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  1. Kantian and Neo-Kantian First Principles for Physical and Metaphysical Cognition.Michael E. Cuffaro - manuscript
    I argue that Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy—in particular the doctrine of transcendental idealism which grounds it—is best understood as an `epistemic' or `metaphilosophical' doctrine. As such it aims to show how one may engage in the natural sciences and in metaphysics under the restriction that certain conditions are imposed on our cognition of objects. Underlying Kant's doctrine, however, is an ontological posit, of a sort, regarding the fundamental nature of our cognition. This posit, sometimes called the `discursivity thesis', while considered (...)
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  2. Kant and Theoretical Inquiry.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    This essay discusses recent attempts to show that Kant's philosophy is coherent and consistent on its own terms. This paper was read at the annual POH Symposium in Lake Wenatchee, WA in May, 2013.
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  3. Can mental content externalism prove realism?Axel Mueller - manuscript
    Recently, Kenneth Westphal has presented a highly interesting and innovative reading of Kant's critical philosophy.2 This reading continues a tradition of Kantscholarship of which, e.g., Paul Guyer's work is representative, and in which the antiidealistic potential of Kant's critical philosophy is pitted against its idealistic selfunderstanding. Much of the work in this tradition leaves matters at observing the tensions this introduces in Kant's work. But Westphal's proposed interpretation goes farther. Its attractiveness derives for the most part from the promise that (...)
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  4. The Transcendental Object, Experience, and the Thing in Itself.Michael Oberst - manuscript
    Kant’s doctrine of the “transcendental object” has always puzzled interpreters. On the one hand, he says that the transcendental object is the object to which we relate our representations. On the other hand, he declares the transcendental object to be unknowable and identifies it with the thing in itself. I argue that this poses a problem that Kant only in the B edition of the Critique solves in a satisfactory manner. According to this solution, we ascribe sensible predicates to things (...)
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  5. Apperception, Objectivity, and Idealism.Dennis Schulting - manuscript
    In this paper, I explain why for Kant self-consciousness is intimately related to objectivity, how this intimacy translates to real objects, what it means to make judgements about objects, and what idealism has got to do with all of this.
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  6. Signaling systems and the transcendental deduction.A. Ahmed - forthcoming - In T. Goldschmidt K. Pearce (ed.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics.
    The paper offers a model of Kant's claim that unity of consciousness entails objectivity of experience. This claim has nothing especially to do with thought, language or the categories but is a general truth about arbitrary signaling systems of the sort modeled in the paper. In conclusion I draw some consequences for various forms of idealism.
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  7. Ratbag Idealism.Gordon Belot - forthcoming - In Yemima Ben-Menahem (ed.), Rethinking the Concept of Laws of Nature.
    A discussion of the sense in which reality is mind-dependent for Kant and for David Lewis. Plus a lot about space-aliens (and a bit about pimple-worms).
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  8. No Limit: On What Thought Can Actually Do.Jocelyn Benoist - forthcoming - In Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    This chapter critically examines the notion of a limit. It questions whether a putative opposition of philosophical “camps” emphasized in recent years is actually tenable. This opposition is taken to hold between classical approaches in a Kantian spirit, operating with the notion of necessary limits to human cognition and sense-making, and a recent “speculative” turn in philosophy championed by Quentin Meillassoux, looking to overcome such limits. The chapter’s contention against this dichotomy is that the rhetoric of unlimitedness depends on ideas (...)
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  9. Kant et la matière de l'espace.Henny Blomme - forthcoming - Georg Olms Verlag.
  10. The Proof Structure of Kant's A-Edition Objective Deduction.Corey W. Dyck - forthcoming - In Giuseppe Motta & Dennis Schulting (eds.), Kants transzendentale Deduktion der Kategorien: Neue Interpretationen / Kant's Transcendental Deduction of the Categories: New Interpretations. Berlin: DeGruyter.
    Kant's A-Edition objective deduction is naturally (and has traditionally been) divided into two arguments: an " argument from above" and one that proceeds " von unten auf." This would suggest a picture of Kant's procedure in the objective deduction as first descending and ascending the same ladder, the better, perhaps, to test its durability or to thoroughly convince the reader of its soundness. There are obvious obstacles to such a reading, however; and in this chapter I will argue that the (...)
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  11. Kant on Freedom and Rational Agency.Markus Kohl - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    In "Kant on Freedom and Rational Agency", I aim to give a comprehensive interpretation and a qualified defense of Kant’s doctrine of freedom as a systematic conception of rational agency. -/- Although my book follows Kant in focusing on the idea of free will as a condition of moral agency, it denies that moral freedom of will is the only relevant (transcendental) type of freedom. Human beings also exercise absolute freedom of thought (intellectual autonomy) in their theoretical cognition. Moreover, our (...)
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  12. Kant on Mind-Dependence: Possible or Actual Experience?Markus Kohl - forthcoming - Kantian Review.
    In Kant’s idealism, all spatiotemporal objects depend on the human mind in a certain way. A central issue here is whether the existence of spatiotemporal things requires that these things are objects of some actual experience or of a merely possible experience. In this essay, I argue (on textual and philosophical grounds) for the latter view: spatiotemporal things exist (or spatiotemporal events occur) if they are objects of a (suitably qualified) possible experience.
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  13. Kant on Why We Cannot Even Judge about Things in Themselves.Guido Kreis - forthcoming - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    This paper develops its exegetical claim by building mainly on a reconstruction of a central argument in the Critique of Pure Reason and supporting it with material from Kant’s other critical works. It argues that Kant’s philosophy does not permit us any judgment about things in themselves whatsoever. This could be called a form of ignorance, albeit a unique one. On the developed reading, Kant claims that there cannot be any objectively valid judgment about things in themselves, and since so-called (...)
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  14. Hegel and formal idealism.Manish Oza - forthcoming - Hegel Bulletin:1-25.
    I offer a new reconstruction of Hegel’s criticism of Kant’s idealism. Kant held that we impose categorial form on experience, while sensation provides its matter. Hegel argues that the matter we receive cannot guide our imposition of form on it. Contra recent interpretations, Hegel’s argument does not depend on a conceptualist account of perception or a view of the categories as empirically conditioned. His objection is that given Kant’s dualistic metaphysics, the categories cannot have material conditions for correct application. This (...)
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  15. Synthesis and Transcendental Idealism.H. J. Paton - forthcoming - Kant Studien.
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  16. Practical Cognition and Knowledge of Things-in-Themselves.Karl Schafer - forthcoming - In Evan Tiffany & Dai Heide (eds.), Kantian Freedom. Oxford University Press.
    Famously, in the second Critique, Kant claims that our consciousness of the moral law provides us with sufficient grounds for the attribution of freedom to ourselves as noumena or things-in-themselves. In this way, while Kant insists that we have no rational basis to make substantive assertions about things-in-themselves from a theoretical point of view, it is rational for us to assert that we are noumenally free from a practical one. This much is uncontroversial. What is controversial is the cognitive relation (...)
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  17. Kant and Kripke: Rethinking Necessity and the A Priori.Andrew Stephenson - forthcoming - In James Conant & Jonas Held (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of German Idealism and Analytic Philosophy. London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
    This essay reassesses the relation between Kant and Kripke on the relation between necessity and the a priori. Kripke famously argues against what he takes to be the traditional view that a statement is necessary only if it is a priori, where, very roughly, what it means for a statement to be necessary is that it is true and could not have been false and what it means for a statement to be a priori is that it is knowable independently (...)
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  18. Kant and the Sources of Metaphysics: the Dialectic of Pure Reason, by Marcus Willaschek. [REVIEW]Andrew Stephenson - forthcoming - Dialectica.
  19. An Asymmetrical Approach to Kant's Theory of Freedom.Benjamin Vilhauer - forthcoming - In Dai Heide and Evan Tiffany (ed.), The Idea of Freedom: New Essays on the Interpretation and Significance of Kant's Theory of Freedom.
    Asymmetry theories about free will and moral responsibility are a recent development in the long history of the free will debate. To my knowledge, Kant commentators have not yet explored the possibility of an asymmetrical reconstruction of Kant's theory of freedom, and that will be my goal here. By "free will", I mean the sort of control we would need to be morally responsible for our actions. Kant's term for it is "transcendental freedom", and he refers to the attribution of (...)
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  20. The Philosophy of Exemplarity: Singularity, Particularity, and Self-Reference.Mácha Jakub - 2023 - New York: Routledge.
    This book offers an original philosophical perspective on exemplarity. Inspired by Wittgenstein’s later work and Derrida’s theory of deconstruction, it argues that examples are not static entities but rather oscillate between singular and universal moments. There is a broad consensus that exemplary cases mediate between singular instances and universal concepts or norms. In the first part of the book, Mácha contends that there is a kind of différance between singular examples and general exemplars or paradigms. Every example is, in part, (...)
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  21. The Labyrinth of the Continuum: Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant on Matter and Monads.Anja Jauernig - 2022 - In Karl Schafer (ed.), The Sensible and Intelligible Worlds: New Essays on Kant's Metaphysics and Epistemology. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 185-216.
    The problem at the center of this essay is how one can reconcile the continuity of space with a monadological theory of matter, according to which matter is ultimately composed of simple elements, a problem that greatly exercised Leibniz, the Wolffians, and Kant. The underlying purpose of this essay is to illustrate my reading of Kant’s philosophical development, and of his relation to the Wolffians and Leibniz, according to which, (a), this development was fueled by ‘home-grown’ problems that arose within (...)
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  22. Kant: Transcendental Idealism.Marialena Karampatsou - 2022 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Immanuel Kant: Transcendental Idealism Transcendental idealism is one of the most important sets of claims defended by Immanuel Kant, in the Critique of Pure Reason. According to this famous doctrine, we must distinguish between appearances and things in themselves, that is, between that which is mind-dependent and that which is not. In Kant’s view, human … Continue reading Kant: Transcendental Idealism →.
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  23. Truthmaker Noumenalism.Damian Melamedoff-Vosters - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (1):40-55.
    ABSTRACT One of the core issues where interpreters of Kant disagree concerns his alleged Noumenalism—the claim that the objects of our experience, which are in space and time, are underpinned by entities that are not spatio-temporal and that non-spatio-temporally cause our representations of empirical objects. Although there is much textual evidence in favour of Noumenalism, non-Noumenalists have also gathered a significant number of philosophical and exegetical challenges to such a reading of Kant. I present a novel way of understanding the (...)
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  24. Timeless Freedom in Kant: Transcendental Freedom and Things-in-Themselves.Joe Saunders - 2022 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 39 (3):275-292.
    This paper draws attention to two problems with Kant's claim that transcendental freedom is timeless. The problems are that this causes conceptual difficulties and fails to vindicate important parts of our moral practices. I then put forward three ways in which we can respond to these charges on Kant's behalf. The first is to defend Kant's claim that transcendental freedom occurs outside of time. The second is to reject this claim, but try to maintain transcendental idealism. And the third is (...)
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  25. Bodies, Matter, Monads and Things in Themselves.Nicholas Stang - 2022 - In Brandon Look (ed.), Leibniz and Kant. Oxford University Press.. pp. 142–176.
    In this paper I address a structurally similar tension between phenomenalism and realism about matter in Leibniz and Kant. In both philosophers, some texts suggest a starkly phenomenalist view of the ontological status of matter, while other texts suggest a more robust realism. In the first part of the paper I address a recent paper by Don Rutherford that argues that Leibniz is more of a realist than previous commentators have allowed. I argue that Rutherford fails to show that Leibniz (...)
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  26. Will to Power: Nietzsche's Transcendental Idealism.Tom Bailey - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (2):260-289.
    This article argues that in Beyond Good and Evil (BGE) Nietzsche defends “will to power” as a transcendentally ideal condition of objectivity, in the sense in which Kant considers, say, space, time, or the concepts of substance and causation to be such conditions. The article shows how Nietzsche’s engage-ment with the transcendental idealist arguments of his Kantian contemporaries leads him to reject naturalism and to adopt a peculiarly transcendental kind of skepticism, which rejects as unjustified the conditions that would make (...)
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  27. L.M. Rendl und R. König (Hrsg.), Schlusslogische Letztbegründung. Festschrift für Kurt Walter Zeidler zum 65. Geburtstag, Berlin 2020, 646 Seiten. [REVIEW]Michael Boch - 2021 - Perspektiven der Philosophie 47:235–250.
    In der vorliegenden Festschrift "Schlusslogische Letztbegründung" stehen zwei von Zeidlers zentralen wissenschaftlichen Forschungsbereichen im Fokus. Zum einen hat Zeidler sich in seiner Beschäftigung mit der transzendentalen und spekulativen Logik durch Herausarbeitung der begründenden Funktion des Schlusses hervorgetan. Zum Anderen führte er intensive Studien zur Thematik der Letztbegründung durch, die letztere als dynamische Form der Selbstbegründung auswiesen. Diese zentralen Thesen, dass der Schluss die logische Form der Begründung sei und Letztbegründung nur als Selbstbegründung möglich ist, führten ihn zu seiner Vollendung der (...)
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  28. LOIS MARIE RENDL ET ROBERT KÖNIG (ÉD.), SCHLUSSLOGISCHE LETZTBEGRÜNDUNG. FESTSCHRIFT FÜR KURT WALTER ZEIDLER ZUM 65. GEBURTSTAG, BERLIN, PETER LANG, 2020, 646 P., 87,95 EURO. [REVIEW]Patrick Cerutti - 2021 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 146 (4):568-569.
    Le travail de Kurt Walter Zeidler n’est pas connu en France, mais il représente aujourd’hui la tentative la plus ambitieuse et la plus aboutie pour interpréter la philosophie critique à partir de son double héritage, postkantien et néokantien. Comme l’indiquent ici un grand nombre de ses collègues et de ses disciples, son œuvre très fournie part du constat que l’idéalisme transcendantal n’est pas vraiment parvenu à fonder la synthèse de la raison et de la réalité et à résorber le divorce (...)
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  29. Westphal, Kenneth, Kant’s Critical Epistemology: Why Epistemology Must Consider Judgment First. [REVIEW]Ekin Erkan - 2021 - Argumenta 12:366-373.
  30. Una clasificación y definición de las notas analíticas en las ideas de la Razón.Jassir Hernández - 2021 - Estudos Kantianos 9 (2):157-188.
    Los noumena son, en principio, conceptos límites. En el corpus kantiano encontramos múltiples de ellos, cuyo papel es decisivo en el tratamiento de la metafísica anterior, así como en la propuesta de metafísicas alternativas. Kant, sin embargo, no se detiene a explicarnos de dónde surgen esos conceptos y dónde irían. La presente investigación sugiere que a partir del concepto de nota (Merkmal) presentada en la KrV y desarrollada en la Jäsche Logik, podemos comprender estos noumena como las notas analíticas, suficientes, (...)
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  31. Kant on the (alleged) Leibnizian misconception of the difference between sensible and intellectual representations.Anja Jauernig - 2021 - In Leibniz and Kant. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 177-210.
    Kant attacks the Leibnizians on various fronts but the objection that occurs most frequently in his writings is that they are committed to an untenable conception of the relation between sensible and intellectual representations. They regard the difference between intellectual and sensible representations as a merely ‘logical’ difference that concerns their form, namely, their different degrees of distinctness, while in truth it is a difference in kind that concerns their nature, origin, and content. In the first part of this essay, (...)
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  32. The World According to Kant - Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism.Anja Jauernig - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    The World According to Kant offers an interpretation of Immanuel Kant’s critical idealism, as developed in the Critique of Pure Reason and associated texts. Critical idealism is understood as an ontological position, which comprises transcendental idealism, empirical realism, and a number of other basic ontological theses. According to Kant, the world, understood as the sum total of everything that has reality, comprises several levels of reality, most importantly, the transcendental level and the empirical level. The transcendental level is a mind-independent (...)
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  33. Η δέσμευση του Καντ στα πράγματα καθεαυτά: προβλήματα και λύσεις [Kant’s Commitment to Things in Themselves: Problems and Solutions].Marialena Karampatsou - 2021 - ΔΕΥΚΑΛΙΩΝ 35 (1-2):5–34.
    This is a piece in Greek, published in a special issue (on Kant’s philosophy) of the Greek philosophical journal Deucalion.
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  34. The “Fourth Paralogism” in the 1781 Critique of Pure Reason: A (Moderately) Realist Reading.Marialena Karampatsou - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 545-554.
    On the historically dominant reading of the Fourth Paralogism, Kant pursues an antiskeptical strategy of a Berkeleyan stripe, aiming to secure our belief in the existence of the external world by reducing this world to a mind-dependent, mental entity. I propose a more charitable and realist interpretation of Kant’s strategy. On the proposed reading, Kant pursues a moderate antiskeptical strategy which sets radical skeptical worries aside; Kant’s Berkeleyan-sounding remarks merely express standard Kantian doctrine (his theory of space).
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  35. A priori intuition and transcendental necessity in Kant's idealism.Markus Kohl - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):827-845.
  36. Kant on Plants: Self-Activity, Representations, and the Analogy with Life.Tyke Nunez - 2021 - Philosophers' Imprint 21 (11).
    Do plants represent according to Kant? This is closely connected to the question of whether he held plants are alive, because he explains life in terms of the faculty to act on one’s own representations. He also explains life as having an immaterial principle of self-motion, and as a body’s interaction with a supersensible soul. I argue that because of the way plants move themselves, Kant is committed to their being alive, to their having a supersensible ground of their self-activity, (...)
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  37. The Phenomenology of Frustration and Orthodox Transcendental Idealism.Micah Phillips-Gary - 2021 - Dialectic 14 (2):7-14.
    In this paper I draw on Husserl's early analysis of the frustration of an intentional act to argue against orthodox transcendental idealism, the claim that our acts of cognition can be mistaken with regard to a "matter," and are therefore objective, but this matter only has conceptual structure by virtue of human activity. For example, the proposition "My coffee cup is red" can be true or false depending on the sensations I receive (the matter of the act of cognition), which (...)
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  38. Nietzsche's Engagements with Kant and the Kantian Legacy, vol. 1: Nietzsche, Kant, and the Problem of Metaphysics ed. by Marco Brusotti and Herman Siemens.Justin Remhof - 2021 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 52 (1):177-184.
    Nietzsche, Kant, and the Problem of Metaphysics is the first of three volumes meant to address Nietzsche's relation to Kant and Kantian philosophy. This volume addresses how Nietzsche rejects, adopts, and reformulates Kantian epistemology and metaphysics. In what follows I go through the book chapter by chapter, providing a brief summary before a brief commentary.In their helpful introduction, Brusotti and Siemens do an impressive job of elucidating the young Nietzsche's acquaintances with Kant. This section is a "must-read." They then lay (...)
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  39. The kantian notion of freedom and autonomy of artificial agency.Manas Sahu - 2021 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 23:136-149.
    The objective of this paper is to provide critical analysis of the Kantian notion of freedom ; its significance in the contemporary debate on free-will and determinism, and the possibility of autonomy of artificial agency in the Kantian paradigm of autonomy. Kant's resolution of the third antinomy by positing the ground in the noumenal self resolves the problem of antinomies; however, it invites an explanatory gap between phenomenality and the noumenal self; even if he has successfully established the compatibility of (...)
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  40. Kantian Notion of freedom and Autonomy of Artificial Agency.Manas Kumar Sahu - 2021 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 23:136-149.
    The objective of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the Kantian notion of freedom (especially the problem of the third antinomy and its resolution in the critique of pure reason); its significance in the contemporary debate on free-will and determinism, and the possibility of autonomy of artificial agency in the Kantian paradigm of autonomy. Kant's resolution of the third antinomy by positing the ground in the noumenal self resolves the problem of antinomies; however, invites an explanatory gap (...)
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  41. Transcendental Philosophy As Capacities‐First Philosophy.Karl Schafer - 2021 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 103 (3):661-686.
    In this essay, I propose a novel way of thinking about Kant’s philosophical methodology during the critical period. According to this interpretation, the critical Kant can generally be understood as operating within a “capacities‐first” philosophical framework – that is, within a framework in which our basic rational or cognitive capacities play both an explanatorily and epistemically fundamental role in philosophy – or, at least, in the sort of philosophy that limited creatures like us are capable of. In discussing this idea, (...)
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  42. The Bounds of Transcendental Logic.Dennis Schulting - 2021 - London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    The book addresses two main areas of Kant’s theoretical philosophy: the doctrine of transcendental idealism and various central aspects of the arguments from the Metaphysical and Transcendental Deductions, as well as the relation between the deduction argument and idealism. -/- Among the topics covered are the nature of objective validity, the role and function of transcendental logic in relation to general or formal logic, the possibility of contradictory thoughts, the meaning of the Leitfaden at A79 and the unity of cognition, (...)
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  43. Apperception, Objectivity, and Idealism.Dennis Schulting - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 641-650.
    talk Oslo-Kant congress. In this paper, I explain why for Kant self-consciousness is intimately related to objectivity, how this intimacy translates to real objects, what it means to make judgements about objects, and what idealism has got to do with all of this.
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  44. Äärellisyysfilosofia kaappaa Kantin? [REVIEW]Jussi M. Backman - 2020 - Tiede Ja Edistys 35 (2):183-187.
    Book review of Martin Heidegger, Kant ja metafysiikan ongelma [Kant und das problem der Metaphysik], translated into Finnish by Markku Lehtinen (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2020).
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  45. Metaphysics and Contemporary Science: Why the question of the synthetic a priori shouldn’t not be abandoned prematurely.Kay Herrmann - 2020 - Philosophie.Ch. Swiss Portal for Philosophy (07.10.2020).
    The problem of synthetic judgements touches on the question of whether philosophy can draw independent statements about reality in the first place. For Kant, the synthetic judgements a priori formulate the conditions of the possibility for objectively valid knowledge. Despite the principle fallibility of its statements, modern science aims for objective knowledge. This gives the topic of synthetic a priori unbroken currency. This paper aims to show that a modernized version of transcendental philosophy, if it is to be feasible at (...)
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  46. Kant’s Better-than-Terrible Argument in the Anticipations of Perception.David Landy - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (1):77-101.
    Scholars working on Kant’s Anticipations of Perception generally attribute to him an argument that invalidly infers that objects have degrees of intensive magnitude from the premise that sensations do. I argue that this rests on an incorrect disambiguation of Kant’s use of Empfindung as referring to the mental states that are our sensings, rather than the objects that are thereby sensed. Kant’s real argument runs as follows. The difference between a representation of an empty region of space and/or time and (...)
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  47. Space, Time, and the Origins of Transcendental Idealism: Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy from 1747 to 1770.Matthew Rukgaber - 2020 - Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book provides an account of the unity of Immanuel Kant’s early metaphysics, including the moment he invents transcendental idealism. Matthew Rukgaber argues that a division between “two worlds”—the world of matter, force, and space on the one hand, and the world of metaphysical substances with inner states and principles preserved by God on the other—is what guides Kant’s thought. Until 1770 Kant consistently held a conception of space as a force-based material product of monads that are only virtually present (...)
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  48. Moral Education and Transcendental Idealism.Joe Saunders & Martin Sticker - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (4):646-673.
    In this paper, we draw attention to several important tensions between Kant’s account of moral education and his commitment to transcendental idealism. Our main claim is that, in locating freedom outside of space and time, transcendental idealism makes it difficult for Kant to both provide an explanation of how moral education occurs, but also to confirm that his own account actually works. Having laid out these problems, we then offer a response on Kant’s behalf. We argue that, while it might (...)
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  49. Over een extreem fenomenalistische lezing van Kant. [REVIEW]Dennis Schulting - 2020 - Critique:xx.
    In this critical notice, I argue that Emanuel Rutten's reading of Kant's distinction between the phenomenal and noumenal worlds rests on an extremely phenomenalist reading of Kant's idealism. Rutten makes the ontological claim that Kant's phenomena are reducible to our sensations, and do not exist as objects outside our representations. As a result, his criticism of Kant's restriction thesis that we only know appearances is uncharitably narrow; Rutten argues that, according to Kant, our ignorance of the supersensible applies, not just (...)
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  50. Kritische notitie over een fenomenalistische lezing van Kants idealisme. [REVIEW]Dennis Schulting - 2020 - Radix 46 (4):351-355.
    In this review, I criticize aspects of Emanuel Rutten's new reading of Kant, which belongs to the radical phenomenalistic interpretations of Kant's idealism.
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