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  1. On the basic principle of number.Joosoak Kim - manuscript
    A history of the construction of number has been in line with the process of recognition about the properties of geometry. Natural number representing countability is exhibited on a straight line and the completeness of real number is also originated from the continuous property of the number line. Complex number on a plane off the number line is established and thereafter, the whole number system is completed. When the process of constructing a number with geometric features is investigated from different (...)
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  2. The Integral Construct of Science.Joseph Krecz - manuscript
    A number of general theories of physics provide a model for the fundamental rules that govern our universe, becoming a structural framework to which the new discoveries must conform. The theory of relativity is such a general theory. The theory of relativity is a complex theoretical framework that facilitates the understanding of the universal laws of physics. It is based on the curved space-time continuum fabric abstract concept, and it is well suited for interpreting cosmic events. More so, a general (...)
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  3. Not much higher-order vagueness in Williamson’s ’logic of clarity’.Nasim Mahoozi & Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    This paper deals with higher-order vagueness in Williamson's 'logic of clarity'. Its aim is to prove that for 'fixed margin models' (W,d,α ,[ ]) the notion of higher-order vagueness collapses to second-order vagueness. First, it is shown that fixed margin models can be reformulated in terms of similarity structures (W,~). The relation ~ is assumed to be reflexive and symmetric, but not necessarily transitive. Then, it is shown that the structures (W,~) come along with naturally defined maps h and s (...)
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  4. Qualia Logic.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    The logic of qualia is different than classical logic. We take the first steps in defining it and applying it to the Hard Problem.
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  5. M. Abad Varieties of Three-valued.A. M. Suardiaz A. Quantifier - forthcoming - Studia Logica.
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  6. Logical Characterisation of Possibilistic and Probabilistic Descriptions of Events in Description Logics.Farshad Badie - forthcoming - Bulletin of the Section of Logic.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of formal knowledge representation formalisms and the most well-known formalisms in semantics-based systems. The central focus of this research is on logical-terminological characterisation/analysis of possibilistic and probabilistic descriptions of events in DLs. Based on a logical characterisation of the concept of `being', this paper conceptualises events within DLs world descriptions. Accordingly, it deals with the concepts of `possibility of events' and `probability of events'. The main goal of this research is to investigate how possible (...)
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  7. Towards World Identification in Description Logics.Farshad Badie - forthcoming - Logical Investigations:115–134.
    Logical analysis of the applicability of nominals (which are introduced by hybrid logic) in the formal descriptions of the world (within modern knowledge representation and semantics-based systems) is very important because nominals, as second sorts of propositional symbols, can support logical identification of the described world at specific [temporal and/or spacial] states. This paper will focus on answering the philosophical-logical question of ‘how a fundamental world description in description logic (DL) and a nominal can be related to each other?’. Based (...)
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  8. An Occurrence Description Logic.Farshad Badie & Hans Götzsche - forthcoming - Logical Investigations:142-156.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of well-known terminological knowledge representation formalisms in modern semantics-based systems. This research focuses on analysing how our developed Occurrence Logic (OccL) can conceptually and logically support the development of a description logic. OccL is integrated into the alternative theory of natural language syntax in `Deviational Syntactic Structures' under the label `EFA(X)3' (or the third version of Epi-Formal Analysis in Syntax, EFA(X), which is a radical linguistic theory). From the logical point of view, OccL is (...)
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  9. Explaining Experience In Nature: The Foundations Of Logic And Apprehension.Steven Ericsson-Zenith - forthcoming - Institute for Advanced Science & Engineering.
    At its core this book is concerned with logic and computation with respect to the mathematical characterization of sentient biophysical structure and its behavior. -/- Three related theories are presented: The first of these provides an explanation of how sentient individuals come to be in the world. The second describes how these individuals operate. And the third proposes a method for reasoning about the behavior of individuals in groups. -/- These theories are based upon a new explanation of experience in (...)
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  10. Compatibility, compossibility, and epistemic modality.Wesley Holliday & Matthew Mandelkern - forthcoming - Proceedings of the 23rd Amsterdam Colloquium.
    We give a theory of epistemic modals in the framework of possibility semantics and axiomatize the corresponding logic, arguing that it aptly characterizes the ways in which reasoning with epistemic modals does, and does not, diverge from classical modal logic.
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  11. A note on the sequent calculi.Franco Parlamento & Flavio Previale - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-15.
    We show that the replacement rule of the sequent calculi ${\bf G3[mic]}^= $ in [8] can be replaced by the simpler rule in which one of the principal formulae is not repeated in the premiss.
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  12. Dialogue Games for Minimal Logic.Alexandra Pavlova - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    In this paper, we define a class of dialogue games for Johansson’s minimal logic and prove that it corresponds to the validity of minimal logic. Many authors have stated similar results for intuitionistic and classical logic either with or without actually proving the correspondence. Rahman, Clerbout and Keiff [17] have already specified dialogues for minimal logic; however, they transformed it into Fitch-style natural deduction only. We propose a different specification for minimal logic with the proof of correspondence between the existence (...)
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  13. The Ontological Innocence of Schematic Logic.Oliver William Tatton-Brown - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    This paper gives a semantics for schematic logic, proving soundness and completeness. The argument for soundness is carried out in ontologically innocent fashion, relying only on the existence of formulae which are actually written down in the course of a derivation in the logic. This makes the logic available to a nominalist, even a nominalist who does not wish to rely on modal notions, and who accepts the possibility that the universe may in fact be finite.
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  14. An Axiomatic System Based on Ladd-Franklin's Antilogism.Fangzhou Xu - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-21.
    This paper sketches the antilogism of Christine Ladd-Franklin and historical advancement about antilogism, mainly constructs an axiomatic system Atl based on first-order logic with equality and the wholly-exclusion and not-wholly-exclusion relations abstracted from the algebra of Ladd-Franklin, with soundness and completeness of Atl proved, providing a simple and convenient tool on syllogistic reasoning. Atl depicts the empty class and the whole class differently from normal set theories, e.g. ZFC, revealing another perspective on sets and set theories. Two series of Dotterer (...)
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  15. Abstract rationality: the ‘logical’ structure of attitudes.Franz Dietrich, Antonios Staras & Robert Sugden - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):12-41.
    We present an abstract model of rationality that focuses on structural properties of attitudes. Rationality requires coherence between your attitudes, such as your beliefs, values, and intentions. We define three 'logical' conditions on attitudes: consistency, completeness, and closedness. They parallel the familiar logical conditions on beliefs, but contrast with standard rationality conditions like preference transitivity. We establish a formal correspondence between our logical conditions and standard rationality conditions. Addressing John Broome's programme 'rationality through reasoning', we formally characterize how you can (...)
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  16. A New Logic, a New Information Measure, and a New Information-Based Approach to Interpreting Quantum Mechanics.David Ellerman - 2024 - Entropy Special Issue: Information-Theoretic Concepts in Physics 26 (2).
    The new logic of partitions is dual to the usual Boolean logic of subsets (usually presented only in the special case of the logic of propositions) in the sense that partitions and subsets are category-theoretic duals. The new information measure of logical entropy is the normalized quantitative version of partitions. The new approach to interpreting quantum mechanics (QM) is showing that the mathematics (not the physics) of QM is the linearized Hilbert space version of the mathematics of partitions. Or, putting (...)
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  17. The Simplest Low Linear Order with No Computable Copies.Andrey Frolov & Maxim Zubkov - 2024 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 89 (1):97-111.
    A low linear order with no computable copy constructed by C. Jockusch and R. Soare has Hausdorff rank equal to $2$. In this regard, the question arises, how simple can be a low linear order with no computable copy from the point of view of the linear order type? The main result of this work is an example of a low strong $\eta $ -representation with no computable copy that is the simplest possible example.
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  18. Abstract Categorical Logic.Marc Aiguier & Isabelle Bloch - 2023 - Logica Universalis 17 (1):23-67.
    We present in this paper an abstract categorical logic based on an abstraction of quantifier. More precisely, the proposed logic is abstract because no structural constraints are imposed on models (semantics free). By contrast, formulas are inductively defined from an abstraction both of atomic formulas and of quantifiers. In this sense, the proposed approach differs from other works interested in formalizing the notion of abstract logic and of which the closest to our approach are the institutions, which in addition to (...)
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  19. Outline of a Theory of Reasons.Vincenzo Crupi & Andrea Iacona - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (1):117-142.
    This paper investigates the logic of reasons. Its aim is to provide an analysis of the sentences of the form ‘p is a reason for q’ that yields a coherent account of their logical properties. The idea that we will develop is that ‘p is a reason for q’ is acceptable just in case a suitably defined relation of incompatibility obtains between p and ¬q. As we will suggest, a theory of reasons based on this idea can solve three challenging (...)
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  20. Bounded-depth Frege complexity of Tseitin formulas for all graphs.Nicola Galesi, Dmitry Itsykson, Artur Riazanov & Anastasia Sofronova - 2023 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 174 (1):103166.
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  21. A Unified Interpretation of the Semantics of Relevance Logic.Rea Golan - 2023 - Mind 132 (528).
    I introduce a novel and quite intuitive interpretation of the ternary relation that figures in the relational semantics of many relevance logics. Conceptually, my interpretation makes use only of incompatibility and parthood relations, defined over a set of states. In this way, the proposed interpretation—of the ternary relation and the conditional—extends Dunn’s and Restall’s works on negation and the Routley star operator. Therefore, the interpretation is unified, and hence not only intuitive but also parsimonious. Additionally, the interpretation provides us with (...)
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  22. Self-Reference Upfront: A Study of Self-Referential Gödel Numberings.Balthasar Grabmayr & Albert Visser - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):385-424.
    In this paper we examine various requirements on the formalisation choices under which self-reference can be adequately formalised in arithmetic. In particular, we study self-referential numberings, which immediately provide a strong notion of self-reference even for expressively weak languages. The results of this paper suggest that the question whether truly self-referential reasoning can be formalised in arithmetic is more sensitive to the underlying coding apparatus than usually believed. As a case study, we show how this sensitivity affects the formal study (...)
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  23. Games and Cardinalities in Inquisitive First-Order Logic.Gianluca Grilletti & Ivano Ciardelli - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (1):241-267.
    Inquisitive first-order logic, InqBQ, is a system which extends classical first-order logic with formulas expressing questions. From a mathematical point of view, formulas in this logic express properties of sets of relational structures. This paper makes two contributions to the study of this logic. First, we describe an Ehrenfeucht–Fraïssé game for InqBQ and show that it characterizes the distinguishing power of the logic. Second, we use the game to study cardinality quantifiers in the inquisitive setting. That is, we study what (...)
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  24. How Strong is Ramsey’s Theorem If Infinity Can Be Weak?Leszek Aleksander Kołodziejczyk, Katarzyna W. Kowalik & Keita Yokoyama - 2023 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 88 (2):620-639.
    We study the first-order consequences of Ramsey’s Theorem fork-colourings ofn-tuples, for fixed$n, k \ge 2$, over the relatively weak second-order arithmetic theory$\mathrm {RCA}^*_0$. Using the Chong–Mourad coding lemma, we show that in a model of$\mathrm {RCA}^*_0$that does not satisfy$\Sigma ^0_1$induction,$\mathrm {RT}^n_k$is equivalent to its relativization to any proper$\Sigma ^0_1$-definable cut, so its truth value remains unchanged in all extensions of the model with the same first-order universe.We give a complete axiomatization of the first-order consequences of$\mathrm {RCA}^*_0 + \mathrm {RT}^n_k$for$n \ge (...)
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  25. Abstract Forms of Quantification in the Quantified Argument Calculus.Edi Pavlović & Norbert Gratzl - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (2):449-479.
    The Quantified argument calculus (Quarc) has received a lot of attention recently as an interesting system of quantified logic which eschews the use of variables and unrestricted quantification, but nonetheless achieves results similar to the Predicate calculus (PC) by employing quantifiers applied directly to predicates instead. Despite this noted similarity, the issue of the relationship between Quarc and PC has so far not been definitively resolved. We address this question in the present paper, and then expand upon that result. Utilizing (...)
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  26. Nils Kürbis, Proof and Falsity: A Logical Investigation, Cambridge University Press, 2019, pp. 316; ISBN: 978-110-87-1672-7 (Softcover)£24.99, ISBN: 978-110-84-8130-4 (Hardcover)£78.99, ISBN: 978-110-86-2517-3 (eBook) $26.00. [REVIEW]Ivo Pezlar - 2023 - Studia Logica 111 (2):353-356.
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  27. The Lattice of Super-Belnap Logics.Adam Přenosil - 2023 - Review of Symbolic Logic 16 (1):114-163.
    We study the lattice of extensions of four-valued Belnap–Dunn logic, called super-Belnap logics by analogy with superintuitionistic logics. We describe the global structure of this lattice by splitting it into several subintervals, and prove some new completeness theorems for super-Belnap logics. The crucial technical tool for this purpose will be the so-called antiaxiomatic (or explosive) part operator. The antiaxiomatic (or explosive) extensions of Belnap–Dunn logic turn out to be of particular interest owing to their connection to graph theory: the lattice (...)
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  28. Valuation Semantics for First-Order Logics of Evidence and Truth.H. Antunes, A. Rodrigues, W. Carnielli & M. E. Coniglio - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (5):1141-1173.
    This paper introduces the logic _Q__L__E__T_ _F_, a quantified extension of the logic of evidence and truth _L__E__T_ _F_, together with a corresponding sound and complete first-order non-deterministic valuation semantics. _L__E__T_ _F_ is a paraconsistent and paracomplete sentential logic that extends the logic of first-degree entailment (_FDE_) with a classicality operator ∘ and a non-classicality operator ∙, dual to each other: while ∘_A_ entails that _A_ behaves classically, ∙_A_ follows from _A_’s violating some classically valid inferences. The semantics of _Q__L__E__T_ (...)
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  29. On the Universality of Atomic and Molecular Logics via Protologics.Guillaume Aucher - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1):285-322.
    After observing that the truth conditions of connectives of non–classical logics are generally defined in terms of formulas of first–order logic, we introduce ‘protologics’, a class of logics whose connectives are defined by arbitrary first–order formulas. Then, we introduce atomic and molecular logics, which are two subclasses of protologics that generalize our gaggle logics and which behave particularly well from a theoretical point of view. We also study and introduce a notion of equi-expressivity between two logics based on different classes (...)
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  30. Paraconsistent Metatheory: New Proofs with Old Tools.Guillermo Badia, Zach Weber & Patrick Girard - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (4):825-856.
    This paper is a step toward showing what is achievable using non-classical metatheory—particularly, a substructural paraconsistent framework. What standard results, or analogues thereof, from the classical metatheory of first order logic can be obtained? We reconstruct some of the originals proofs for Completeness, Löwenheim-Skolem and Compactness theorems in the context of a substructural logic with the naive comprehension schema. The main result is that paraconsistent metatheory can ‘re-capture’ versions of standard theorems, given suitable restrictions and background assumptions; but the shift (...)
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  31. Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic with Memory.Alexandru Baltag, Aybüke Özgün & Ana Lucia Vargas Sandoval - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 52 (1):53-110.
    We introduce Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic with Memory (APALM), obtained by adding to the models a ‘memory’ of the initial states, representing the information before any communication took place (“the prior”), and adding to the syntax operators that can access this memory. We show that APALM is recursively axiomatizable (in contrast to the original Arbitrary Public Announcement Logic, for which the corresponding question is still open). We present a complete recursive axiomatization, that includes a natural finitary rule, and study this (...)
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  32. Priority merge and intersection modalities.Zoé Christoff, Norbert Gratzl & Olivier Roy - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (1):165-196.
    We study the logic of so-called lexicographic or priority merge for multi-agent plausibility models. We start with a systematic comparison between the logical behavior of priority merge and the more standard notion of pooling through intersection, used to define, for instance, distributed knowledge. We then provide a sound and complete axiomatization of the logic of priority merge, as well as a proof theory in labeled sequents that admits cut. We finally study Moorean phenomena and define a dynamic resolution operator for (...)
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  33. Coherence in inquisitive first-order logic.Ivano Ciardelli & Gianluca Grilletti - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (9):103155.
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  34. A Probabilistic Logic Between $$LPP1$$ L P P 1 and $$LPP2$$ L P P 2.Šejla Dautović - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1):323-333.
    An extension of the propositional probability logic \ given in Ognjanović et al. that allows mixing of propositional formulas and probabilistic formulas is introduced. We describe the corresponding class of models, and we show that the problem of deciding satisfiability is in NP. We provide infinitary axiomatization for the logic and we prove that the axiomatization is sound and strongly complete.
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  35. A Probabilistic Logic Between $$LPP1$$ L P P 1 and $$LPP2$$ L P P 2.Šejla Dautović - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1-2):323-333.
    An extension of the propositional probability logic \ given in Ognjanović et al. that allows mixing of propositional formulas and probabilistic formulas is introduced. We describe the corresponding class of models, and we show that the problem of deciding satisfiability is in NP. We provide infinitary axiomatization for the logic and we prove that the axiomatization is sound and strongly complete.
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  36. A Unified Logic for Contingency and Accident.Jie Fan - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (4):693-720.
    As shown in Fan, there are some similarities/resemblances between contingency and accident. Given this, one may naturally ask if we can unify the two operators to manifest all of their similarities/resemblances. In this article, instead of looking at the interactions between the two operators like in Fan, we turn our attention to the resemblances between the two operators. We extend the unification method in Fan to the current setting. The main results include some model-theoretical ones, such as expressivity, frame definability, (...)
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  37. From Truth Degree Comparison Games to Sequents-of-Relations Calculi for Gödel Logic.Christian Fermüller, Timo Lang & Alexandra Pavlova - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1):221-235.
    We introduce a game for Gödel logic where the players’ interaction stepwise reduces claims about the relative order of truth degrees of complex formulas to atomic truth comparison claims. Using the concept of disjunctive game states this semantic game is lifted to a provability game, where winning strategies correspond to proofs in a sequents-of-relations calculus.
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  38. "The Bounds of Transcendental Logic" by D. Schulting, Cham, Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan, 2022. [REVIEW]Srećko Kovač - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 44 (1):107-110.
    In the book, the decisive, foundational role of transcendental apperception for logic and transcendental philosophy in Kant is corroborated. The book contains many implicit connections with modern logic that could help a logician with a philosophical interest to gain a deeper insight into the origins and foundations of concepts such as object, truth, analyticity, identity, contradiction, judgment, existence, reference, quantification and others, as well as into the foundations and possible general features of logic. In distinction to the book, this review (...)
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  39. Infinitary action logic with exponentiation.Stepan L. Kuznetsov & Stanislav O. Speranski - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (2):103057.
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  40. Rewriting the History of Connexive Logic.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (3):525-553.
    The “official” history of connexive logic was written in 2012 by Storrs McCall who argued that connexive logic was founded by ancient logicians like Aristotle, Chrysippus, and Boethius; that it was further developed by medieval logicians like Abelard, Kilwardby, and Paul of Venice; and that it was rediscovered in the 19th and twentieth century by Lewis Carroll, Hugh MacColl, Frank P. Ramsey, and Everett J. Nelson. From 1960 onwards, connexive logic was finally transformed into non-classical calculi which partly concur with (...)
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  41. Investigations of isotropy and homogeneity of spacetime in first-order logic.Judit X. Madarász, Mike Stannett & Gergely Székely - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (9):103153.
  42. On Logics and Semantics for Interpretability.Luka Mikec - 2022 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 28 (2):265-265.
  43. On existential definitions of c.e. subsets of rings of functions of characteristic 0.Russell Miller & Alexandra Shlapentokh - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (4):103076.
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  44. Logic and African philosophy: seminal essays on African systems of thought: J. Chimakonam, editor. Delaware, Vernon Press, 2020, xiv + 326 pp., 16 plts, €48, ISBN: 978-1-62273-882-3. [REVIEW]E. Ofuasia - 2022 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (3):303-305.
    Logic and African Philosophy: Seminal Essays on African Systems of Thought is an edited work by Jonathan Chimakonam who is affiliated to the Philosophy Department at the University of Pretoria, Sou...
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  45. Paraconsistent Logic Programming in Three and Four-Valued Logics.Kleidson Êglicio Carvalho da Silva Oliveira - 2022 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 28 (2):260-260.
  46. First-order Logics of Evidence and Truth with Constant and Variable Domains.Abilio Rodrigues & Henrique Antunes - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (3):419-449.
    The main aim of this paper is to introduce first-order versions of logics of evidence and truth, together with corresponding sound and complete Kripke semantics with variable and constant domains. According to the intuitive interpretation proposed here, these logics intend to represent possibly inconsistent and incomplete information bases over time. The paper also discusses the connections between Belnap-Dunn’s and da Costa’s approaches to paraconsistency, and argues that the logics of evidence and truth combine them in a very natural way.
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  47. Situations, Propositions, and Information States.Andrew Tedder - 2022 - In Katalin Bimbó (ed.), Relevance Logics and other Tools for Reasoning: Essays in Honor of J. Michael Dunn. College Publications. pp. 410-426.
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  48. Questions in Two-Dimensional Logic.Thom van Gessel - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (4):859-879.
    Since Kripke, philosophers have distinguished a priori true statements from necessarily true ones. A statement is a priori true if its truth can be established before experience, and necessarily true if it could not have been false according to logical or metaphysical laws. This distinction can be captured formally using two-dimensional semantics. There is a natural way to extend the notions of apriority and necessity so they can also apply to questions. Questions either can or cannot be resolved before experience, (...)
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  49. Lindström theorems in graded model theory.Guillermo Badia & Carles Noguera - 2021 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 172 (3):102916.
    Stemming from the works of Petr Hájek on mathematical fuzzy logic, graded model theory has been developed by several authors in the last two decades as an extension of classical model theory that studies the semantics of many-valued predicate logics. In this paper we take the first steps towards an abstract formulation of this model theory. We give a general notion of abstract logic based on many-valued models and prove six Lindström-style characterizations of maximality of first-order logics in terms of (...)
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  50. Nominal Conceptualism and Logical Modelling of Agents’ Conceptions.Farshad Badie - 2021 - Логико-Философские Штудии 1 (19):95-100.
    In the view of my philosophical position “nominal conceptualism”, cognitive/knowledge agents, who are in some way aware of expressing the world based on their mental concepts, deal with their linguistic and/or symbolic expressions. In this paper I rely on nominal conceptualism to logically characterise agents’ concept-based descriptions of the world and analyse a fundamental logical system for conception representation.
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