction is considered the most powerful, but also the most controversially discussed type of inference. Based on an analysis of Peirce’s retroduction, Lipton’s Inference to the Best Explanation and other theories, a new theory of abduction is proposed. It considers abduction not as intrinsically explanatory but as intrinsically conditional: for a given fact, abduction allows one to infer a fact that implies it. There are three types of abduction: Selective abduction selects an already known conditional whose consequent is the given (...)
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