# Logic and Philosophy of Logic, Miscellaneous

Edited by Nicole Wyatt (University of Calgary)
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1. Transcendental Logic and the Logic of Thought.Dennis Schulting - 2021 - Studi Kantiani 34 (1):115-126.
In this paper, I reflect on the idea, hinted at by Kant in a footnote to §16 of the B- Deduction that is not often discussed (KrV B 134n.), that transcendental logic is the ground of logic as a whole. This has important repercussions for the way we should see the role of transcendental logic with respect to the question of truth as well as the nature and scope of transcendental logic in relation to cognition, and in relation to general (...)

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2. Arbitrary Reference in Logic and Mathematics.Massimiliano Carrara & Enrico Martino - 2024 - Springer Cham (Synthese Library 490).

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3. Effective Inseparability, Lattices, and Preordering Relations.Uri Andrews & Andrea Sorbi - 2021 - Review of Symbolic Logic 14 (4):838-865.
We study effectively inseparable (abbreviated as e.i.) prelattices (i.e., structures of the form$L = \langle \omega, \wedge, \vee,0,1,{ \le _L}\rangle$whereωdenotes the set of natural numbers and the following four conditions hold: (1)$\wedge, \vee$are binary computable operations; (2)${ \le _L}$is a computably enumerable preordering relation, with$0{ \le _L}x{ \le _L}1$for everyx; (3) the equivalence relation${ \equiv _L}$originated by${ \le _L}$is a congruence onLsuch that the corresponding quotient structure is a nontrivial bounded lattice; (4) the${ \equiv _L}$-equivalence classes of 0 and 1 (...)

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4. Aristotle, Term Logic, and QUARC.Jonas Raab - 2024 - In George Englebretsen (ed.), New Directions in Term Logic. London: College Publications. pp. 427-503.
Aristotle counts as the founder of formal logic. The logic he develops dominated until Frege and others introduced a new logic. This new logic is taken to be more powerful and better capable of capturing inference patterns. The new logic differs from Aristotelian logic in significant respects. It has been argued by Fred Sommers and Hanoch Ben-Yami that the new logic is not well equipped as a logic of natural language, and that a logic closer to Aristotle's is better suited (...)

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5. New Directions in Term Logic.George Englebretsen (ed.) - 2024 - London: College Publications.
The systematic account of deductive reasoning and the development of a formal logic to reveal the principles of such reasoning began with Aristotle's syllogistic. It was a term logic, a logic that dominated the field until the rise of modern predicate logic at the end of the Nineteenth century. That system quickly supplanted the old logic of terms. However, in the middle of the Twentieth century Fred Sommers took up the challenge to build a revised and strengthened term logic, one (...)
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6. I argue for a transformative revival or actualization of the very core of an integrative, methodologically secured form of intellect‑mystical asceticism. This approach draws on traditional sources that are re‑examined from a systematic—synthetic and transcultural—philosophical perspective and in light of the multi‑civilizational global environment of the 21st century. The main traditional points of reference in this paper are provided by Nicolaus de Cusa and Ibn Sīnā, and I refer toa few others, such as Attar of Nishapur, in passing. I begin (...)

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7. Deductive Computing over Knowledge Bases: Prolog and Datalog.Luis M. Augusto - 2024 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 5 (1):1-62.
Knowledge representation (KR) is actually more than representation: It involves also inference, namely inference of “new” knowledge, i.e. new facts. Logic programming is a suitable KR medium, but more often than not discussions on this programming paradigm focus on aspects other than KR. In this paper, I elaborate on the general theory of logic programming and give the essentials of two of its main implementations, to wit, Prolog and Datalog, from the viewpoint of deductive computing over knowledge bases, which includes (...)

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8. Universal Logic, Ethics, and Truth.Jean- Timothy J. Madigan & Jean-Yves Beziau (eds.) - 2024 - Birkhäuser.
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9. Temporalism and Eternalism Reconsidered: Perceptual Experience, Memory, and Knowledge.Tamer Nawar - 2024 - Synthese 203 (6):1-20.
Traditional debates between semantic temporalists and eternalists appeal to the efficacy of temporal operators and the intuitive (in)validity of instances of temporal reasoning. In this paper, I argue that such debates are inconclusive at best and that under-explored arguments concerning perceptual experience, memory, and knowledge offer more productive means of advancing debates between temporalists and eternalists and rendering salient several significant potential costs and benefits of these views.

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10. Ācārya Devasena’s Ālāpa Paddhati – The Ways of Verbal Expression श्रीमदाचार्य देवसेन विरचित आलाप पद्धति.Vijay K. Jain - 2024 - Dehradun, India: Vijay Kumar Jain.
Ālāpa Paddhati, composed by Ācārya Devasena (c. tenth century, Vikrama Samvat) is a Jaina text primarily on the topics of the standpoints (naya) and the secondary-standpoints (upanaya). It also delves into the substances (dravya), their qualities or attributes (guṇa), modes (paryāya), and nature (svabhāva). It is true that without appreciating the import and applicability of the individual standpoints (naya), one may get lost in the complex maze of the standpoints and cause great harm to one’s understanding, and even to one’s (...)

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11. Complex Logic.Boris Dernovoy - manuscript
Complex logic is a novel logical framework, which formalizes the semantics of the categories of matter, space, and time in a system of logic that operates with complex logical objects. A complex logical object represents a superposition of a logical statement and its logical negation positioning any statement co-relatively to its logical negation. In the system of logical notations, where S is a logical statement and Not S is its logical negation, complex logic includes co-relative logical positions of S and (...)

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12. (What) Is Feminist Logic? (What) Do We Want It to Be?Catharine Saint-Croix & Roy T. Cook - 2024 - History and Philosophy of Logic 45 (1):20-45.
‘Feminist logic’ may sound like an impossible, incoherent, or irrelevant project, but it is none of these. We begin by delineating three categories into which projects in feminist logic might fall: philosophical logic, philosophy of logic, and pedagogy. We then defuse two distinct objections to the very idea of feminist logic: the irrelevance argument and the independence argument. Having done so, we turn to a particular kind of project in feminist philosophy of logic: Valerie Plumwood's feminist argument for a relevance (...)

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13. (3 other versions)Relational Belief.Nathan Salmón - 1995 - In Paolo Leonardi & Marco Santambrogio (eds.), Metaphysics, Mathemeatics, and Meaning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 206-228.
14. The MultiAlist System of Thought (philosophical essay).Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 61:598-605.
The goal of this short note is to expand the concepts of ‘pluralism’, ‘neutrosophy’, ‘refined neutrosophy’, ‘refined neutrosophic set’, ‘multineutrosophic set’, and ‘plithogeny’ (Smarandache 2002, 2013, 2017, 2019, 2021, 2023a, 2023b, 2023c), into a larger category that I will refer to as MultiAlism (or MultiPolar). As a straightforward generalization, I propose the conceptualization of a MultiPolar System (different from a PluriPolar System), which is formed not only by multiple elements that might be random, or contradictory, or adjuvant, but also by (...)

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15. Logic-Language-Ontology.Urszula B. Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2022 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature, Birkhäuser, Studies in Universal Logic series.
The book is a collection of papers and aims to unify the questions of syntax and semantics of language, which are included in logic, philosophy and ontology of language. The leading motif of the presented selection of works is the differentiation between linguistic tokens (material, concrete objects) and linguistic types (ideal, abstract objects) following two philosophical trends: nominalism (concretism) and Platonizing version of realism. The opening article under the title “The Dual Ontological Nature of Language Signs and the Problem of (...)

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16. The Real Distinction between Supposit and Nature in Angels in Thomas Aquinas.Elliot Polsky - forthcoming - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
It is universally acknowledged that, for St. Thomas, there is a distinction between human persons or supposits and their natures or essences. But it is usually thought that there is no parallel distinction between the angelic person or supposit and its nature. Yet, as this paper argues, Aquinas consistently puts forward just such a distinction. This paper surveys Aquinas’s arguments for the unique identity of God with his essence and the corresponding distinctions between created persons and their essences, showing in (...)

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17. Special issue in honour of Landon Rabern. This special issue of Discrete Mathematics is dedicated to his memory, as a tribute to his many research achievements. It contains 10 new articles written by his collaborators, friends, and colleagues that showcase his interests.

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18. Why inconsistent intentional states underlie our grasp of objects.Rea Golan - 2024 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 62 (2):178-192.
Several authors maintain that we are capable of having inconsistent intentional states, either in cases of illusion, in certain cases of imagination, or because the observable world is (partly) inconsistent and we perceive it as such. These views are all premised on the assumption that inconsistent intentional states—even if acknowledged—are peculiar and have nothing essential to do with our perceptual capacities. In the present article, I would like to present, and argue for, a much stronger thesis: that inconsistent intentional states (...)

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19. Transitivity When the Same are Distinct.Eric de Araujo - 2022 - Erkenntnis 88 (7):2893-2909.
It is widely assumed that the identity relation is, among other things, transitive. Some have proposed that the identity relation might hold between objects contingently or occasionally. If, on those proposals, identity is shown to not be transitive, then there is reason to reject such proposals. One such argument attempts to show that the identity relation on such proposals violates transitivity in cases of ‘simultaneous’ fissions and fusion. I argue that, even in those cases, contingent identity and occasional identity are (...)

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20. Logical Forms: Validity and Variety of Formalizations.Georg Brun - 2023 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 32:341-361.
Formalizations in first-order logic are standardly used to represent logical forms of sentences and to show the validity of ordinary-language arguments. Since every sentence admits of a variety of formalizations, a challenge arises: why should one valid formalization suffice to show validity even if there are other, invalid, formalizations? This paper suggests an explanation with reference to criteria of adequacy which ensure that formalizations are related in a hierarchy of more or less specific formalizations. This proposal is then compared with (...)

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21. Z badań nad teorią zdań odrzuconych.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska & Grzegorz Bryll - 1969 - Opole, Poland: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej w Opolu, Zeszyty Naukowe, Seria B: Studia i Monografie nr 22. Edited by Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska & Grzegorz Bryll.
The monograph contains three works on research on the concept of a rejected sentence. This research, conducted under the supervision of Prof. Jerzy Słupecki by U. Wybraniec-Skardowska (1) "Theory of rejected sentences" and G. Bryll (2) "Some supplements of theory of rejected sentences" and (3) "Logical relations between sentences of empirical sciences" led to the construction of a theory rejected sentences and made it possible to formalize certain issues in the methodology of empirical sciences. The concept of a rejected sentence (...)

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22. (1 other version)Inferentialism.Julien Murzi & Florian Steinberger - 1997 - In Bob Hale, Crispin Wright & Alexander Miller (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 197–224.
This chapter introduces inferential role semantics (IRS) and some of the challenges it faces. It also introduces inferentialism and places it into the wider context of contemporary philosophy of language. The chapter focuses on what is standardly considered both the most important test case for and the most natural application of IRS: logical inferentialism, the view that the meanings of the logical expressions are fully determined by the basic rules for their correct use, and that to understand a logical expression (...)

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23. A Correctness Proof for Al-Barakāt’s Logical Diagrams.Wilfrid Hodges - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):369-384.
In Baghdad in the mid twelfth century Abū al-Barakāt proposes a radical new procedure for finding the conclusions of premise-pairs in syllogistic logic, and for identifying those premise-pairs that have no conclusions. The procedure makes no use of features of the standard Aristotelian apparatus, such as conversions or syllogistic figures. In place of these al-Barakāt writes out pages of diagrams consisting of labelled horizontal lines. He gives no instructions and no proof that the procedure will yield correct results. So the (...)

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24. Rules and Self-Citation.Ori Simchen - 2023 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 11 (3):1-10.
I discuss a neglected solution to the skeptical problem introduced by Lewis Carroll’s “What the Tortoise Said to Achilles” (1895) in terms of a self-citational inferential license. I then consider some responses to this solution. The most significant response on behalf of the skeptic utilizes the familiar distinction between two ways of accepting a rule: as action-guiding and as a mere truth. I argue that this is ultimately unsatisfactory and conclude by opting for an alternative conception of rules as representations (...)

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25. Metafísica, lógica e outras coisas mais.Luiz Carlos Pereira, Marco A. Zingano & Lia Levy (eds.) - 2011 - Rio de Janeiro: Nau Editora.
Livro em homenagem ao filósofo brasileiro Luiz Henrique Lopes, um dos maiores expoentes da filosofia analítica. Neste livro grandes nomes da filosofia brasileira discorrem sobre a filosofia analítica e vários assuntos da filosofia contemporânea.
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26. Omnis Propositio Est Affirmativa; Ergo, Nulla Propositio Est Negativa (and the Paradox of Validity).Dahlquist Manuel - 2023 - In Theories of Paradox in the Middle Ages. LONDON: College Publication. pp. 100-129.
In the first of the Insolubles in Chapter 8 of his Sophismata, Buridan contends that the inference Omnis propositio est affirmativa; ergo, nulla propositio est negativa (PS) is valid, even though it appeals to the self-reference in the conclusion to show that what we (following Read 2001) call the classical conception of validity (CCV) fails. This requires that we accept that there are good inferences in which a false conclusion follows from true premises. Partially following Hughes’ proposal (1982), we argue (...)

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27. The Logic of Analogy.Avi Sion - 2023 - USA: Amazon/Kindle.
The Logic of Analogy is a study of the valid logical forms of qualitative and quantitative analogical argument, and the rules pertaining to them. It investigates equally valid conflicting arguments, statistics-based arguments and their utility in science, arguments from precedent used in law-making or law-application, and examines subsumption in analogical terms. Included for purposes of illustration is a large section on Talmudic use of analogical reasoning.

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28. Torn Between the Contours of Logic: Exploring Logical Normativity in Islamic Philosophical Theology.Abbas Ahsan & Marzuqa Karima - 2022 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 18 (2):(SI10)5-41.
Western contemporary logic has been used to advance the field of Islamic philosophical theology, which historically utilised Aristotelian-Avicennian logic, on grounds of there being an inherent normativity in logic. This is in spite of the surrounding controversy on the status of logic in the Islamic theological tradition. The normative authority of logic means that it influences the content of what we ought to believe and how we ought to revise those beliefs. This paper seeks to demonstrate that, notwithstanding the incompatible (...)

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29. On Stable Quotients.Krzysztof Krupiński & Adrián Portillo - 2022 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 63 (3):373-394.
We solve two problems from a work of Haskel and Pillay concerning maximal stable quotients of groups ∧-definable in NIP theories. The first result says that if G is a ∧-definable group in a distal theory, then Gst=G00 (where Gst is the smallest ∧-definable subgroup with G∕Gst stable, and G00 is the smallest ∧-definable subgroup of bounded index). In order to get it, we prove that distality is preserved under passing from T to the hyperimaginary expansion Theq. The second result (...)

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30. Introducing new work on indeterminacy and underdetermination.Mark Bowker - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-14.
This paper summarises the contributions to our Topical Collection on indeterminacy and underdetermination. The collection includes papers in ethics, metaethics, logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophy of language and philosophy of computation.

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31. The Dismissal of ‘Substance’ and ‘Being’ in Peirce’s Regenerated Logic.Maria Regina Brioschi - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy.
After introducing the debate between substance philosophy and process philosophy, and clarifying the relevance of the category of ‘substance’ in Peirce’s thought, the present paper reconstructs the role of ‘substance’ and ‘being’ from Peirce’s early works to his theory of the proposition, provided after his studies on the logic of relatives. If those two categories apparently disappear in Peirce’s writings from the mid-1890s onwards, the account of ‘subject’ and ‘copula’ in Peirce’s analysis of the proposition allows one to grasp the (...)

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32. Esbozo de una concepción particularista de las Leyes Lógicas.Miguel Agustín Álvarez Lisboa - 2021 - Culturas Cientificas 2 (1):04-22.
El Anti-Excepcionalismo Lógico afirma que la Lógica es como cualquier otra ciencia. Si esta afirmación es cierta, entonces ella no sólo es revisable, sino que además todo lo que se puede decir sobre las ciencias aplica, mutatis mutandis, para la misma. El propósito de este artículo es explorar esta consecuencia del Anti-Excepcionalismo Lógico, acercando a la Filosofía de la Lógica el marco teórico de las Máquinas Nomológicas de Nancy Cartwright. De acuerdo con esta visión, lo que hay de verdadero en (...)

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33. On intermediate inquisitive and dependence logics: An algebraic study.Davide Emilio Quadrellaro - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (10):103143.

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34. A teaching document I've used in my courses on truth and on incompleteness. Aimed at students who have a good grasp of basic logic, and decent math skills, it attempts to give them the background they need to understand a proper statement of the classic results due to Gödel and Tarski, and sketches their proofs. Topics covered include the notions of language and theory, the basics of formal syntax and arithmetization, formal arithmetic (Q and PA), representability, diagonalization, and the incompleteness (...)

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35. History of Relating Logic. The Origin and Research Directions.Mateusz Klonowski - 2021 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30 (4):579–629.
In this paper, we present the history of and the research directions in relating logic. For this purpose we will describe Epstein's Programme, which postulates accounting for the content of sentences in logical research. We will focus on analysing the content relationship and Epstein's logics that are based on it, which are special cases of relating logic. Moreover, the set-assignment semantics will be discussed. Next, the Torunian Programme of Relating Semantics will be presented; this programme explores the various non-logical relationships (...)

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36. (1 other version)Continuous sentences preserved under reduced products.Isaac Goldbring & H. Jerome Keisler - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-33.
Answering a question of Cifú Lopes, we give a syntactic characterization of those continuous sentences that are preserved under reduced products of metric structures. In fact, we settle this question in the wider context of general structures as introduced by the second author.

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37. (1 other version)On Heck’s New Liar.Julien Murzi - 2012 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 1 (4):258-269.
Richard Heck has recently drawn attention on a new version of the Liar Paradox, one which relies on logical resources that are so weak as to suggest that it may not admit of any ‘‘truly satisfying, consistent solution’’. I argue that this conclusion is too strong. Heck’s Liar reduces to absurdity principles that are already rejected by consistent paracomplete theories of truth, such as Kripke’s and Field’s. Moreover, the new Liar gives us no reasons to think that these principles cannot (...)

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38. (1 other version)Asymptotic analysis of skolem’s exponential functions.Alessandro Berarducci & Marcello Mamino - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-25.
Skolem studied the germs at infinity of the smallest class of real valued functions on the positive real line containing the constant $1$, the identity function ${\mathbf {x}}$, and such that whenever f and g are in the set, $f+g,fg$ and $f^g$ are in the set. This set of germs is well ordered and Skolem conjectured that its order type is epsilon-zero. Van den Dries and Levitz computed the order type of the fragment below $2^{2^{\mathbf {x}}}$. Here we prove that (...)

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39. The tree of tuples of a structure.Matthew Harrison-Trainor & Antonio Montalbán - 2022 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 87 (1):21-46.
Our main result is that there exist structures which cannot be computably recovered from their tree of tuples. This implies that there are structures with no computable copies which nevertheless cannot code any information in a natural/functorial way.

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40. Muchnik Degrees and Cardinal Characteristics.Benoit Monin & André Nies - 2021 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 86 (2):471-498.
A mass problem is a set of functions$\omega \to \omega$. For mass problems${\mathcal {C}}, {\mathcal {D}}$, one says that${\mathcal {C}}$is Muchnik reducible to${\mathcal {D}}$if each function in${\mathcal {C}}$is computed by a function in${\mathcal {D}}$. In this paper we study some highness properties of Turing oracles, which we view as mass problems. We compare them with respect to Muchnik reducibility and its uniform strengthening, Medvedev reducibility.For$p \in [0,1]$let${\mathcal {D}}(p)$be the mass problem of infinite bit sequencesy(i.e.,$\{0,1\}$-valued functions) such that for each (...)

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41. The modal logic of set-theoretic potentialism and the potentialist maximality principles.Joel David Hamkins & Øystein Linnebo - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):1-35.
We analyze the precise modal commitments of several natural varieties of set-theoretic potentialism, using tools we develop for a general model-theoretic account of potentialism, building on those of Hamkins, Leibman and Löwe [14], including the use of buttons, switches, dials and ratchets. Among the potentialist conceptions we consider are: rank potentialism, Grothendieck–Zermelo potentialism, transitive-set potentialism, forcing potentialism, countable-transitive-model potentialism, countable-model potentialism, and others. In each case, we identify lower bounds for the modal validities, which are generally either S4.2 or S4.3, (...)

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42. De Zolt’s Postulate: An Abstract Approach.Eduardo N. Giovannini, Edward H. Haeusler, Abel Lassalle-Casanave & Paulo A. S. Veloso - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):197-224.
A theory of magnitudes involves criteria for their equivalence, comparison and addition. In this article we examine these aspects from an abstract viewpoint, by focusing on the so-called De Zolt’s postulate in the theory of equivalence of plane polygons (“If a polygon is divided into polygonal parts in any given way, then the union of all but one of these parts is not equivalent to the given polygon”). We formulate an abstract version of this postulate and derive it from some (...)

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43. UFO: Unified Foundational Ontology.Giancarlo Guizzardi, Alessander Bottes Benevides, Claudemir M. Fonseca, João Paulo A. Almeida, Tiago Prince Sales & Daniele Porello - 2022 - Applied ontology 1 (17):167-210.
The Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) was developed over the last two decades by consistently putting together theories from areas such as formal ontology in philosophy, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophical logics. It comprises a number of micro-theories addressing fundamental conceptual modeling notions, including entity types and relationship types. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of UFO, presenting a formalization of the ontology, along with the analysis of a number of cases to illustrate the application of (...)

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45. (2 other versions)The Logica Yearbook 2012.Vit Puncochar & Petr Svarny (eds.) - 2013 - College Publications.
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2012, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.

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46. Completeness and Doxastic Plurality for Topological Operators of Knowledge and Belief.Thomas Mormann - 2023 - Erkenntnis: 1 - 34, ONLINE.
The first aim of this paper is to prove a topological completeness theorem for a weak version of Stalnaker’s logic KB of knowledge and belief. The weak version of KB is characterized by the assumption that the axioms and rules of KB have to be satisfied with the exception of the axiom (NI) of negative introspection. The proof of a topological completeness theorem for weak KB is based on the fact that nuclei (as defined in the framework of point-free topology) (...)

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47. The Subject Matter of Logic: Explaining what logic is about.Elizabeth Olsen - 2021 - Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington
Logicians disagree about how validity—the very heart of logic—should be understood. Many different formal systems have been born due to this disagreement. This thesis examines how teachers explain the subject matter of logic to students in introductory logic textbooks, and demonstrates the different explanations teachers use. These differences help explain why logicians have different intuitions about validity.

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48. Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs.Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.) - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
This book is dedicated to the work of Alasdair Urquhart. The book starts out with an introduction to and an overview of Urquhart’s work, and an autobiographical essay by Urquhart. This introductory section is followed by papers on algebraic logic and lattice theory, papers on the complexity of proofs, and papers on philosophical logic and history of logic. The final section of the book contains a response to the papers by Urquhart. Alasdair Urquhart has made extremely important contributions to a (...)

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49. (1 other version)Ω-Bibliography of Mathematical Logic: Classical Logic.Wolfgang Rautenberg (ed.) - 1987 - Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer.
Gert H. Muller The growth of the number of publications in almost all scientific areas, as in the area of logic, is taken as a sign of our scientifically minded culture, but it also has a terrifying aspect. In addition, given the rapidly growing sophistica tion, specialization and hence subdivision of logic, researchers, students and teachers may have a hard time getting an overview of the existing literature, partic ularly if they do not have an extensive library available in their (...)