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  1. Suhrawardi's Innovations Concerning the Theory of "Emanation".Dr S. Juma - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 22.
    There are a number of people in Islamic communities, including ours, who have a superficial judgment of current philosophical discussions in the world of Islam and consider them as having been originated from Greek philosophy. One of these discussions is related to the issue of emanation or effusion with which Farabi and Ibn Sina agreed. Unfortunately, in spite of all the innovations brought about by these two philosophers concerning the above issue, a great number of teachers of philosophy agree with (...)
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  2. Ibn Sina's Treatise of "al-Majalis al-sab'ah".Maqsud Mohammadi - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 27.
    This article introduces one of Ibn-Sina's unpublished and handwritten manuscripts called "al-majalis al-saba'h". This treatise consists of fourty one questions and answers between Abulhasan Amiri and Ibn-Sina. The writer has extensively explored the content validity of this work and presented a rather comprehensive analysis of it.
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  3. A Glance At The Impacts Of Islamic Philosophy On Scholasticism.Ali Muradkhani - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 40.
    The Present paper, in addition to discussing the indebtedness of Scholastic philosophy to Islamic thought in the 12th and 13th centuries, provides a short account of Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd's metaphysics along with their influence over the medieval philosophy. When discussing Ibn Sina, the author explicitly emphasizes his originality of thoughts with reference to his philosophical sources, such as Aristotle, neo-Platonists, Kindi, and Farabi. The author believes that this originality lies in Ibn Sina's discussions of existence, the relation of (...)
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  4. Oriental Wisdom.M. Pour - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 28.
    Some people consider Ibn-Sina a Peripatetic philosopher and merely a comentator of Aristotle's works.However even a facile study of the works of this eminent philosopher reveals that this is absolutely wrong.In fact, the differences between Ibn-Sina's theories and those of Aristotle are so great in number that we cannot even enumerate them in this paper.Nevertheless, it seems that towards the end of his short life, Ibn-Sina intended to found a new philosophical system, called "Oriental Wisdom", but he couldn't achieve this (...)
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  5. Theology in Avicennan Philosophy.Amir Shirzad - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 12.
    Peripatetics use the terms "necessary existent" and "first principle" to define God on the basis of dividing existents into necessary and possible. They also state that the chain of the possible existents leads up to a non-caused cause. According to Peripatetics, there is no way to learn about the nature of God and the most which can be done is to perceive God via terms such as "necessary existent" and "first principle".Still, they emphasize, that this very perception cannot and should (...)
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  6. El Sirr sina'at al-tibb de Abu Bakr Muhammad B. Zakariyya al-RazT.Rosa Kuhne - forthcoming - Al-Qantara.
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  7. Illuminationist School and Critique of Avicenna’s Karársīs fi ‘l-hikmah.Farshad Norouzi - forthcoming - New Philosophy.
    Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash ibn Amirak as-Suhrawardī, (also Shaikh al-Ishraq, Shaikh al-Maqtul) was founder of the illuminationist school (Ar. Hikmat al-ishraq; Pers. falsafaye ešrāqi ). Derived from “illumination,” a conventional translation of the Arabic term ishraq (lit. radiance, shining of the rising sun), “illuminationism” refers to the doctrine of the Ishraqiyyun, a school of philosophical and mystical thought of various Graeco-Oriental roots whose principles were propounded as an ancient “science of lights” (‘ilm al-anwar) . He chose this title to (...)
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  8. Falsafah-ʼi Ibn Sīnā.Shaikh Ismāʻīl Muballigh - 9999 - Kābul: Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Ibn Sīnā va Bunyād-i Andīshah.
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  9. Avicenna and the book of medicine.Jordi Bayarri - 2023 - Minneapolis: Graphic Universe, an imprint of Lerner Publishing Group.
    Avicenna was a physician and philosopher in an era known as the Islamic Golden Age. His early medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine, was a groundbreaking text that scholars and healers read for centuries afterward.
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  10. Può un uomo generarsi nell’utero di una capra o di una cagna? Una quaestio di Urbano da Bologna nel commento alla Physica di Averroè.Mario Loconsole - 2023 - Noctua 10 (1):46-105.
    In Latin Europe, the controversy over spontaneous generation of perfect animals – namely those whose breeding occurs through sexual reproduction – is received in different ways, varying from positions very close to Avicenna’s, as in the case of Pietro Pomponazzi, to interpretations that rather refer to Averroes’ perspective. To this ‘Averroist front’ undoubtedly belongs the figure of Urbano da Bologna, author of the Expositio commenti Averrois in VIII libros Physicorum – a work that can be defined a supercommentary to Averroes’ (...)
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  11. Torn Between the Contours of Logic: Exploring Logical Normativity in Islamic Philosophical Theology.Abbas Ahsan & Marzuqa Karima - 2022 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 2 (18):5-41.
    Western contemporary logic has been used to advance the field of Islamic philosophical theology, which historically utilised Aristotelian-Avicennian logic, on grounds of there being an inherent normativity in logic. This is in spite of the surrounding controversy on the status of logic in the Islamic theological tradition. The normative authority of logic means that it influences the content of what we ought to believe and how we ought to revise those beliefs. This paper seeks to demonstrate that, notwithstanding the incompatible (...)
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  12. Avicenna's Theory of Science: Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology. By RiccardoStrobino. Oakland: University of California Press, 2021. Pp. xvi, 428. $95.00. [REVIEW]Silvia Di Vincenzo - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (6):1200-1201.
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  13. Avicenna on the Necessity of the Actual: His Interpretation of Four Aristotelian Arguments.Celia Kathryn Hatherly - 2022 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    In his magnum opus, The Healing, Avicenna took four Aristotelian arguments and used them to prove a very un-Aristotelian conclusion: that the cosmos is both created and eternal. This book explains how Avicenna used his distinctive understanding of possibility and necessity to do so.
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  14. Avicenna on the Necessity of the Actual: His Interpretation of Four Aristotelian Arguments.Celia Kathryn Hatherly - 2022 - Lanham: Lexington.
    According to Avicenna, whatever exists, whenever it exists, exists of necessity. Not all beings, however, exist with the same kind of necessity: some things exist necessarily per se and others necessarily per aliud. Avicenna on the Necessity of the Actual: His Interpretation of Four Aristotelian Arguments explains how Avicenna’s modal claims show that God is the first efficient and the ultimate final cause of an eternally existing cosmos. In particular, Celia Kathryn Hatherly shows how Avicenna uses four Aristotelian arguments to (...)
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  15. Quiddities and repeatables: towards a tripartite analysis of simple predicative statements.Boris Hennig - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-12.
    I argue that a tripartite analysis of simple statements such as “Bucephalus is a horse”, according to which they divide into two terms and a copula, requires the notion of a repeatable: something such that more than one particular can literally be it. I pose a familiar dilemma with respect to repeatables, and turn to Avicenna for a solution, who discusses a similar dilemma concerning quiddities. I conclude by describing how Avicenna’s quiddities relate to repeatables, and how both quiddities and (...)
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  16. Avicenna on human self-intellection.Boris Hennig - 2022 - Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 32 (2):179-199.
    RésuméJe soutiens qu'Avicenne admet au moins un cas où il est possible pour notre intellect de saisir un individu particulier en soi : chaque intellect humain peut s'appréhender comme étant numériquement lui-même sans avoir recours à une notion ou un concept général. Car l’être humain préserve son identité lorsqu'il est séparé de son corps. Nous discutons des textes où Avicenne semble affirmer et nier qu'un être humain peut s'appréhender lui-même. Nous concluons que, contrairement à la conscience de soi qu'invoque Avicenne (...)
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  17. Muqa?raba?t fi? mant?iq al-qad?a?ya?: dira?sah tah?li?li?yah muqa?ranah fi? mant?iq Ibn Si?na?Muḥammad ʻAbd al-Mahdī Salmān Ḥulw - 2022 - ?Amma?n: Da?r Amjad lil-Nashr wa-al-Tawzi??.
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  18. The Sacred Art of Burckhardt and Seyyed Hossein Nasr: the Contemporary Approach of Farabi's Virtuous City’s Art and Suhrawardi's Illuminating Art.Maftouni Nadia & Davar Mohamad Mahdi - 2022 - Pajohesh Dar Honar Wa Ulom Ensani 5 (44):19- 26.
    Art among Iranian and Islamic philosophers has always been associated with moral, so that many philosophers have considered art to be synonymous with virtue. By examining Farabi's opinions, it is possible to extract his special ideas about art and artist. In Farabi's theory of Virtuous Art, the artist is on the second floor of utopia and carries religious truths and reasonable happiness. Also, the theory of Virtuous Art has all the aesthetic features and artistic creativity, and in fact, all artistic (...)
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  19. God's Perfect Will: Remarks on Johnston and O'Connor.Kenneth L. Pearce - 2022 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 10:248-254.
    Why would God create a world at all? Further, why would God create a world like this one? The Neoplatonic framework of classical philosophical theology answers that God’s willing is an affirmation of God’s own goodness, and God creates to show forth God’s glory. Mark Johnston has recently argued that, in addition to explaining why God would create at all, this framework gives extremely wide scope to divine freedom. Timothy O’Connor objects that divine freedom, on this view, cannot be so (...)
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  20. A recepção da classificação aristotélica das ciências por Ibn Sina (Avicena).Andrei Pedro Vanin - 2022 - Intuitio 15 (1):1-10.
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  21. Intencionalidad e intentio en Avicena.Julio César Vargas Bejarano - 2022 - Universitas Philosophica 39 (78):43-81.
    A pesar de los reparos de algunos especialistas, Avicena es un punto de referencia insoslayable en la historia de la intencionalidad. Este trabajo se propone determinar la manera en que el intelecto toma posición con respecto a la realidad de los objetos con los que se relaciona. Abordamos la relación intencional centrando nuestra atención en el nexo entre lógica y ontología y enfatizando el papel que juegan la conceptualización y la estimación en la determinación de lo que es real y (...)
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  22. Augustine and Avicenna on the Puzzle of Time Without Time.Celia Hatherly - 2021 - In Sean Hannan, John Doody & Kim Paffenroth (eds.), Augustine and Time. New York, USA: Rowan and Littlefield. pp. 161-178.
    There is a remarkable coincidence in Augustine and Avicenna’s investigations into the nature of time. Despite the fact that Avicenna wrote in Arabic and Persian, was born in Central Asia more than five hundred years after the death of Augustine, and had no access to Augustine’s philosophical works, both consider a strikingly similar objection to the ontological dependence of time on the motion of the heavens.
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  23. Avicenna on the Ontology of Pure Quiddity.Boris Hennig - 2021 - Philosophical Quarterly 71 (4):pqaa079.
    Avicenna on the Ontology of Pure Quiddity. By Janos Damien.
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  24. Revisiting Ibn Sina's (Avicenna) heritage.Kadircan H. Keskinbora (ed.) - 2021 - Berlin: Peter Lang.
    Even well after his lifetime, Ibn Sina was renowned, not just in medicine or philosophy, but in other areas, especially in the Islamic world. In brief, he was an authority in the Islamic East, or an “auctoritas”. However, in the west, his work was massively influential in not only the medical education curricula, but also in the important, innovative doctrines in philosophy. The most fundamental sections of his major encyclopedia, al-Shifâ being translated into Latin as early as the 12th and (...)
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  25. Animism and natural teleology from Avicenna to Boyle.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Science in Context 34 (1):1-23.
    Historians have claimed that the two closely related concepts of animism and natural teleology were both decisively rejected in the Scientific Revolution. They tout Robert Boyle as an early modern warden against pre-modern animism. Discussing Avicenna, Aquinas, and Buridan, as well as Renaissance psychology, I instead suggest that teleology went through a slow and uneven process of rationalization. As Neoplatonic theology gained influence over Aristotelian natural philosophy, the meaning of animism likewise grew obscure. Boyle, as some historians have shown, exemplifies (...)
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  26. Avicenna's Intuitionist Rationalism.Ismail Kurun - 2021 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 38 (4):317-336.
    This study is the first part of an attempt to settle a vigorous debate among historians of medieval philosophy by harnessing the resources of analytic philosophy. The debate is about whether Avicenna's epistemology is rationalist or empirical. To settle the debate, I first articulate in this article the three core theses of rationalism and one core thesis of empiricism. Then, I probe Avicenna's epistemology in his major works according to the first core thesis of rationalism (the intuition thesis). In the (...)
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  27. Avicenne, ou, L'islam des Lumières.Omar Merzoug - 2021 - [Paris]: Flammarion.
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  28. Attempts by Avicenna and Ibn al-Nafīs to Expand the Field of the Transference of Demonstration in the Context of the Relationship Between Geometry and Medicine.Bakhadir Musametov - 2021 - Nazariyat, Journal for the History of Islamic Philosophy and Sciences 7 (1):37-71.
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  29. Avicenne: prophétie et gouvernement du monde.Meryem Sebti - 2021 - Paris: Les éditions du Cerf.
    L'histoire de la pensée occidentale est incompréhensible sans la contribution du philosophe arabo-musulman Ibn Sina, dit Avicenne. Mais on oublie trop souvent que ce penseur majeur fut d'abord un croyant et un théologien. Voici enfin l'étude qui rend justice à la fois à son œuvre et à sa biographie. Si l'apport d'Avicenne à la pensée occidentale est incontesté, on connaît moins le théologien et sa prophétologie.0La doctrine de la prophétie d'Avicenne (980-1037), bien connue, a néanmoins fait l'objet de peu d'études. (...)
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  30. Neither Created Nor Destructible: Ibn Sīnā on the Eternity of the Universe.Syamsuddin Arif - 2020 - Al-Shajarah 25 (1):85-106.
    This article discusses Ibn Sīnā’s reasons for upholding the eternity of the world in his major philosophical writings and the ensuing heated debate between his detractors (al-Ghazālī, al-Shahrastānī and al-Rāzī) and supporters (al-Ṭūsī and al-Āmidī). I argue that notwithstanding the responses and surrejoinders it had elicited, Ibn Sīnā’s position on the issue is indeed coherent and irrefutable, since he distinguishes three modes of eternity, corresponding to the hierarchy of beings which he introduced, namely, (i) absolutely eternal (by virtue of itself); (...)
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  31. Analytic Philosophy and Avicenna: Knowing the Unknown.Mohammad Azadpur - 2020 - New York: Routledge.
    This work engages in a constructive, yet subtle, dialogue with the nuanced accounts of sensory intentionality and empirical knowledge offered by the Islamic philosopher Avicenna. -/- This discourse has two main objectives: (1) providing an interpretation of Avicenna’s epistemology that avoids reading him as a precursor to British empiricists or as a full-fledged emanatist and (2) bringing light to the importance of Avicenna’s account of experience to relevant contemporary Anglo-American discussions in epistemology and metaphysics. These two objectives are interconnected. Anglo-American (...)
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  32. Necessary Existence and the Doctrine of Being in Avicenna's Metaphysics of the Healing.Daniel D. De Haan - 2020 - Boston: Brill.
    In Necessary Existence and the Doctrine of Being in Avicenna’s Metaphysics of the Healing Daniel De Haan explicates the central argument of Avicenna’s metaphysical masterpiece. De Haan argues that the most fundamental primary notion in Avicenna’s metaphysics is neither being nor thing but is the necessary ( wājib), which Avicenna employs to demonstrate the existence and true-nature of the divine necessary existence in itself. This conclusion is established through a systematic investigation of how Avicenna’s theory of a demonstrative science is (...)
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  33. Taʻlīqāt-i Ibn Sīnā.Ibrāhīmī Dīnānī & Ghulām Ḥusayn - 2020 - Tabrīz: Ufuq-i Dānish.
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  34. Avicenna’s and Mullā Ṣadrā’s Arguments for Immateriality of the Soul from the Viewpoint of Physicalism.Mahdi Homazadeh - 2020 - Angelicum 97 (3):367-390.
    I seek to explicate the ways in which the soul is deemed immaterial in two main strands of Islamic philosophy, and then consider some arguments for the immateriality of the soul. To do so, I first overview Avicenna’s theory of the spiritual incipience (al-ḥudūth al-rūḥānī) of the soul and his version of substance dualism. I will then discuss Mullā Ṣadrā’s view of the physical incipience (al-ḥudūth al-jismānī) of the soul and how the soul emerges and develops towards immateriality on his (...)
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  35. Alchimicorum periti operantur sicut periti medicorum. Albert the Great’s Account on Alchemical Transmutation.Mario Loconsole - 2020 - Noctua 7 (2):185-224.
    This article deals with the most relevant philosophical side of Albert the Great’s analysis of alchemy, aimed at clarifying what alchemical transmutation consists in and whether this process can ultimately be accomplished by men. The Dominican master handles the problem differently in the earlier commentary on Lombardus’ Libri Sententiarum and in works like the De mineralibus, in which a more mature idea of the connection between art and nature is developed. In this respect, Albert’s interpretation intersects with Avicenna’s De congelatione, (...)
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  36. From Food to Elements and Humors: Digestion in Late Renaissance Galenism.Elisabeth Moreau - 2020 - In Giouli Korobili & Roberto Lo Presti (eds.), Nutrition and Nutritive Soul in Aristotle and Aristotelianism. De Gruyter. pp. 319-338.
    In late Renaissance medicine, the example of digestion was frequently invoked to prove the elemental composition of the human body. Food was considered as being decomposed in its first elements by the stomach, and digested into a thick juice, which was assimilated by the liver and the body parts. Such a process points to the structure of the human body into four elements that are transformed into different types of humors during several stages of “concoction”. This chapter examines the Galenic (...)
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  37. Scientific Method in Avicenna: Subject, Principle And Problem.Ömer Odabaş - 2020 - Theosophia (1):15-33.
    In this article, three concepts that constitute the pillars of sciences, namely the subject, principle and problem, will be examined relying on Avicenna’s (d. 428/1037) book of Burhān. These three concepts, which generally determine the scope of scientific research and the principles on which it should be based, were introduced systematically for the first time by Aristotle (d. 322 BC) in the history of thought. Through these concepts, philosophical sciences could be distinguished from one another and it became possible for (...)
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  38. Avicena e suas fontes: o De anima II.1 412a19-30.Meline Costa Souza - 2020 - Nuntius Antiquus 16 (1):101-126.
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  39. The Role of Essentially Ordered Causal Series in Avicenna’s Proof for the Necessary Existent in the Metaphysics of the Salvation.Celia Byrne - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (2):121-138.
    Avicenna's proof for the existence of God (the Necessary Existent) in the Metaphysics of the Salvation relies on the claim that every possible existent shares a common cause. I argue that Avicenna has good reason to hold this claim given that he thinks that (1) every essentially ordered causal series originates in a first, common cause and that (2) every possible existent belongs to an essentially ordered series. Showing Avicenna's commitment to 1 and 2 allows me to respond to Herbert (...)
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  40. Experimentation in Avicenna's Philosophy by Referring to Its Practical Application in His Works on Natural Sciences.Roohollah Fadaei & Reza Akbari - 2019 - Philosophy and Kalam 51 (2):245ß260.
    Avicenna, beside his theoretical discussions about experimentation, practically applied his experimental method to natural sciences studies such as medicine, biology, and meteorology. His theoretical discussions subsume propositions concerning the conditions under which experimental knowledge is attained, the components of this knowledge and its functions. Some of these propositions are as follows: necessity of recurrent observations for acquiring experimental knowledge, certainty plus conditional universality of such knowledge, and its role as demonstrative premises. Investigating the application of his theory in natural sciences (...)
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  41. Remark on Al-Fārābī's missing modal logic and its effect on Ibn Sīnā.Wilfrid Hodges - 2019 - Eshare: An Iranian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):39-73.
    We reconstruct as much as we can the part of al-Fārābī's treatment of modal logic that is missing from the surviving pages of his Long Commentary on the Prior Analytics. We use as a basis the quotations from this work in Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd and Maimonides, together with relevant material from al-Fārābī's other writings. We present a case that al-Fārābī's treatment of the dictum de omni had a decisive effect on the development and presentation of Ibn Sīnā's modal logic. (...)
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  42. al-Insān fī falsafat Ibn Sīnā: dirāsah.Buthaynah Muḥādīn - 2019 - ʻAmmān: al-Ān Nāshirūn wa-Muwazziʻūn.
    إنّ الإنسان يستطيع أن يتجرّد من كلّ شيء إلا من نفسه التي هي عماد شخصيته وأساس ذاته، وإذا كانت الحقائق الكونية والمعارف المتنوعة تصل إلينا بالوساطة، فهناك حقيقة واحدة ندركها إدراكًا مباشرًا، ولا نشكّ فيها لحظة؛ لأن عملها دائمًا يشهد بوجودها، ألا وهي النفس، فالتفكير هو الدليل القاطع على وجود النفس. فَجُلّ اهتمام ابن سينا كان إثبات حقيقة مغايرة للجسم ومتميّزة عنه كلّ التميز، ولكي يثبت وجود هذه الحقيقة اعتمد على بعض الظواهر التي لا يمكن تفسيرها تفسيرًا ماديًّا، ورأى أنها (...)
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  43. Uṣūl va qavāʻid-i ḥadd va nisbat-i ān bā burhān =.ʻAskarī Sulaymānī Amīrī - 2019 - Qum: Intishārāt-i Ḥikmat-i Islāmī.
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  44. Andīshahʹhā-yi Ibn Sīnā dar āyinah-i nigāh-i muʻāṣir.خسروپناهى، عبد الله (ed.) - 2019 - Tihran: Pigāh-i Rūzigār-i Naw.
    Avicenna, 980-1037 -- Criticism and interpretation.
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  45. The Concept of ‘Nature’ in Peripatetic Islamic Philosophers.Nuri Adıgüzel - 2018 - ULUM Journal of Religious Inquiries 1 (1):5-21.
    In this study, lexical and terminological meanings of the term “nature” were analyzed and some Peripatetical Islamic philosophers’ opinions about this term were included. A comparison was made between the words “tabiat” and “doğa” which are used in Turkish language to meet the term “nature”. The realm of existence which Peripatetical Islamic philosophers have used “nature” in as a noun was explained. Debate between Ibn Sīnā and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) about the necessity of proving the term “nature” was mentioned. Ibn (...)
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  46. The creation of philosophical tradition: biography and the reception of Avicenna's philosophy from the eleventh to the fourteenth century A.D.Ahmed H. Al-Rahim - 2018 - Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
    How is a philosophical tradition created? What role does literary biography play in the formation of intellectual reception history? Through a detailed analysis of the lives and works of post-Avicennan philosophers, this monograph traces the intellectual history and development of the Avicennan tradition from the fifth/eleventh to the eighth/fourteenth century. Section 1 investigates the genres of Arabo-Islamic biobibliographical and prosopographical writings as a source for the history of Arabic philosophy, delineating their literary topoi, the construction of philosophical authority, and the (...)
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  47. Al-Najāh min al-gharq fī baḥr al-ḍalālāt. Avicenna - 2018 - Tihrān: Muʼassasah-i Intishārāt-i Dānishgāh-i Tihrān.
    Islamic philosophy -- Early works to 1800.
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  48. The metaphysics of the Shifa: facsimile edition of MS Malek Library (Tehran) 1085. Avicenna - 2018 - Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers.
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  49. Essentialität Und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna Und Die Aristotelische Tradition.Fedor Benevich - 2018 - Boston: Brill.
    In _Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition_ stellt Fedor Benevich Avicennas Theorie der Essenz und der wissenschaftlichen Bestimmung essentieller und notwendiger Attribute in einem historischen Kontext der aristotelischen Tradition. In _Essentialität und Notwendigkeit: Avicenna und die Aristotelische Tradition_ Fedor Benevich presents Avicenna’s theory of essence and the scientific determination of essential and necessary attributes in its historical context of the Aristotelian tradition.
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  50. Avicenna and the Aristotelian left.Ernst Bloch - 2018 - New York: Columbia University Press.
    Ernst Bloch gives a striking account of materialism that traces emancipatory elements of modern thought to medieval Islamic philosophers' encounter with Aristotle. He argues that the great medieval Islamic philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) planted the seeds of a radical materialism still relevant for critical theory today.
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