About this topic
Summary Reasoning is the reasoned change of belief (and related mental states). Reasoning differs, for example, from daydreaming and from spontaneous changes of belief. A central issue in the study of reasoning is to characterize reasoning: Just what is it to reason as opposed to change one's beliefs in some other way? A second issue in the study of reasoning is normative. Some reasoning counts as good reasoning. Other counts as bad reasoning. Which forms of reasoning are good -- that is, are rational, or preserve justification or knowledge? What makes it the case that those kinds of reasoning are good? Reasoning is typically divided into two kinds -- deductive and inductive (or ampliative). In a good deductive inference, the premises of the reasoning logically entail the conclusion. In a good inductive inference, the premises of the reasoning do not entail the conclusion though they do support it. Part of the philosophical study of reasoning involves the study of these kinds of reasoning (and various further sub-kinds).
Key works Reasoning is a highly heterogenous topic. It is recommended that the key works of the sub-categories be consulted.
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History/traditions: Reasoning

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  1. Abstract rationality: the ‘logical’ structure of attitudes.Franz Dietrich, Antonios Staras & Robert Sugden - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):12-41.
    We present an abstract model of rationality that focuses on structural properties of attitudes. Rationality requires coherence between your attitudes, such as your beliefs, values, and intentions. We define three 'logical' conditions on attitudes: consistency, completeness, and closedness. They parallel the familiar logical conditions on beliefs, but contrast with standard rationality conditions like preference transitivity. We establish a formal correspondence between our logical conditions and standard rationality conditions. Addressing John Broome's programme 'rationality through reasoning', we formally characterize how you can (...)
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  2. ¿Qué es la tecnología? seguido de Epílogo sobre la tecnociencia.Dominique Raynaud - 2018 - Pamplona: Laetoli.
    “La obra que usted está examinando es el primer estudio de todas las facetas de la tecnología, desde la concepción del artefacto hasta los problemas filosóficos y jurídicos que suscitan el saber y el hacer tecnológicos… Además, Raynaud califica de tóxica para la propia tecnología a la política utilitarista de dar prioridad al ‘desarrollo’ por sobre la investigación básica, ya que todas las innovaciones tecnológicas han utilizado conocimientos básicos… El utilitarismo que pregonan los economistas neoclásicos y los estadistas miopes es (...)
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  3. The Epistemology of Attention.Catharine Saint-Croix - forthcoming - In Kurt Sylvan, Jonathan Dancy, Matthias Steup & Ernest Sosa (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Epistemology, 3rd edition. Wiley Blackwell.
    Root, branch, and blossom, attention is intertwined with epistemology. It is essential to our capacity to learn and decisive of the evidence we obtain, it influences the intellectual connections we forge and those we remember, and it is the cognitive tool whereby we enact decisions about inquiry. Moreover, because it is both an epistemic practice and a site of agency, attention is a natural locus for questions about epistemic morality. This article surveys the emerging epistemology of attention, reviewing the existing (...)
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  4. Reason's inquisition: on doubtful ground.Christopher A. Colmo - 2023 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    Theory and practice, reason and revelation, ancients and moderns are the key themes running through the eighteen studies of the literature of political philosophy in Reason's Inquisition. Alfarabi is a pivotal figure, but the range is wide, from Plato and Thucydides to Shakespeare and Hobbes, extending to such contemporary figures as Leo Strauss and Eric Voegelin.
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  5. Ist etwas?Karl Dürr - 1918 - Zürich,: Rascher.
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  6. Ghazālī's epistemology.Reza Hadisi - forthcoming - In Kurt Sylvan, Matthias Steup, Jonathan Dancy & Ernest Sosa (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Epistemology, 3rd edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
  7. Kant on Reason as the Capacity for Comprehension.Karl Schafer - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 101 (4):844-862.
    This essay develops an interpretation of Kant’s conception of the faculty of reason as the capacity for what he calls "comprehension" (Begreifen). In doing so, it first discusses Kant's characterizations of reason in relation to what he describes as the two highest grades of cognition—insight and comprehension. Then it discusses how the resulting conception of reason relates to more familiar characterizations as the faculty for inference and the faculty of principles. In doing so, it focuses on how the idea of (...)
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  8. Rationality is Not Coherence.Nora Heinzelmann - 2022 - Philosophical Quarterly 74 (1):312-332.
    According to a popular account, rationality is a kind of coherence of an agent’s mental states and, more specifically, a matter of fulfilling norms of coherence. For example, in order to be rational, an agent is required to intend to do what they judge they ought to and can do. This norm has been called ‘Enkrasia’. Another norm requires that, ceteris paribus, an agent retain their intention over time. This has been called ‘Persistence of Intention’. This paper argues that thus (...)
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  9. The skeptical import of motivated reasoning: A closer look at the evidence.Maarten van Doorn - 2023 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (1):1-31.
    Central to many discussions of motivated reasoning is the idea that it runs afoul of epistemic normativity. Reasoning differently about information supporting our prior beliefs versus information contradicting those beliefs, is frequently equated with motivated irrationality. By analyzing the normative status of belief polarization, selective scrutiny, biased assimilation and the myside bias, I show this inference is often not adequately supported. Contrary to what’s often assumed, these phenomena need not indicate motivated irrationality, even though they are instances of belief-consistent information (...)
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  10. Waarom we beter denken dan we denken.Maarten van Doorn - 2023 - Noordboek Uitgeverij.
    Genomineerd voor de Socratesbeker 2024. De mens is irrationeel. Verliefd op zijn eigen gelijk. Doof voor feiten argumenten. Verblind door honderden denkfouten. Een makkelijke prooi voor nepnieuws. Gevangen in filterbubbels. Zo is het heersende idee. Maar klopt het wel? In dit boek verweeft filosoof Maarten van Doorn de jongste inzichten uit de psychologie, communicatiewetenschappen, filosofie en politicologie. Hij neemt ons mee op een reis langs verrassende onderzoeksresultaten en scherpzinnige filosofen en geeft nieuwe antwoorden op dringende vragen: Waarom geloven we wat (...)
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  11. Grammatika razuma.S. N. Trufanov - 2003 - Samara: Gegelʹ-fond.
    Грамматика разума представляет собой новую для нашего времени науку, хотя создана она была еще в первой трети XIX века великим немецким ученым В. Гегелем. В предлагаемой Вашему вниманию книге данная наука впервые излагается в краткой доступной форме.
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  12. Nauchnai︠a︡ rat︠s︡ionalʹnostʹ i filosofskiĭ razum.P. P. Gaĭdenko - 2003 - Moskva: Progress-Tradit︠s︡ii︠a︡.
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  13. Vernünftig.Rainer Berndt (ed.) - 2003 - Würzburg: Echter.
    Anläßlich ihres 75-jährigen Jubiläums hat die Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen in Frankfurt am Main am 19. und 20. Oktober 2001 eine Tagung zu "Vernünftig. Ansätze gegenwärtiger Religionsphilosophie" veranstaltet, deren wissenschaftlicher Ertrag mit diesem Band öffentlich zur Diskussion gestellt wird. In zwei thematischen Einheiten haben zuerst Philosophen und dann Theologen neue Überlegungen aus ihren Forschungsgebieten vorgetragen und aktuelle Fragestellungen referiert, auf die jeweils ein Vertreter der anderen Fakultät mit kritischen Anfragen erwidert hat. Alle Gesprächseinheiten dieser Art bilden den ersten Teil des (...)
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  14. Myslʹ i iskusstvo argumentat︠s︡ii.I. A. Gerasimova (ed.) - 2003 - Moskva: Progress-Tradit︠s︡ii︠a︡.
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  15. The Power of Critical Thinking (6th Canadian Edition) (6th edition).Chris MacDonald & Lewis Vaughn (eds.) - 2023 - [New York: Oxford University Press.
    Learn to think critically with the leading introduction to reasoning and argumentation. Highlights In clear, reader-friendly language, The Power of Critical Thinking provides an engaging introduction to argumentation, deductive and inductive reasoning, inferencing, and evaluating scientific theories New Critical Thinking and the Media boxes in each chapter apply the principles of critical thinking to the realms of media, advertising, and news New content on "fake news," the COVID-19 pandemic, and other important contemporary topics reflects the changing world in which today's (...)
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  16. Taking a Good look at the norms of gathering and responding to evidence.Richard Pettigrew - manuscript
    In the recent philosophical literature on inquiry, epistemologists point out that their subject has often begun at the point at which you already have your evidence and then focussed on identifying the beliefs for which that evidence provides justification. But we are not mere passive recipients of evidence. While some comes to us unbidden, we often actively collect it. This has long been recognised, but typically epistemologists have taken the norms that govern inquiry to be practical, not epistemic. The recent (...)
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  17. Sledovanie pravilu: rassuzhdenie, razum, rat︠s︡ionalʹnostʹ = Rule following: reasoning, reason, rationality.E. G. Dragalina-Chernai︠a︡ & V. V. Dolgorukov (eds.) - 2014 - Sankt-Peterburg: Aleteĭi︠a︡.
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  18. Reasoning Simplifying Attitudes.Michele Palmira - 2023 - Episteme 20 (3):722-735.
    Several philosophers maintain that outright belief exists because it plays a reasoning simplifying role (Holton 2008; Ross and Schroeder 2014; Staffel 2019; Weisberg 2020). This claim has been recently contested, on the grounds that credences also can simplify reasoning (Dinges 2021). This paper takes a step back and asks: what features of an attitude explain its alleged ability to simplify reasoning? The paper contrasts two explanations, one in terms of dispositions and the other in terms of representation, arguing in favour (...)
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  19. Reasoning, argumentation, and deliberative democracy.David Moshman - 2021 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    In light of the latest research from cognitive and developmental psychology, this key text explores reasoning, rationality, and democracy, considering the unique nature of each and their relationship to each other. Broadening our understanding from the development of reasoning and rationality in individuals to encompass social considerations of argumentation and democracy, the book connects psychological literature to philosophy, law, political science, and educational policy. Based on psychological research, Moshman sets out a system of deliberative democracy that promotes collaborative reasoning, rational (...)
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  20. Argumentación y falacias hoy.Ángel Tolaba - 2022 - Salta Capital, Rep. Argentina: Juana Manuela.
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  21. The art of disagreeing well: how debate teaches us to listen and be heard.Bo Seo - 2022 - London: William Collins.
    By a two-time debating world champion, a dazzling look at how arguing better can transform your life - and the world - for the better.
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  22. Was ist Vernunft?Iso Kern - 2022 - Basel: Schwabe Verlag.
    Was ist Vernunft im Gegensatz zur Sinnlichkeit? Diese Frage erortert der erste Teil dieser Studie, die unterscheidet zwischen Vernunft als Verstehen bzw. Verstand und Vernunft in vollem Sinn: Verstand ist z. B. das Sich-Erinnern an die eigene Vergangenheit, das Vergegenwartigen der Erlebnisse anderer in der Einfuhlung, das Vorausplanen der Zukunft. Vernunft im vollen Sinne dagegen ist Institution des Vergegenwartigens in der Sinnlichkeit oder Kultur, z. B. die menschliche logische Sprache, die Bilder, vergegenwartigende Spiele. Vernunft hat auch mit Erkennen und Wahrheit (...)
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  23. Argumentando sin piedad: una introducción cinematográfica a la teoría de la argumentación.José Alhambra - 2022 - Madrid: Dykinson. Edited by Antonio Duarte, Marcia Martínez & Javier Vilanova Arias.
    Argumentación, argumentos y argumentadores -- Hacia una lógica operativa. La perspectiva toulminiana de la argumentación -- La teoría pragmadialéctica de la argumentación -- Lógica informal: Douglas N. Walton -- La aproximación formal (o clásica).
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  24. Le jugement et la raisonnement chez l'enfant.Jean Piaget - 1924 - Paris,: Delachaux & Niestlé s.a..
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  25. La raison et les normes.André Lalande - 1948 - Paris,: Hachette.
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  26. Reflection, fallibilism, and doublethink.Rhys Borchert - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    A distinctive feature of Juan Comesaña's epistemological account is the possibility of an agent possessing a false proposition as evidence. Comesaña argues that there are a number of theoretical virtues of his account once we accept this possibility, however, one might expect that there are particular vices of his account as well. Littlejohn and Dutant (2021) claim that a reflective agent who accepts Comesaña's view is rationally compelled to update their credences differently than unreflective agents, or else they will be (...)
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  27. Pravila logicheskogo dokazatel'stva.Aleksandr Nikolaevich Sheĭko - 1956 - [Kiev] ;:
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  28. Shuo li ti fang fa.Wei-chʻêng Lin - 1960
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  29. Umozakli︠u︡chenie po analogii.Nikolaĭ Vladimirovich Vorobʹev - 1963
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  30. Reductio ad absurdum-argument og filosofisk innsikt.Gunnar Skirbekk - 1966 - [Bergen]:
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  31. Trattato dell'argomentazione.Chaïm Perelman - 1966 - Torino]: Einaudi. Edited by Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca.
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  32. La Théorie de l'argumentation.Chaim Perelman (ed.) - 1967 - Paris,: Béatrice-Nauwelaerts.
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  33. Cosmovisiones y realidades (3rd edition).Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2023 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    No es pensando como creamos mundos. Es comprendiendo el mundo como aprendemos a pensar. Cosmovisión es un término que debe significar un conjunto de fundamentos a partir de los cuales emerge una comprensión sistémica del Universo, sus componentes como la vida, el mundo en que vivimos, la naturaleza, el fenómeno humano y sus relaciones. Es, por tanto, un campo de la filosofía analítica alimentado por las ciencias, cuyo objetivo es ese conocimiento agregado y epistemológicamente sostenible sobre todo lo que somos (...)
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  34. Logique et argumentation.Chaïm Perelman - 1968 - Bruxelles,:
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  35. Éléments d'une théorie de l'argumentation.Chaïm Perelman - 1968 - Bruxelles,: Presses universitaires de Bruxelles.
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  36. Vom Fragen.Ingmar Thilo - 1969 - Mn̈chen,: Thilo.
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  37. At argumentere rigtigt.Helmuth Hansen - 1969 - København,: Munksgaard.
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  38. Logik og argumenter.Jon Espersen - 1969 - København,: Reitzel.
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  39. Die Kunst, recht zu behalten.Karl Otto Erdmann - 1925 - Frankfurt/M.,: Haessel.
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  40. ABC om argumentation.Per-Åke Walton - 1970 - Stockholm,: Almqvist & Wiksell.
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  41. L'argomentazione nel discorso filosofico.Antonio Pieretti - 1970 - L'Aquila,: L. U. Japadare.
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  42. Traité de l'argumentation.Chaim Perelman - 1958 - Bruxelles,: Éditions de l'Institut de sociologie (de l') Université libre de Bruxelles. Edited by Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca.
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  43. Le champ de l'argumentation.Chaïm Perelman - 1970 - Bruxelles,: Presses universitaires de Bruxelles.
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  44. Good Things to Do: Practical Reason without Obligation.Rüdiger Bittner - 2023 - New York, US: OUP Usa.
    Rüdiger Bittner argues that the aim of thinking about what to do, of practical reason, is to find, not what we ought to do, but what it is good to do under the circumstances. Neither under prudence nor under morality are there things we ought to do. There is no warrant for the idea of our being required, by natural law or by our rationality, to do either what helps us attain our ends or what is right for moral reasons. (...)
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  45. Argumentation.Heinrich Hülsmann - 1971 - [Düsseldorf]: Bertelsmann-Universitätsverl..
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  46. Miu wu yü kuei pien.Chan-chi Huang - 1971
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  47. Die Kunst, recht zu behalten: Methoden u. Kunstgriffe d. Strietens.Karl Otto Erdmann - 1973 - Frankfurt (Main): Haessel.
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  48. Le raisonnement.Robert Blanché - 1973 - Paris,: Presses universitaires de France.
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  49. Att analysera argument.Jan Evers - 1974 - Lund: Gleerup.
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  50. Schlüssiges Argumentieren: log.-propädeut. Lehr- u. Arbeitsbuch.Dietfried Gerhardus - 1975 - Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. Edited by Silke M. Kledzik & Gerd H. Reitzig.
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1 — 50 / 2845