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  1. Connecting the revolutionary with the conventional: Rethinking the differences between the works of Brouwer, Heyting, and Weyl.Kati Kish Bar-On - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-34.
    Brouwer’s intuitionism was a far-reaching attempt to reform the foundations of mathematics. While the mathematical community was reluctant to accept Brouwer’s work, its response to later-developed brands of intuitionism, such as those presented by Hermann Weyl and Arend Heyting, was different. The paper accounts for this difference by analyzing the intuitionistic versions of Brouwer, Weyl, and Heyting in light of a two-tiered model of the body and image of mathematical knowledge. Such a perspective provides a richer account of each story (...)
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  2. Propositions as intentions.Bruno Bentzen - forthcoming - Husserl Studies:1-18.
    I argue against the interpretation of propositions as intentions and proof-objects as fulfillments proposed by Heyting and defended by Tieszen and van Atten. The idea is already a frequent target of criticisms regarding the incompatibility of Brouwer’s and Husserl’s positions, mainly by Rosado Haddock and Hill. I raise a stronger objection in this paper. My claim is that even if we grant that the incompatibility can be properly dealt with, as van Atten believes it can, two fundamental issues indicate that (...)
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  3. Divergent Potentialism: A Modal Analysis With an Application to Choice Sequences.Ethan Brauer, Øystein Linnebo & Stewart Shapiro - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    Modal logic has been used to analyze potential infinity and potentialism more generally. However, the standard analysis breaks down in cases of divergent possibilities, where there are two or more possibilities that can be individually realized but which are jointly incompatible. This paper has three aims. First, using the intuitionistic theory of choice sequences, we motivate the need for a modal analysis of divergent potentialism and explain the challenges this involves. Then, using Beth–Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, we overcome those (...)
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  4. Predicativity and constructive mathematics.Laura Crosilla - forthcoming - In Objects, Structures and Logics.
    In this article I present a disagreement between classical and constructive approaches to predicativity regarding the predicative status of so-called generalised inductive definitions. I begin by offering some motivation for an enquiry in the predicative foundations of constructive mathematics, by looking at contemporary work at the intersection between mathematics and computer science. I then review the background notions and spell out the above-mentioned disagreement between classical and constructive approaches to predicativity. Finally, I look at possible ways of defending the constructive (...)
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  5. Negation in Negationless Intuitionistic Mathematics.Thomas Macaulay Ferguson - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    The mathematician G.F.C. Griss is known for his program of negationless intuitionistic mathematics. Although Griss’s rejection of negation is regarded as characteristic of his philosophy, this is a consequence of an executability requirement that mental constructions presuppose agents’ executing corresponding mental activity. Restoring Griss’s executability requirement to a central role permits a more subtle characterization of the rejection of negation, according to which D. Nelson’s strong constructible negation is compatible with Griss’s principles. This exposes a ‘holographic’ theory of negation in (...)
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  6. Free Definite Description Theory – Sequent Calculi and Cut Elimination.Andrzej Indrzejczak - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    We provide an application of a sequent calculus framework to the formalization of definite descriptions. It is a continuation of research undertaken in [20, 22]. In the present paper a so-called free description theory is examined in the context of different kinds of free logic, including systems applied in computer science and constructive mathematics for dealing with partial functions. It is shown that the same theory in different logics may be formalised by means of different rules and gives results of (...)
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  7. Maria Hämeen-Anttila.* and Jan von Plato,** eds, Kurt Gödel: The Princeton Lectures on Intuitionism.Ulrich Kohlenbach - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    This book publishes for the first time notes from two notebooks of Gödel which formed the basis of a course on intuitionism Gödel delivered at Princeton in the spring of 1941. These notes contain by far the most detailed treatment by Gödel (and anyone prior to Luckhardt [1973] and Troelstra [1973]) of his now famous functional (‘Dialectica’) interpretation which was published by Gödel himself only much later in the very brief paper [Gödel, 1958]. The essence of the Princeton notes is (...)
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  8. Constructive thinking.B. Thayer-Bacon & C. Thayer-Bacon - forthcoming - Philosophy.
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  9. From Philosophical Traditions to Scientific Developments: Reconsidering the Response to Brouwer’s Intuitionism.Kati Kish Bar-On - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1–25.
    Brouwer’s intuitionistic program was an intriguing attempt to reform the foundations of mathematics that eventually did not prevail. The current paper offers a new perspective on the scientific community’s lack of reception to Brouwer’s intuitionism by considering it in light of Michael Friedman’s model of parallel transitions in philosophy and science, specifically focusing on Friedman’s story of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Such a juxtaposition raises onto the surface the differences between Brouwer’s and Einstein’s stories and suggests that contrary to Einstein’s (...)
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  10. On Farkas' lemma and related propositions in BISH.Josef Berger & Gregor Svindland - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (2):103059.
    In this paper we analyse in the framework of constructive mathematics (BISH) the validity of Farkas' lemma and related propositions, namely the Fredholm alternative for solvability of systems of linear equations, optimality criteria in linear programming, Stiemke's lemma and the Superhedging Duality from mathematical finance, and von Neumann's minimax theorem with application to constructive game theory.
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  11. Carl J. Posy. Mathematical Intuitionism.Roy T. Cook - 2022 - Philosophia Mathematica 30 (1):111-116.
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  12. The entanglement of logic and set theory, constructively.Laura Crosilla - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (6).
    ABSTRACT Theories of sets such as Zermelo Fraenkel set theory are usually presented as the combination of two distinct kinds of principles: logical and set-theoretic principles. The set-theoretic principles are imposed ‘on top’ of first-order logic. This is in agreement with a traditional view of logic as universally applicable and topic neutral. Such a view of logic has been rejected by the intuitionists, on the ground that quantification over infinite domains requires the use of intuitionistic rather than classical logic. In (...)
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  13. The Varieties of Agnosticism.Filippo Ferrari & Luca Incurvati - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 72 (2):365-380.
    We provide a framework for understanding agnosticism. The framework accounts for the varieties of agnosticism while vindicating the unity of the phenomenon. This combination of unity and plurality is achieved by taking the varieties of agnosticism to be represented by several agnostic stances, all of which share a common core provided by what we call the minimal agnostic attitude. We illustrate the fruitfulness of the framework by showing how it can be applied to several philosophical debates. In particular, several philosophical (...)
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  14. Choice Sequences and the Continuum.Casper Storm Hansen - 2022 - Erkenntnis 87 (2):517-534.
    According to L.E.J. Brouwer, there is room for non-definable real numbers within the intuitionistic ontology of mental constructions. That room is allegedly provided by freely proceeding choice sequences, i.e., sequences created by repeated free choices of elements by a creating subject in a potentially infinite process. Through an analysis of the constitution of choice sequences, this paper argues against Brouwer’s claim.
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  15. A marriage of brouwer’s intuitionism and hilbert’s finitism I: Arithmetic.Takako Nemoto & Sato Kentaro - 2022 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 87 (2):437-497.
    We investigate which part of Brouwer’s Intuitionistic Mathematics is finitistically justifiable or guaranteed in Hilbert’s Finitism, in the same way as similar investigations on Classical Mathematics already done quite extensively in proof theory and reverse mathematics. While we already knew a contrast from the classical situation concerning the continuity principle, more contrasts turn out: we show that several principles are finitistically justifiable or guaranteed which are classically not. Among them are: fan theorem for decidable fans but arbitrary bars; continuity principle (...)
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  16. Towards a new philosophical perspective on Hermann Weyl’s turn to intuitionism.Kati Kish Bar-On - 2021 - Science in Context 34 (1):51-68.
    The paper explores Hermann Weyl’s turn to intuitionism through a philosophical prism of normative framework transitions. It focuses on three central themes that occupied Weyl’s thought: the notion of the continuum, logical existence, and the necessity of intuitionism, constructivism, and formalism to adequately address the foundational crisis of mathematics. The analysis of these themes reveals Weyl’s continuous endeavor to deal with such fundamental problems and suggests a view that provides a different perspective concerning Weyl’s wavering foundational positions. Building on a (...)
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  17. A parametrised functional interpretation of Heyting arithmetic.Bruno Dinis & Paulo Oliva - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (4):102940.
  18. A Dilemma for Mathematical Constructivism.Samuel Kahn - 2021 - Axiomathes 31 (1):63-72.
    In this paper I argue that constructivism in mathematics faces a dilemma. In particular, I maintain that constructivism is unable to explain (i) the application of mathematics to nature and (ii) the intersubjectivity of mathematics unless (iii) it is conjoined with two theses that reduce it to a form of mathematical Platonism. The paper is divided into five sections. In the first section of the paper, I explain the difference between mathematical constructivism and mathematical Platonism and I outline my argument. (...)
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  19. World and Logic.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - London, Vereinigtes Königreich: College Publications.
    What is the relationship between the world and logic, between intuition and language, between objects and their quantitative determinations? Rationalists, on the one hand, hold that the world is structured in a rational way. Representationalists, on the other hand, assume that language, logic, and mathematics are only the means to order and describe the intuitively given world. In World and Logic, Jens Lemanski takes up three surprising arguments from Arthur Schopenhauer’s hitherto undiscovered Berlin Lectures, which concern the philosophy of language, (...)
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  20. Intuitionistic mereology.Paolo Maffezioli & Achille C. Varzi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 18):4277-4302.
    Two mereological theories are presented based on a primitive apartness relation along with binary relations of mereological excess and weak excess, respectively. It is shown that both theories are acceptable from the standpoint of constructive reasoning while remaining faithful to the spirit of classical mereology. The two theories are then compared and assessed with regard to their extensional import.
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  21. An Introduction to Proof Theory: Normalization, Cut-Elimination, and Consistency Proofs.Paolo Mancosu, Sergio Galvan & Richard Zach - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    An Introduction to Proof Theory provides an accessible introduction to the theory of proofs, with details of proofs worked out and examples and exercises to aid the reader's understanding. It also serves as a companion to reading the original pathbreaking articles by Gerhard Gentzen. The first half covers topics in structural proof theory, including the Gödel-Gentzen translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, natural deduction and the normalization theorems, the sequent calculus, including cut-elimination and mid-sequent theorems, and various applications of these (...)
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  22. Proof that Intuitionistic Logic is not Three-Valued.Micah Phillips-Gary - 2021 - The Hemlock Papers 18:4-14.
    In this paper, we give an introduction to intuitionistic logic and a defense of it from certain formal logical critiques. Intuitionism is the thesis that mathematical objects are mental constructions produced by the faculty of a priori intuition of time. The truth of a mathematical proposition, then, consists in our knowing how to construct in intuition a corresponding state of affairs. This understanding of mathematical truth leads to a rejection of the principle, valid in classical logic, that a proposition is (...)
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  23. Sense, reference, and computation.Bruno Bentzen - 2020 - Perspectiva Filosófica 47 (2):179-203.
    In this paper, I revisit Frege's theory of sense and reference in the constructive setting of the meaning explanations of type theory, extending and sharpening a program–value analysis of sense and reference proposed by Martin-Löf building on previous work of Dummett. I propose a computational identity criterion for senses and argue that it validates what I see as the most plausible interpretation of Frege's equipollence principle for both sentences and singular terms. Before doing so, I examine Frege's implementation of his (...)
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  24. Intuitionism in the Philosophy of Mathematics: Introducing a Phenomenological Account.Philipp Berghofer - 2020 - Philosophia Mathematica 28 (2):204-235.
    The aim of this paper is to establish a phenomenological mathematical intuitionism that is based on fundamental phenomenological-epistemological principles. According to this intuitionism, mathematical intuitions are sui generis mental states, namely experiences that exhibit a distinctive phenomenal character. The focus is on two questions: what does it mean to undergo a mathematical intuition and what role do mathematical intuitions play in mathematical reasoning? While I crucially draw on Husserlian principles and adopt ideas we find in phenomenologically minded mathematicians such as (...)
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  25. Ludwig Wittgenstein, Dictating Philosophy To Francis Skinner: The Wittgenstein-Skinner Manuscripts. Transcribed and edited, with an Introduction, Introductory Chapters and Notes by Arthur Gibson.Arthur Gibson & Niamh O'Mahony (eds.) - 2020 - Berlin, Germany: Springer.
    This book publishes the previously unpublished Wittgenstein-Skinner Archive held in Trinity College Cambridge Wren Library. The principal Editor is Arthur Gibson, joined by the Editor Niamh O'Mahony in the editing project. The manuscripts were transcribed by Arthur Gibson, checked and edited by Niamh O'Mahony and Arthur Gibson, with additional assistance from Kelsey Gibson. The Chapters that reproduce the Archive, including the Preface, and Part I (chapters 1 and 2) are authored by Arthur Gibson. Arthur Gibson and Niamh O'Mahony jointly edited (...)
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  26. Intuition in Poincarés Philosophy of Mathematics.Koray Akçagüner - 2019 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 9 (9:4):925-940.
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  27. Why logical pluralism?Colin R. Caret - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 20):4947-4968.
    This paper scrutinizes the debate over logical pluralism. I hope to make this debate more tractable by addressing the question of motivating data: what would count as strong evidence in favor of logical pluralism? Any research program should be able to answer this question, but when faced with this task, many logical pluralists fall back on brute intuitions. This sets logical pluralism on a weak foundation and makes it seem as if nothing pressing is at stake in the debate. The (...)
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  28. Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics: Univalent Foundations, Set Theory and General Thoughts.Stefania Centrone, Deborah Kant & Deniz Sarikaya (eds.) - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This edited work presents contemporary mathematical practice in the foundational mathematical theories, in particular set theory and the univalent foundations. It shares the work of significant scholars across the disciplines of mathematics, philosophy and computer science. Readers will discover systematic thought on criteria for a suitable foundation in mathematics and philosophical reflections around the mathematical perspectives. The first two sections focus on the two most prominent candidate theories for a foundation of mathematics. Readers may trace current research in set theory, (...)
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  29. Indeterminism in Physics, Classical Chaos and Bohmian Mechanics: Are Real Numbers Really Real?Nicolas Gisin - 2019 - Erkenntnis:1-13.
    It is usual to identify initial conditions of classical dynamical systems with mathematical real numbers. However, almost all real numbers contain an infinite amount of information. I argue that a finite volume of space can’t contain more than a finite amount of information, hence that the mathematical real numbers are not physically relevant. Moreover, a better terminology for the so-called real numbers is “random numbers”, as their series of bits are truly random. I propose an alternative classical mechanics, which is (...)
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  30. Considerações de Brouwer sobre espaço e infinitude: O idealismo de Brouwer Diante do Problema Apresentado por Dummett Quanto à Possibilidade Teórica de uma Infinitude Espacial.Paulo Júnio de Oliveira - 2019 - Kinesis 11:94-108.
    Resumo Neste artigo, será discutida a noção de “infinitude cardinal” – a qual seria predicada de um “conjunto” – e a noção de “infinitude ordinal” – a qual seria predicada de um “processo”. A partir dessa distinção conceitual, será abordado o principal problema desse artigo, i.e., o problema da possibilidade teórica de uma infinitude de estrelas tratado por Dummett em sua obra Elements of Intuitionism. O filósofo inglês sugere que, mesmo diante dessa possibilidade teórica, deveria ser possível predicar apenas infinitude (...)
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  31. Eta-rules in Martin-löf type theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 25 (3):333-359.
    The eta rule for a set A says that an arbitrary element of A is judgementally identical to an element of constructor form. Eta rules are not part of what may be called canonical Martin-Löf type theory. They are, however, justified by the meaning explanations, and a higher-order eta rule is part of that type theory. The main aim of this paper is to clarify this somewhat puzzling situation. It will be argued that lower-order eta rules do not, whereas the (...)
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  32. The Justification of Identity Elimination in Martin-Löf’s Type Theory.Ansten Klev - 2019 - Topoi 38 (3):577-590.
    On the basis of Martin-Löf’s meaning explanations for his type theory a detailed justification is offered of the rule of identity elimination. Brief discussions are thereafter offered of how the univalence axiom fares with respect to these meaning explanations and of some recent work on identity in type theory by Ladyman and Presnell.
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  33. Free Choice Sequences: A Temporal Interpretation Compatible with Acceptance of Classical Mathematics.Saul Kripke - 2019 - Indagationes Mathematicae 30 (3):492-499.
    This paper sketches a way of supplementing classical mathematics with a motivation for a Brouwerian theory of free choice sequences. The idea is that time is unending, i.e. that one can never come to an end of it, but also indeterminate, so that in a branching time model only one branch represents the ‘actual’ one. The branching can be random or subject to various restrictions imposed by the creating subject. The fact that the underlying mathematics is classical makes such perhaps (...)
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  34. Rumfitt on the logic of set theory.Øystein Linnebo - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (7):826-841.
    ABSTRACTAccording to a famous argument by Dummett, the concept of set is indefinitely extensible, and the logic appropriate for reasoning about the instances of any such concept is intuitionistic, not classical. But Dummett's argument is widely regarded as obscure. This note explains how the final chapter of Rumfitt's important new book advances our understanding of Dummett's argument, but it also points out some problems and unanswered questions. Finally, Rumfitt's reconstruction of Dummett's argument is contrasted with my own preferred alternative.
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  35. Actual and Potential Infinity.Øystein Linnebo & Stewart Shapiro - 2019 - Noûs 53 (1):160-191.
    The notion of potential infinity dominated in mathematical thinking about infinity from Aristotle until Cantor. The coherence and philosophical importance of the notion are defended. Particular attention is paid to the question of whether potential infinity is compatible with classical logic or requires a weaker logic, perhaps intuitionistic.
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  36. Inference Rules and the Meaning of the Logical Constants.Hermógenes Oliveira - 2019 - Dissertation, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
    The dissertation provides an analysis and elaboration of Michael Dummett's proof-theoretic notions of validity. Dummett's notions of validity are contrasted with standard proof-theoretic notions and formally evaluated with respect to their adequacy to propositional intuitionistic logic.
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  37. Constructive mathematics and equality.Bruno Bentzen - 2018 - Dissertation, Sun Yat-Sen University
    The aim of the present thesis is twofold. First we propose a constructive solution to Frege's puzzle using an approach based on homotopy type theory, a newly proposed foundation of mathematics that possesses a higher-dimensional treatment of equality. We claim that, from the viewpoint of constructivism, Frege's solution is unable to explain the so-called ‘cognitive significance' of equality statements, since, as we shall argue, not only statements of the form 'a = b', but also 'a = a' may contribute to (...)
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  38. Wittgenstein on Cantor's Proof.Chrysoula Gitsoulis - 2018 - In Gabriele M. Mras, Paul Weingartner & Bernhard Ritter (eds.), Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics: Contributions of the 41st International Wittgenstein Symposium. pp. 67-69.
    Cantor’s proof that the reals are uncountable forms a central pillar in the edifices of higher order recursion theory and set theory. It also has important applications in model theory, and in the foundations of topology and analysis. Due partly to these factors, and to the simplicity and elegance of the proof, it has come to be accepted as part of the ABC’s of mathematics. But even if as an Archimedean point it supports tomes of mathematical theory, there is a (...)
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  39. A constructive examination of a Russell-style ramified type theory.Erik Palmgren - 2018 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 24 (1):90-106.
    In this article we examine the natural interpretation of a ramified type hierarchy into Martin-Löf type theory with an infinite sequence of universes. It is shown that under this predicative interpretation some useful special cases of Russell’s reducibility axiom are valid, namely functional reducibility. This is sufficient to make the type hierarchy usable for development of constructive mathematical analysis in the style of Bishop. We present a ramified type theory suitable for this purpose. One may regard the results of this (...)
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  40. On the Intuitionistic Background of Gentzen's 1935 and 1936 Consistency Proofs and Their Philosophical Aspects.Yuta Takahashi - 2018 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 27:1-26.
    Gentzen's three consistency proofs for elementary number theory have a common aim that originates from Hilbert's Program, namely, the aim to justify the application of classical reasoning to quantified propositions in elementary number theory. In addition to this common aim, Gentzen gave a “finitist” interpretation to every number-theoretic proposition with his 1935 and 1936 consistency proofs. In the present paper, we investigate the relationship of this interpretation with intuitionism in terms of the debate between the Hilbert School and the Brouwer (...)
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  41. Brouwer's Conception of Truth.Casper Storm Hansen - 2016 - Philosophia Mathematica 24 (3):379-400.
    In this paper it is argued that the understanding of Brouwer as replacing truth conditions with assertability or proof conditions, in particular as codified in the so-called Brouwer-Heyting-Kolmogorov Interpretation, is misleading and conflates a weak and a strong notion of truth that have to be kept apart to understand Brouwer properly: truth-as-anticipation and truth- in-content. These notions are explained, exegetical documentation provided, and semi-formal recursive definitions are given.
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  42. Differential Calculus Based on the Double Contradiction.Kazuhiko Kotani - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):420-427.
    The derivative is a basic concept of differential calculus. However, if we calculate the derivative as change in distance over change in time, the result at any instant is 0/0, which seems meaningless. Hence, Newton and Leibniz used the limit to determine the derivative. Their method is valid in practice, but it is not easy to intuitively accept. Thus, this article describes the novel method of differential calculus based on the double contradiction, which is easier to accept intuitively. Next, the (...)
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  43. L. E. J. Brouwer and Karl Popper: Two Perspectives on Mathematics.Alexander John Naraniecki - 2015 - Cosmos and History 11 (1):239-255.
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  44. Constructive Realism in Mathematics.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2015 - In Andrés Villaveces, Roman Kossak, Juha Kontinen & Åsa Hirvonen (eds.), Logic Without Borders: Essays on Set Theory, Model Theory, Philosophical Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics. De Gruyter. pp. 339-354.
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  45. Cofinally Invariant Sequences and Revision.Edoardo Rivello - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (3):599-622.
    Revision sequences are a kind of transfinite sequences which were introduced by Herzberger and Gupta in 1982 as the main mathematical tool for developing their respective revision theories of truth. We generalise revision sequences to the notion of cofinally invariant sequences, showing that several known facts about Herzberger’s and Gupta’s theories also hold for this more abstract kind of sequences and providing new and more informative proofs of the old results.
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  46. Frege meets Brouwer.Stewart Shapiro & Øystein Linnebo - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (3):540-552.
    We show that, by choosing definitions carefully, a version of Frege's theorem can be proved in intuitionistic logic.
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  47. Mysticism and Mathematics: Brouwer, Gödel, and the Common Core Thesis.Robert Tragesser, Mark van Atten & Mark Atten - 2015 - In Robert Tragesser, Mark van Atten & Mark Atten (eds.), Essays on Gödel’s Reception of Leibniz, Husserl, and Brouwer. Springer Verlag.
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  48. Gödel and Brouwer: Two Rivalling Brothers.Mark van Atten & Mark Atten - 2015 - In Mark van Atten & Mark Atten (eds.), Essays on Gödel’s Reception of Leibniz, Husserl, and Brouwer. Springer Verlag.
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  49. On A. A. Markov's Attitude towards Brouwer's Intuitionism.Ioannis M. Vandoulakis - 2015 - Philosophia Scientiae 19:143-158.
    The paper examines Andrei A. Markov’s critical attitude towards L.E.J. Brouwer’s intuitionism, as is expressed in his endnotes to the Russian translation of Heyting’s Intuitionism, published in Moscow in 1965. It is argued that Markov’s algorithmic approach was shaped under the impact of the mathematical style and values prevailing in the Petersburg mathematical school, which is characterized by the proclaimed primacy of applications and the search for rigor and effective solutions.
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  50. Structuralism, Invariance, and Univalence.Steve Awodey - 2014 - Philosophia Mathematica 22 (1):1-11.
    The recent discovery of an interpretation of constructive type theory into abstract homotopy theory suggests a new approach to the foundations of mathematics with intrinsic geometric content and a computational implementation. Voevodsky has proposed such a program, including a new axiom with both geometric and logical significance: the Univalence Axiom. It captures the familiar aspect of informal mathematical practice according to which one can identify isomorphic objects. While it is incompatible with conventional foundations, it is a powerful addition to homotopy (...)
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1 — 50 / 364