About this topic
Summary Philosophical discussions about mathematics have a long history, which basically coincides with the history of philosophy. The main historiographic divisions are thus the same as for philosophy in general, i.e. there is philosophy of mathematics in Ancient Philosophy, in Medieval Philosophy, in Early Modern Philosophy (16th-18th centuries), and in Late Modern Philosophy (19th-20th centuries). For a general introduction to the topic, including source material, see R. Marcus and M. McEvoy, eds., A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader (Bloomsbury, 2016). For excerpts and translations from crucial authors since Kant, compare W. Ewald, ed., From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics. Vols. I-II (Oxford University Press, 1996).  And for the late 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries, see P. Benacerraf and H. Putnam, eds., Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings (2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1984).
Key works Logicism, formalism, intuitionism, structuralism, foundations, logic, proof, truth, axioms, infinity.
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  1. Frege's Basic Law V and Cantor's Theorem.Manuel Bremer - manuscript
    The following essay reconsiders the ontological and logical issues around Frege’s Basic Law (V). If focuses less on Russell’s Paradox, as most treatments of Frege’s Grundgesetze der Arithmetik (GGA)1 do, but rather on the relation between Frege’s Basic Law (V) and Cantor’s Theorem (CT). So for the most part the inconsistency of Naïve Comprehension (in the context of standard Second Order Logic) will not concern us, but rather the ontological issues central to the conflict between (BLV) and (CT). These ontological (...)
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  2. Lectures on Complex Numbers and their Functions, Part I: Theory of Complex Number Systems.Hermann Hankel & Richard Lawrence - manuscript - Translated by Richard Lawrence.
    A transcription and translation of Hermann Hankel's 1867 Vorlesungen über die complexen Zahlen und ihre Functionen, I. Theil: Theorie der Complexen Zahlensysteme, a textbook on complex analysis that played an important role in the transition to modern mathematics in nineteenth century Germany.
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  3. On some historical aspects of the theory of Riemann zeta function.Giuseppe Iurato - manuscript
    This comprehensive historical account concerns that non-void intersection region between Riemann zeta function and entire function theory, with a view towards possible physical applications.
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  4. Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics.Victor Rodych - unknown - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  5. Conceptions of infinity and set in Lorenzen’s operationist system.Carolin Antos - forthcoming - In Logic, Epistemology and the Unity of Science. Springer.
    In the late 1940s and early 1950s Lorenzen developed his operative logic and mathematics, a form of constructive mathematics. Nowadays this is mostly seen as the precursor to the more well-known dialogical logic and one could assumed that the same philosophical motivations were present in both works. However we want to show that this is not always the case. In particular, we claim, that Lorenzen’s well-known rejection of the actual infinite as stated in Lorenzen (1957) was not a major motivation (...)
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  6. Ms.Natasha Bailie - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Mathematics.
    The reception of Newton's Principia in 1687 led to the attempt of many European scholars to ‘mathematicise' their field of expertise. An important example of this ‘mathematicisation' lies in the work of Irish-Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson, a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. This essay aims to discuss the mathematical aspects of Hutcheson's work and its impact on British thought in the following centuries, providing a case in point for the importance of the interactions between mathematics and philosophy throughout time.
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  7. Brouwer's Intuition of Twoity and Constructions in Separable Mathematics.Bruno Bentzen - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-21.
    My first aim in this paper is to use time diagrams in the style of Brentano to analyze constructions in Brouwer's separable mathematics more precisely. I argue that constructions must involve not only pairing and projecting as basic operations guaranteed by the intuition of twoity, as sometimes assumed in the literature, but also a recalling operation. My second aim is to argue that Brouwer's views on the intuition of twoity and arithmetic lead to an ontological explosion. Redeveloping the constructions of (...)
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  8. Russell Marcus and Mark McEvoy, eds. An Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mathematics: A Reader.James Robert Brown - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica:nkw033.
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  9. On the Depth of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems.Yong Cheng - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    ABSTRACT We use Gödel’s incompleteness theorems as a case study for investigating mathematical depth. We examine the philosophical question of what the depth of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems consists in. We focus on the methodological study of the depth of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, and propose three criteria to account for the depth of the incompleteness theorems: influence, fruitfulness, and unity. Finally, we give some explanations for our account of the depth of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems.
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  10. Hilbert on number, geometry and continuity.M. Hallett - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic.
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  11. Claire Ortiz Hill and Jairo José da Silva. The Road Not Taken: On Husserl's Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics. Texts in Philosophy; 21. London: College Publications, 2013. ISBN 978-1-84890-099-8 . Pp. xiv + 436. [REVIEW]Burt C. Hopkins - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica:nkw006.
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  12. Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers: His Influence on Historical and Contemporary Analytic Philosophers (Volume II).Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    This edited volume includes 49 Chapters, each of which discusses the influence of a philosopher's reading of Wittgenstein in his/her philosophical works and the way such Wittgensteinian ideas have manifested themselves in those works.
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  13. Donald Gillies. Lakatos and the Historical Approach to Philosophy of Mathematics.Brendan Larvor - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
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  14. Three Letters on the Foundations of Mathematics by Frank Plumpton Ramsey†.Paolo Mancosu - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    Summary This article presents three hitherto unpublished letters by Frank Plumpton Ramsey on the foundations of mathematics with commentary. One of the letters was sent to Abraham Fraenkel and the other two letters to Heinrich Behmann. The transcription of the letters is preceded by an account that details the extent of Ramsey's known contacts with mathematical logicians on the Continent.
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  15. Frege and Peano on definitions.Edoardo Rivello - forthcoming - In Proceedings of the "Frege: Freunde und Feinde" conference, held in Wismar, May 12-15, 2013.
    Frege and Peano started in 1896 a debate where they contrasted the respective conceptions on the theory and practice of mathematical definitions. Which was (if any) the influence of the Frege-Peano debate on the conceptions by the two authors on the theme of defining in mathematics and which was the role played by this debate in the broader context of their scientific interaction?
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  16. Ian Hacking, Why Is There Philosophy of Mathematics at All? [REVIEW]Max Harris Siegel - forthcoming - Mind 124.
  17. Jean W. Rioux. Thomas Aquinas’ Mathematical Realism.Daniel Eduardo Usma Gómez - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
  18. Du Châtelet’s Philosophy of Mathematics.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - In Fatema Amijee (ed.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Du Châtelet. Bloomsbury.
    I begin by outlining Du Châtelet’s ontology of mathematical objects: she is an idealist, and mathematical objects are fictions dependent on acts of abstraction. Next, I consider how this idealism can be reconciled with her endorsement of necessary truths in mathematics, which are grounded in essences that we do not create. Finally, I discuss how mathematics and physics relate within Du Châtelet’s idealism. Because the primary objects of physics are partly grounded in the same kinds of acts as yield mathematical (...)
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  19. Was Wittgenstein a radical conventionalist?Ásgeir Berg - 2024 - Synthese 203 (2):1-31.
    This paper defends a reading of Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics in the Lectures on the Foundation of Mathematics as a radical conventionalist one, whereby our agreement about the particular case is constitutive of our mathematical practice and ‘the logical necessity of any statement is a direct expression of a convention’ (Dummett 1959, p. 329). -/- On this view, mathematical truths are conceptual truths and our practices determine directly for each mathematical proposition individually whether it is true or false. Mathematical truths (...)
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  20. Competing Roles of Aristotle's Account of the Infinite.Robby Finley - 2024 - Apeiron 57 (1):25-54.
    There are two distinct but interrelated questions concerning Aristotle’s account of infinity that have been the subject of recurring debate. The first of these, what I call here the interpretative question, asks for a charitable and internally coherent interpretation of the limited pieces of text where Aristotle outlines his view of the ‘potential’ (and not ‘actual’) infinite. The second, what I call here the philosophical question, asks whether there is a way to make Aristotle’s notion of the potential infinite coherent (...)
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  21. Leibniz on Spinoza’s Priority by Nature.Jun Young Kim - 2024 - Res Philosophica 101 (1):1-21.
    In this article, I examine Leibniz’s criticism of Spinoza’s notion of priority by nature based on the first proposition in Spinoza’s Ethics. Leibniz provides two counterexamples: first, the number 10’s being 6+3+1 is prior by nature to its being 6+4; second, a triangle’s property that two internal angles are equal to the exterior angle of the third is prior by nature to its property that the three internal angles equal two right angles. Leibniz argues that Spinoza’s notion cannot capture these (...)
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  22. Who's afraid of mathematical platonism? An historical perspective.Dirk Schlimm - 2024 - In Karine Chemla, José Ferreiròs, Lizhen Ji, Erhard Scholz & Chang Wang (eds.), The Richness of the History of Mathematics. Springer. pp. 595-615.
    In "Plato's Ghost" Jeremy Gray presented many connections between mathematical practices in the nineteenth century and the rise of mathematical platonism in the context of more general developments, which he refers to as modernism. In this paper, I take up this theme and present a condensed discussion of some arguments put forward in favor of and against the view of mathematical platonism. In particular, I highlight some pressures that arose in the work of Frege, Cantor, and Gödel, which support adopting (...)
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  23. Why Did Thomas Harriot Invent Binary?Lloyd Strickland - 2024 - Mathematical Intelligencer 46 (1):57-62.
    From the early eighteenth century onward, primacy for the invention of binary numeration and arithmetic was almost universally credited to the German polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716). Then, in 1922, Frank Vigor Morley (1899–1980) noted that an unpublished manuscript of the English mathematician, astronomer, and alchemist Thomas Harriot (1560–1621) contained the numbers 1 to 8 in binary. Morley’s only comment was that this foray into binary was “certainly prior to the usual dates given for binary numeration”. Almost thirty years later, (...)
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  24. The Turning Point in Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Mathematics: Another Turn.Yemima Ben-Menahem - 2023 - In Carl Posy & Yemima Ben-Menahem (eds.), Mathematical Knowledge, Objects and Applications: Essays in Memory of Mark Steiner. Springer. pp. 377-393.
    According to Mark Steiner, Wittgenstein’s intense work in the philosophy of mathematics during the early 1930s brought about a distinct turning point in his philosophy. The crux of this transition, Steiner contends, is that Wittgenstein came to see mathematical truths as originating in empirical regularities that in the course of time have been hardened into rules. This interpretation, which construes Wittgenstein’s later philosophy of mathematics as more realist than his earlier philosophy, challenges another influential interpretation which reads Wittgenstein as moving (...)
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  25. Listy Gottloba Fregego. Uwagi o polskim wydaniu [rec. Gottlob Frege: Korespondencja naukowa]. [REVIEW]Krystian Bogucki - 2023 - Folia Philosophica 48:1-24. Translated by Andrzej Painta, Marta Ples-Bęben, Mateusz Jurczyński & Lidia Obojska.
    The present article reviews the Polish-language edition of Gottlob Frege’s scientific correspondence. In the article, I discuss the material hitherto unpublished in Polish in relation to the remainder of Frege’s works. First of all, I inquire into the role and nature of definitions. Then, I consider Frege’s recognition criteria for sameness of thoughts. In the article’s third part, I study letters devoted to the principle of semantic compositionality, while in the fourth part I discuss Frege’s remarks concerning the context principle.
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  26. Proven impossible: elementary proofs of profound impossibility from Arrow, Bell, Chaitin, Gödel, Turing and more.Dan Gusfield - 2023 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Written for any motivated reader with a high-school knowledge of mathematics, and the discipline to follow logical arguments, this book presents the proofs for revolutionary impossibility theorems in an accessible way, with less jargon and notation, and more background, intuition, examples, explanations, and exercises.
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  27. Ancient Philosophy of Mathematics and Its Tradition.Gonzalo Gamarra Jordán & Chiara Martini - 2023 - Ancient Philosophy Today 5 (2):93-97.
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  28. Diagrams, Visual Imagination, and Continuity in Peirce's Philosophy of Mathematics.Vitaly Kiryushchenko - 2023 - New York, NY, USA: Springer.
    This book is about the relationship between necessary reasoning and visual experience in Charles S. Peirce’s mathematical philosophy. It presents mathematics as a science that presupposes a special imaginative connection between our responsiveness to reasons and our most fundamental perceptual intuitions about space and time. Central to this view on the nature of mathematics is Peirce’s idea of diagrammatic reasoning. In practicing this kind of reasoning, one treats diagrams not simply as external auxiliary tools, but rather as immediate visualizations of (...)
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  29. Wittgenstein, Russell, and Our Concept of the Natural Numbers.Saul A. Kripke - 2023 - In Carl Posy & Yemima Ben-Menahem (eds.), Mathematical Knowledge, Objects and Applications: Essays in Memory of Mark Steiner. Springer. pp. 137-155.
    Wittgenstein gave a clearly erroneous refutation of Russell’s logicist project. The errors were ably pointed out by Mark Steiner. Nevertheless, I was motivated by Wittgenstein and Steiner to consider various ideas about the natural numbers. I ask which notations for natural numbers are ‘buck-stoppers’. For us it is the decimal notation and the corresponding verbal system. Based on the idea that a proper notation should be ‘structurally revelatory’, I draw various conclusions about our own concept of the natural numbers.
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  30. Frege, Thomae, and Formalism: Shifting Perspectives.Richard Lawrence - 2023 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 11 (2):1-23.
    Mathematical formalism is the the view that numbers are "signs" and that arithmetic is like a game played with such signs. Frege's colleague Thomae defended formalism using an analogy with chess, and Frege's critique of this analogy has had a major influence on discussions in analytic philosophy about signs, rules, meaning, and mathematics. Here I offer a new interpretation of formalism as defended by Thomae and his predecessors, paying close attention to the mathematical details and historical context. I argue that (...)
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  31. Elaine Landry.*Plato Was Not a Mathematical Platonist.Colin McLarty - 2023 - Philosophia Mathematica 31 (3):417-424.
    This book goes far beyond its title. Landry indeed surveys current definitions of “mathematical platonism” to show nothing like them applies to Socrates in Plat.
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  32. Wittgenstein on Mathematical Advances and Semantical Mutation.André Porto - 2023 - Philósophos.
    The objective of this article is to try to elucidate Wittgenstein’s ex-travagant thesis that each and every mathematical advancement involves some “semantical mutation”, i.e., some alteration of the very meanings of the terms involved. To do that we will argue in favor of the idea of a “modal incompati-bility” between the concepts involved, as they were prior to the advancement, and what they become after the new result was obtained. We will also argue that the adoption of this thesis profoundly (...)
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  33. За игрой в карты с чертиком Визинга.Brian Rabern & Landon Rabern - 2023 - Kvant 2023 (10):2-6.
    We analyze a solitaire game in which a demon rearranges some cards after each move. The graph edge coloring theorems of K˝onig (1931) and Vizing (1964) follow from the winning strategies developed.
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  34. The waltz of reason: the entanglement of mathematics and philosophy.Karl Sigmund - 2023 - New York: Basic Books.
    Over Plato's Academy in ancient Athens, it is said, hung a sign: "Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here." Plato thought no one could do philosophy without also doing mathematics. In The Waltz of Reason, mathematician and philosopher Karl Sigmund shows us why. Charting an epic story spanning millennia and continents, Sigmund shows that philosophy and mathematics are inextricably intertwined, mutual partners in a reeling search for truth. Beginning with-appropriately enough-geometry, Sigmund explores the power and beauty of numbers and (...)
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  35. Why Did Leibniz Invent Binary?Lloyd Strickland - 2023 - In Wenchao Li, Charlotte Wahl, Sven Erdner, Bianca Carina Schwarze & Yue Dan (eds.), »Le present est plein de l’avenir, et chargé du passé«. Gottfried-Wilhelm-Leibniz-Gesellschaft e.V.. pp. 354-360.
  36. Paul Cohen’s philosophy of mathematics and its reflection in his mathematical practice.Roy Wagner - 2023 - Synthese 202 (2):1-22.
    This paper studies Paul Cohen’s philosophy of mathematics and mathematical practice as expressed in his writing on set-theoretic consistency proofs using his method of forcing. Since Cohen did not consider himself a philosopher and was somewhat reluctant about philosophy, the analysis uses semiotic and literary textual methodologies rather than mainstream philosophical ones. Specifically, I follow some ideas of Lévi-Strauss’s structural semiotics and some literary narratological methodologies. I show how Cohen’s reflections and rhetoric attempt to bridge what he experiences as an (...)
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  37. “In Nature as in Geometry”: Du Châtelet and the Post-Newtonian Debate on the Physical Significance of Mathematical Objects.Aaron Wells - 2023 - In Wolfgang Lefèvre (ed.), Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant: Philosophy and Science in the Eighteenth Century. Springer Verlag. pp. 69-98.
    Du Châtelet holds that mathematical representations play an explanatory role in natural science. Moreover, she writes that things proceed in nature as they do in geometry. How should we square these assertions with Du Châtelet’s idealism about mathematical objects, on which they are ‘fictions’ dependent on acts of abstraction? The question is especially pressing because some of her important interlocutors (Wolff, Maupertuis, and Voltaire) denied that mathematics informs us about the properties of material things. After situating Du Châtelet in this (...)
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  38. Algorithmic modernity: mechanizing thought and action, 1500-2000.Morgan G. Ames & Massimo Mazzotti (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    The rhetoric of algorithmic neutrality is more alive than ever-why? This volume explores key moments in the historical emergence of algorithmic practices and in the constitution of their credibility and authority since 1500. If algorithms are historical objects and their associated meanings and values are situated and contingent-and if we are to push back against rhetorical claims of otherwise-then the genealogical investigation this book offers is essential to understand the power of the algorithm. The fact that algorithms create the conditions (...)
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  39. Introduction.Morgan G. Ames & Massimo Mazzotti - 2022 - In Morgan G. Ames & Massimo Mazzotti (eds.), Algorithmic modernity: mechanizing thought and action, 1500-2000. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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  40. Some call it arsmetrike, and some awgryme" : misprision and precision in algorithmic thinking and learning in 1543 and beyond.Michael J. Barany - 2022 - In Morgan G. Ames & Massimo Mazzotti (eds.), Algorithmic modernity: mechanizing thought and action, 1500-2000. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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  41. A Reassessment of Cantorian Abstraction based on the $$\varepsilon $$ ε -operator.Nicola Bonatti - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-26.
    Cantor’s abstractionist account of cardinal numbers has been criticized by Frege as a psychological theory of numbers which leads to contradiction. The aim of the paper is to meet these objections by proposing a reassessment of Cantor’s proposal based upon the set theoretic framework of Bourbaki—called BK—which is a First-order set theory extended with Hilbert’s \-operator. Moreover, it is argued that the BK system and the \-operator provide a faithful reconstruction of Cantor’s insights on cardinal numbers. I will introduce first (...)
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  42. Numbers and Narratives — or : When Russell meets Zhu Shijie to discuss Philosophy of Mathematics.Andrea Bréard - 2022 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 78 (3):365-384.
    Andrea Bréard Même si aucune source métadiscursive sur les mathématiques elles-mêmes n’a été transmise de la Chine ancienne et prémoderne, des réflexions ont été menées sur les objets mathématiques et sur la boîte à outils des praticiens. Cet article montre comment elles sont insérées dans les traités mêmes en prenant en particulier l’exemple d’un domaine de la théorie des nombres qui a évolué en Chine du premier à la fin du xixe siècle. Ces réflexions sont dispersées entre textes, paratextes et (...)
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  43. Mathematical Commentaries in the Ancient World: A Global Perspective.Karine Chemla & Glenn W. Most (eds.) - 2022 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    This is the first book-length analysis of the techniques and procedures of ancient mathematical commentaries. It focuses on examples in Chinese, Sanskrit, Akkadian and Sumerian, and Ancient Greek, presenting the general issues by constant detailed reference to these commentaries, of which substantial extracts are included in the original languages and in translation, sometimes for the first time. This makes the issues accessible to readers without specialized training in mathematics or in the languages involved. The result is a much richer understanding (...)
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  44. Descartes et ses mathématiques.Olivia Chevalier (ed.) - 2022 - Paris: Classiques Garnier.
    Dans cet ouvrage, il s'agira non seulement d'aborder différentes facettes de l'activité mathématique de Descartes, assez peu connues, mais également diverses dimensions de sa pensée mathématique.
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  45. Degeneration and Entropy.Eugene Y. S. Chua - 2022 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 36 (2):123-155.
    [Accepted for publication in Lakatos's Undone Work: The Practical Turn and the Division of Philosophy of Mathematics and Philosophy of Science, special issue of Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy. Edited by S. Nagler, H. Pilin, and D. Sarikaya.] Lakatos’s analysis of progress and degeneration in the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes is well-known. Less known, however, are his thoughts on degeneration in Proofs and Refutations. I propose and motivate two new criteria for degeneration based on the discussion in Proofs and Refutations (...)
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  46. V.A. Yankov on Non-Classical Logics, History and Philosophy of Mathematics.Alex Citkin & Ioannis M. Vandoulakis (eds.) - 2022 - Springer, Outstanding Contributions To Logic (volume 24).
    This book is dedicated to V.A. Yankov’s seminal contributions to the theory of propositional logics. His papers, published in the 1960s, are highly cited even today. The Yankov characteristic formulas have become a very useful tool in propositional, modal and algebraic logic. The papers contributed to this book provide the new results on different generalizations and applications of characteristic formulas in propositional, modal and algebraic logics. In particular, an exposition of Yankov’s results and their applications in algebraic logic, the theory (...)
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  47. Teológia a matematika v kontexte paradigmatických zmien renesančnej a ranonovovekej kozmológie a fyziky.Gašpar Fronc - 2022 - Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave.
    The publication offers an interdisciplinary and historical approach to the questions of exploration of the world with an emphasis on paradigm changes during the Renaissance and early modern times, leading to new concepts that we can accept as the beginning of the natural sciences in our current understanding. The main goal is to point out the connections between the paradigms of mathematics, theology and natural sciences, the connection of which is for the main protagonists an essential factor in the formation (...)
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  48. Mathematics embodied: Merleau-Ponty on geometry and algebra as fields of motor enaction.Jan Halák - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-28.
    This paper aims to clarify Merleau-Ponty’s contribution to an embodied-enactive account of mathematical cognition. I first identify the main points of interest in the current discussions of embodied higher cognition and explain how they relate to Merleau-Ponty and his sources, in particular Husserl’s late works. Subsequently, I explain these convergences in greater detail by more specifically discussing the domains of geometry and algebra and by clarifying the role of gestalt psychology in Merleau-Ponty’s account. Beyond that, I explain how, for Merleau-Ponty, (...)
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  49. Mirja Hartimo* Husserl and Mathematics.Jairo José da Silva - 2022 - Philosophia Mathematica 30 (3):396-414.
    1. INTRODUCTIONIt has been some time now since the philosophical community has learned to appreciate Husserl’s contribution to the philosophies of logic, mathematics, and science in general, despite still some prejudices and misinterpretations in certain academic circles incapable of reading Husserl beyond the incompetent and malicious review which Frege wrote in 1894 of his Philosophie der Arithmetik (PA) [1891/2003], hereafter Hua XII.Husserl’s philosophy of mathematics, in particular, has been the subject of many articles and books and has attracted the attention (...)
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  50. Algorithm and demonstration in the sixteenth-century Ars magna.Abram Kaplan - 2022 - In Morgan G. Ames & Massimo Mazzotti (eds.), Algorithmic modernity: mechanizing thought and action, 1500-2000. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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1 — 50 / 773