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Summary Kant's thought about logic is at once central to his own philosophical system and also stands at a key transitional moment in the broader history of logic and philosophy of logic.  Kant conceives of logic as the science of our understanding, which means that it is tasked with discovering the basic kinds of activities that our understanding is capable of (formal logic), as well as the basic kinds of representational contents (concepts) that our understanding makes use of in these acts (transcendental logic).  Because forming a science is itself one of these acts, and because philosophy itself is intended to be a science, Kant thinks that logic provides philosophy with the core blueprint of its structure -- a thought exemplified by his famous organizational 'Tables', and picked up by later German Idealists (among others).  Yet because Kant thinks that our minds are capable of more than just understanding, both in terms of the kinds of its activity and in terms of the representational contents it can engage with, Kant thinks that the knowledge provided within logic is sharply limited.  Critically revisiting these alleged restrictions provided inspiration for many of those responsible for the most influential developments in the subsequent history of logic (such as Bolzano, Frege, and Russell).
Key works Despite its central importance for his philosophical system, Kant himself did not publish a separate work on logic during his lifetime.  Nevertheless, Kant does present his views on logic in almost all of his most important theoretical writings, including Kant 1998, and works collected in Kant 2002 and Kant 2002.  What is more, Kant lectured on logic throughout the entirety of his career, and the surviving student transcripts of some of these lectures provide us with a further window into Kant's thought about logic, some of which are collected in Kant 1992.  Finally, the vast collection of notes and fragments that Kant left after his death contain many brief discussions about logic, some of which can be found in Kant 2005.
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  1. Kant’s Account of Epistemic Normativity.Reza Hadisi - forthcoming - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie.
    According to a common interpretation, most explicitly defended by Onora O’Neill and Patricia Kitcher, Kant held that epistemic obligations normatively depend on moral obligations. That is, were a rational agent not bound by any moral obligation, then she would not be bound by any epistemic obligation either. By contrast, in this paper, I argue that, according to Kant, some epistemic obligations are normatively independent from moral obligations, and are indeed normatively absolute. This view, which I call epistemicism, has two parts. (...)
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  2. Kant, Frege, and the Normativity of Logic: MacFarlane 's Argument for Common Ground.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):988-1009.
  3. Transcendental Knowability and A Priori Luminosity.Andrew Stephenson - 2021 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 25 (1):134-162.
    This paper draws out and connects two neglected issues in Kant’s conception of a priori knowledge. Both concern topics that have been important to contemporary epistemology and to formal epistemology in particular: knowability and luminosity. Does Kant commit to some form of knowability principle according to which certain necessary truths are in principle knowable to beings like us? Does Kant commit to some form of luminosity principle according to which, if a subject knows a priori, then they can know that (...)
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  4. Definición de verdad y criterios de verdad en Kant.Stéfano Straulino - 2020 - Con-Textos Kantianos 11:132-159.
    On the few occasions that Kant addresses the subject of truth, he usually does so in relation to the problems involved in the nominal definition of truth and in the search for a truth criterion. The aim of this paper is to provide a synoptic view of the way in which Kant poses these two issues. In the first section of the paper I address the topic of the definition of truth. I begin by explaining what a definition is and (...)
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  5. Immanuel Kant: Logic.Srećko Kovač - 2020 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The article focuses on Kant's formal logic (formal theory of concepts, judgments, and inference, general methodology) in the systematic order of logical forms and presents the main characteristics of his transcendental logic (theory of categories and transcendental ideas). Kant's problem of the foundations of logic and its completeness is addressed. The relevance and influence of Kant's account of logic in the development of modern logic is outlined. The article gives a selection of primary and secondary sources.
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  6. Kant and the Science of Logic. A Historical and Philosophical Reconstruction: Huaping Lu-Adler, New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. Xxiv + 244 Pp., Hardback $74.00. ISBN 9780190907143.Maja Schepelmann - 2019 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (1):96-97.
    Volume 41, Issue 1, February 2020, Page 96-97.
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  7. Kant and the Science of Logic: Huaping Lu-Adler, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018, Pp. 272, £47.99 (Hb), ISBN: 978-0190907136.Charles Cooper-Simpson - 2020 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 28 (1):207-209.
    Volume 28, Issue 1, January 2020, Page 207-209.
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  8. Review of Huaping Lu-Adler, Kant and the Science of Logic. [REVIEW]Colin McQuillan - 2019 - Review of Metaphysics 73:375-378.
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  9. Kant’s Innovative Theory of Judgment and Cognition in the False Subtlety of Syllogistic Figures.Mihaela Vatavu - 2019 - Kant Studien 110 (4):527-553.
    Kant’s early work The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures is typically considered a narrow, technical work still embedded in the tradition of Wolffian logic. I argue instead that it needs to be considered in light of Kant’s developing theory of cognition and his corresponding criticism of the Wolffian single faculty theory. Whereas the mature Kant criticizes the rationalists for misrepresenting the nature of sensibility, the urgent task facing him at this stage seems to have been a proper determination (...)
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  10. Huaping Lu-Adler, Kant and the Science of Logic: A Historical and Philosophical Reconstruction Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018 Pp. 272 ISBN 9780190907136 £47.99. [REVIEW]Hyoung Sung Kim - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (4):663-668.
  11. Kant on the Possibilities of Mathematics and the Scope and Limits of Logic.Frode Kjosavik - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (6):683-706.
    ABSTRACT I suggest how a broadly Kantian critique of classical logic might spring from reflections on constructibility conditions. According to Kant, mathematics is concerned with objects that are given through ‘arbitrary synthesis,’ in the form of ‘constructions of concepts’ in the medium of ‘pure intuition.’ Logic, by contrast, is narrowly constrained – it has no objects of its own and is fixed by the very forms of thought. That is why there is not much room for developments within logic, as (...)
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  12. Clayton Bohnet, Logic and the Limits of Philosophy in Kant and Hegel Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 Pp. 280 ISBN 9781137521743 $95.00. [REVIEW]Paul T. Wilford - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (3):507-510.
  13. Kant on the Logical Form of Singular Judgments.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (3):367-92.
    At A71/B96–7 Kant explains that singular judgements are ‘special’ because they stand to the general ones as Einheit to Unendlichkeit. The reference to Einheit brings to mind the category of unity and hence raises a spectre of circularity in Kant’s explanation. I aim to remove this spectre by interpreting the Einheit-Unendlichkeit contrast in light of the logical distinctions among universal, particular and singular judgments shared by Kant and his logician predecessors. This interpretation has a further implication for resolving a controversy (...)
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  14. Epigenesis of Pure Reason and the Source of Pure Cognitions.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2018 - In Pablo Muchnik & Oliver Thorndike (eds.), Rethinking Kant Vol.5. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 35-70.
    Kant describes logic as “the science that exhaustively presents and strictly proves nothing but the formal rules of all thinking”. (Bviii-ix) But what is the source of our cognition of such rules (“logical cognition” for short)? He makes no concerted effort to address this question. It will nonetheless become clear that the question is a philosophically significant one for him, to which he can see three possible answers: those representations are innate, derived from experience, or originally acquired a priori. Although (...)
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  15. Kant’s Rejection of Leibniz’s Principle and the Individuality of Quantum Objects.Cord Friebe - 2017 - Kant Yearbook 9 (1):1-18.
    Kant rejects Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles. In quantum mechanics, Leibniz’s principle is also apparently violated. However, both ways of rejecting the PII differ significantly. In particular, Kant denies that spatiotemporal objects are unique individuals and establishes appearances as merely singular ones. The distinction between ‘unique’ and ‘singular’ individuals is crucial for the role that intuition plays in cognition: it will be shown that Kant’s way of rejecting the PII goes against the standard versions of conceptualism and non-conceptualism (...)
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  16. Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason" Within the Tradition of Modern Logic. [REVIEW]Alfredo Ferrarin - 1997 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (3):472-474.
  17. Ein Kollegienheft von Kants Vorlesungen über Logik. Vorläufige Mitteilung von W. Jerusalem-Wien.Bruno Bauch - 1913 - Kant Studien 18:538.
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  18. Barthel, Elemente der Transendentalen Logik. [REVIEW]Bruno Bauch - 1913 - Kant Studien 18:531.
  19. Denkgesetze und Erkenntnisformen.J. Lapschin - 1909 - Kant Studien 14:89.
  20. A. Bäumler, Das Irrationalitätsproblem in der Ästhetik Und Logik des 18. Jahrhunderts Bis Zur Kritik der Urteilskraft, Nachdruck. [REVIEW]R. Malter - 1979 - Kant Studien 70 (2):238.
  21. K. Reich, Die Vollständigkeit der Kantischen Urteilstafel. Dritte Auflage. [REVIEW]R. Malter - 1989 - Kant Studien 80 (4):498.
  22. M. Scheler, Beiträge zur Feststellung der Beziehungen zwischen den logischen und ethischen Prinzipien. [REVIEW]F. Medicus - 1901 - Kant Studien 6:320.
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  23. Ziehen, Theodor, Lehrbuch der Logik auf positivistischer Grundlage mit Berücksichtigung der Geschichte der Logik.Wilhelm Koppelmann - 1921 - Kant Studien 26:208.
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  24. Die Kategorie Individualität im Rahmen der Kategorienlehre Kants.Hans Driesch - 1911 - Kant Studien 16:22.
  25. Eine Aporie der Logik des Verstehens.J. Schmucker - 1971 - Kant Studien 62 (3):392.
  26. G. Schneeberger, Kants Konzeption der Modalbegriffe. [REVIEW]E. K. Specht - 1954 - Kant Studien 46:189.
  27. Zwei textkritische Miscellen. 1. Zur Falschen Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren. 2. Zur Logik. Von H. Spitzer. [REVIEW]J. W. A. Hickson - 1902 - Kant Studien 7:474.
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  28. Über die transzendentale und logische Topik in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Die Überwindung der Logik der formalen Identität.A. Lamacchia - 1974 - Kant Studien 65 (Sonderheft):113.
  29. D. L. Bäschlin, Schopenhauers Einwand gegen Kants Transzendentale Deduktion der Kategorien. [REVIEW]R. Malter - 1970 - Kant Studien 61 (2):260.
  30. Reich, Klaus, Die Vollständigkeit der Kantischen Urteilstafel. [REVIEW]Anneliese Maier - 1934 - Kant Studien 39:83.
  31. Kinkel, Walter, Immanuel Kants Logik. Hrsg. Von B. Jäsche. III. Aufl. Hrsg. Von W. Kinkel. [REVIEW]A. Höfler - 1906 - Kant Studien 11:126.
  32. M. L. Miles, Logik und Metaphysik bei Kant. [REVIEW]W. Steinbeck - 1986 - Kant Studien 77 (2):260.
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  33. Der Begriff des transscendentalen Gegenstandes bei Kant - und Schopenhauers Kritik desselben. Eine Rechtfertigung Kants. I.Mscislaw Wartenberg - 1900 - Kant Studien 4 (1-3):202.
  34. S. Takeda, Kant und das Problem der Analogie. [REVIEW]M. Kleinschnieder - 1971 - Kant Studien 62 (2):253.
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  35. Wie sind analytische Sätze a priori möglich? , Die analytischen Sätze und die Grundlagen der Wissenschaft).D. J. Schulz - 1967 - Kant Studien 58 (4):499.
  36. Toward a Theory of the Pragmatic A Priori: From Carnap to Lewis and Beyond.Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 16:113-132.
    The notion of the a priori is an important legacy of Kant for modern philosophy of science. In the course of the 20th century, a variety of proposals was put forward all of which claimed to overcome the inadequacies of Kant’s original proposal of a synthetic a priori for modern science.
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  37. Logische und grammatische Form in der Präädikatenlogik –– Anmerkungen zu einem „„Gedanken““ Axel Büühlers.Michael Wolff - 2010 - Kant Studien 101 (3):352-376.
    This article defends the view that the logical vocabulary of syllogistic is sufficient for representing the logical form of rules and laws of non-syllogistic predicate logic. This representation requires replacement only of the descriptive vocabulary of syllogistic by non-syllogistic descriptive signs. The validity of rules and laws of modern predicate logic rests on the validity of rules and laws which can without exception be represented in the formal language of syllogistic. Expressions of this language are representations of logical form. Frege's (...)
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  38. Formalism of Kant’s A Priori Versus Scheler’s Material A Priori.Imtiaz Moosa - 1995 - International Studies in Philosophy 27 (2):33-47.
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  39. Some Difficulties in Kant’s Conception of Formal Logic.Thomas M. Seebohm - 1995 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress 1:567-581.
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  40. Kant on Opinion: Assent, Hypothesis, and the Norms of General Applied Logic.Lawrence Pasternack - 2014 - Kant Studien 105 (1):41-82.
    Kant identifies knowledge [Wissen], belief [Glaube], and opinion [Meinung] as our three primary modes of “holding-to-be-true” [Fürwahrhalten]. He also identifies opinion as making up the greatest part of our cognition. After a preliminary sketch of Kant’s system of propositional attitudes, this paper will explore what he says about the norms governing opinion and empirical hypotheses. The final section will turn to what, in the Critique of Pure Reason and elsewhere, Kant refers to as “General Applied Logic”. It concerns the “contingent (...)
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  41. Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism.Alberto Coffa - 1982 - Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
  42. Can Kant's Synthetic Judgements Be Made Analytic?Anthony Anderson & Lewis White Beck - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (1):167.
  43. Kant on Concepts: Or, Was Kant Frege?Sarah Tietz - unknown
  44. Kant and the Problem of Existential Judgment: Critical Comments on Wayne Martin’s Theories of Judgment.Günter Zöller - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 137 (1):121-134.
    The paper assesses Martin’s recent logico-phenomenological account of judgment that is cast in the form of an eclectic history of judging, from Hume and Kant through the 19th century to Frege and Heidegger as well as current neuroscience. After a preliminary discussion of the complex unity and temporal modalities of judgment that draws on a reading of Titian’s “Allegory of Prudence”, the remainder of the paper focuses on Martin’s views on Kant’s logic in general and his theory of singular existential (...)
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  45. The Mistaken Simplicity of Kant’s Enthymematic Treatment of the Second and Third Figures.Kirk D. Wilson - 1975 - Kant Studien 66 (1-4):404.
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  46. Die transscendentale Deduktion der Kategorien in Kants „Kritik der reinen Vernunft”.Eduard Zwermann - 1901 - Kant Studien 5 (1-3).
  47. Kant on Proving Aristotle’s Logic as Complete.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2016 - Kantian Review 21 (1):1-26.
    Kant claims that Aristotles logic as complete, explain the historical and philosophical considerations that commit him to proving the completeness claim and sketch the proof based on materials from his logic corpus. The proof will turn out to be an integral part of Kant’s larger reform of formal logic in response to a foundational crisis facing it.
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  48. Die Logik und ihr Spiegelbild: Das Verhältnis von formaler und transzendentaler Logik in Kants philosophischer Entwicklung.Maria Jesús Vásquez Lobeiras - 1998 - Lang.
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  49. Questions of Form: Logic and Analytic Proposition From Kant to Carnap.Anastasios Albert Brenner (ed.) - 1989 - Minneapolis, MN, USA: Univ of Minnesota Press.
    _Questions of Form _was first published in 1989. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. In _Questions on Form_, Joelle Proust traces the concept of the analytic proposition from Kant's development of the notion down to its place in the work of Rudolf Carnap, a founder of logical empiricism and a key figure in contemporary analytic philosophy. Using a method known in France (...)
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  50. Lectures on Logic.J. Michael Young (ed.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's views on logic and logical theory play an important part in his critical writings, especially the Critique of Pure Reason. However, since he published only one short essay on the subject, we must turn to texts derived from his logic lectures to understand his views. This volume includes three previously untranslated transcripts of Kant's logic lectures: the Blomberg Logic, the Vienna Logic supplemented by the recently discovered Hechsel Logic, and the Dohna-Wundlacken Logic. Also included is a new translation of (...)
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