About this topic
Summary Reasoning is the reasoned change of belief (and related mental states). Reasoning differs, for example, from daydreaming and from spontaneous changes of belief. A central issue in the study of reasoning is to characterize reasoning: Just what is it to reason as opposed to change one's beliefs in some other way? A second issue in the study of reasoning is normative. Some reasoning counts as good reasoning. Other counts as bad reasoning. Which forms of reasoning are good -- that is, are rational, or preserve justification or knowledge? What makes it the case that those kinds of reasoning are good? Reasoning is typically divided into two kinds -- deductive and inductive (or ampliative). In a good deductive inference, the premises of the reasoning logically entail the conclusion. In a good inductive inference, the premises of the reasoning do not entail the conclusion though they do support it. Part of the philosophical study of reasoning involves the study of these kinds of reasoning (and various further sub-kinds).
Key works Reasoning is a highly heterogenous topic. It is recommended that the key works of the sub-categories be consulted.
Related categories
Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Reasoning

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  1. В начале было Слово.Andrej Poleev - 2022
    Сборник эссе о логике и логическом мышлении.
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  2. Coherence as Joint Satisfiability.Samuel Fullhart & Camilo Martinez - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    According to many philosophers, rationality is, at least in part, a matter of one’s attitudes cohering with one another. Theorists who endorse this idea have devoted much attention to formulating various coherence requirements. Surprisingly, they have said very little about what it takes for a set of attitudes to be coherent in general. We articulate and defend a general account on which a set of attitudes is coherent just in case and because it is logically possible for the attitudes to (...)
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  3. Animal irrationale: eine kurze (Natur-)Geschichte der Unvernunft.Franz M. Wuketits - 2013 - Berlin: Suhrkamp.
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  4. The normativity of what we care about: a love-based theory of practical reasons.Katrien Schaubroeck - 2013 - Leuven: Leuven University Press.
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  5. Der politische Sokrates: was will Philosophische Praxis?Thomas Polednitschek - 2013 - Berlin: Lit.
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  6. Die Vielfalt der Vernunft.Jürgen Eckardt Pleines - 2013 - Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag.
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  7. Arguing for our lives: a user's guide to constructive dialog.Robert Jensen - 2013 - San Francisco: City Lights Books.
    In defense of intellectual life? -- Intellectual basics : simple but not simplistic? -- Power basics : political but more than politics? -- Thinking critically about politics? -- Thinking critically about religion? -- Thinking critically about news media? -- Thinking creatively : paradoxes, metaphors, aphorisms? -- Thinking courageously : reframing ourselves and our world.
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  8. Vocabulário crítico da argumentação.Rui Grácio - 2013 - Lisboa: Instituto de Filosofia do Linguagem.
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  9. La argumentación: ¿construcción cultural o desarrollo cognitivo?Cecilia Dimaté Rodríguez - 2013 - Bogotá: Universidad Externado de Colombia.
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  10. An illustrated book of bad arguments.Ali Almossawi - 2013 - New York: Theexperiment.
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  11. The Oxford guide to effective argument and critical thinking.Colin Swatridge - 2014 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    1.What do you do when you argue a case? -- Claims and conclusions -- Reasons and inference -- Titles as questions -- Support for a conclusion -- 2.How will you make yourself clear? -- Vagueness and definition -- Assumptions -- Ambiguity and conflation -- Ordering and indicating -- 3.What case have others made? -- Counter-claims -- Counter-argument -- Selection and evaluation of sources -- Reputation and expertise -- 4.What do you make of these arguments? -- Overstatement and straw man -- (...)
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  12. Logical philosophy: a compendium.Avi Sion - 2013 - Charleston, South Carolina: CreateSpace.
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  13. Critical thinking and communication: the use of reason in argument.Edward S. Inch - 2014 - Boston: Pearson.
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  14. Min al-ḥijāj ilá al-balāghah al-jadīdah.Jamīl Ḥamdāwī - 2014 - al-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ: Afrīqiyā al-Sharq.
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  15. Ē, māntan̲ē! nī in̲n̲um kāṭṭumirāṇṭitān̲ā?Īrōṭu Ar̲ivukkan̲pan̲ - 2014 - Cen̲n̲ai: Kāvyā.
    Excellent compilation of incidents of irrationality in India with special reference to Tamil Nadu.
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  16. Argumentando se hace la razón.Enrique Sánchez Ballesteros - 2014 - In Salmerón Jiménez, María Angélica & Viridiana Platas Benítez (eds.), Reconstrucción de "razones" hispanoamericanas: racionalidad y filosofía en lengua española. Universidad Veracruzana, Dirección Editorial.
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  17. Las razones de Ortega o la filosofía del vivir humano.Leopoldo Santos Báez - 2014 - In Salmerón Jiménez, María Angélica & Viridiana Platas Benítez (eds.), Reconstrucción de "razones" hispanoamericanas: racionalidad y filosofía en lengua española. Universidad Veracruzana, Dirección Editorial.
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  18. José Vasconcelos y la razón estética.María Angélica Salmerón Jiménez - 2014 - In Salmerón Jiménez, María Angélica & Viridiana Platas Benítez (eds.), Reconstrucción de "razones" hispanoamericanas: racionalidad y filosofía en lengua española. Universidad Veracruzana, Dirección Editorial.
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  19. Una lectura aristotélica de Primero sueño.Viridiana Platas Benítez - 2014 - In Salmerón Jiménez, María Angélica & Viridiana Platas Benítez (eds.), Reconstrucción de "razones" hispanoamericanas: racionalidad y filosofía en lengua española. Universidad Veracruzana, Dirección Editorial.
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  20. Reconstrucción de "razones" hispanoamericanas: racionalidad y filosofía en lengua española.Salmerón Jiménez, María Angélica & Viridiana Platas Benítez (eds.) - 2014 - Xalapa, Ver., México: Universidad Veracruzana, Dirección Editorial.
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  21. Contemporary & classic arguments: a portable anthology.Sylvan Barnet & Hugo Adam Bedau (eds.) - 2014 - Boston: Bedford/St Martin's.
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  22. Falacias y argumentación.Lilian Bermejo Luque - 2014 - Madrid (España): Plaza y Valdés Editores.
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  23. La dimensione personale dell'argomentazione.Roberta Martina Zagarella - 2015 - Padova: Unipress.
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  24. Goal-based reasoning for argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 2015 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides an argumentation model for means-end reasoning, a distinctive type of reasoning used for problem-solving gand decision-making. Means-end reasoning is modeled as goal-directed argumentation from an agent's goals and known circumstances, and from an action selected as a means, to a decision to carry out the action. Goal-based reasoning for argumentation provides an argumentation model for this kind of reasoning, showing how it is employed in settings of intelligent deliberation where agents try to collectively arrive at a conclusion (...)
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  25. Theory of argumentation: traditional and modern.Ratna Dutta Sharma - 2015 - Kolkata: Centre of Advanced Study in Philosophy, Jadavpur University, in collaboration with Maha Bodhi Book Agency.
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  26. Critical thinking: the art of argument.George W. Rainbolt - 2015 - Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
    Critical thinking and arguments -- What makes a good argument? -- Premises and conclusions -- Language -- Propositional arguments -- Categorical arguments -- Analogical arguments -- Statistical arguments -- Causal arguments -- Moral arguments -- Answers to selected exercises -- Reference guide.
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  27. Mindware: tools for smart thinking.Richard E. Nisbett - 2015 - New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Thinking about thought -- Everything's an inference -- Out of context or the situation -- The rational unconscious -- The formerly dismal science -- Should you think like an economist? -- Spilt milk and free lunch -- Foiling foibles -- Coding, counting, correlation, and causality -- Odds and Ns -- Linked up -- Experiments -- Ignore the hippo -- Experiments natural and experiments proper -- Eekonomics -- Don't ask, can't tell -- Thinking, straight and curved -- Logic -- Dialecticism -- (...)
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  28. Falsafahʹhā-yi ravāngardān.Murtaz̤á Mardīhā - 2014 - Tihrān: Nashr-i Nay.
    Defense of rationality ; precedence of reason over religion.
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  29. Critical thinking: an introduction to the basic skills.William Hughes - 2015 - Tonawanda, NY: Broadview Press.
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  30. Normativity, Rationality and Reasoning: Selected Essays.John Broome - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume is a selection of Broome's recent papers on normativity, rationality, and reasoning. It covers a variety of topics such as the meanings of 'ought', 'reason', and 'reasons'; the fundamental structure of normativity and the metaphysical priority of ought over reasons; the ownership - or agent-relativity - of oughts and reasons; the distinction between rationality and normativity; the notion of rational motivation; what characterizes the human activity of reasoning, and what is the role of normativity within it; the nature (...)
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  31. Hui dao yu jing de li xing.Rongxian Zhu - 2016 - Beijing: Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she.
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  32. Conflit de la raison.Jean-Marie Wipf - 2016 - Paris: Éditions Kimé.
    Bathos - remarque -- Pt. 1. Le champ de bataille -- Pt. 2. Kant et ses juges -- Pt. 3. Traité de bathologie.
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  33. Ungründe: potenziale prekärer Fundierung.Markus Rautzenberg & Juliane Schiffers (eds.) - 2016 - Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink.
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  34. Weaponized lies: how to think critically in the post-truth era.Daniel J. Levitin - 2016 - New York, New York: Dutton.
    It's raining bad data, half-truths, and fake news out there - and some of this nonsense is having devastation consequences. Daniel J. Levitin shows how corporate and government reports, statistics, and news stories can mislead, and reveals the way lying weasels use them. What makes lies dangerous is the certainty with which people are prone to believe them. Here is how to fix that."--Page [4] of cover.
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  35. A field guide to lies: critical thinking in the information age.Daniel J. Levitin - 2016 - New York, New York: Dutton.
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  36. Rationalité pluraliste, éthique et société: Parti-pris d'une philosophie pratique.Jean Onaotsho Kawende - 2016 - Louvain-La-Neuve: Editions Academia.
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  37. Démocratie, technoscience et écologie: champs pragmatiques de la rationalité pluraliste.Jean Onaotsho Kawende - 2016 - Louvain-La-Neuve: Academia-L'Harmattan.
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  38. Elogio della mente critica.Enzo Di Nuoscio - 2016 - Bari: GLF editori Laterza.
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  39. Qu'est-ce que raisonner?Jean Marie Chevalier - 2016 - Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin.
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  40. al-Manṭiq wa-al-lāmanṭiq fī al-khiṭāb al-iʻlāmī.ʻAṭṭā Allāh Rumḥīn - 2017 - ʻAmmān: Muʼassasat al-Warrāq lil-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ.
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  41. Good arguments: making your case in writing and public speaking.Richard A. Holland - 2017 - Grand Rapids, MichiganI: Baker Academic, a division of Baker Publishing Group.
    The basics of good arguments -- Reasoning and logic -- Fallacies -- Belief, fact, and opinion -- Defining your terms -- Drawing analogies -- Cause and effect -- On good authority -- Making your case.
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  42. The critical thinking toolkit.Galen A. Foresman - 2017 - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
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  43. 40 Arguments to Avoid: Short Logic Lessons for Servant-Leaders.Daniel L. Espiritu - 2017 - Quezon City: New Day Publishers.
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  44. La scomparsa del pensiero: perché non possiamo rinunciare a ragionare con la nostra testa.Ermanno Bencivenga - 2017 - Milano: Giangiacomo Feltrinelli editore.
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  45. Concise guide to critical thinking.Lewis Vaughn - 2018 - New York: Oxford University Press.
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  46. Think again: how to reason and argue--and why.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2018 - New York City: Oxford University Press.
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  47. Controversy and conversion: Friedrich Albert Carl Gren and the phlogiston controversy (1790-06).Gerd Fritz - 2018 - In Historical pragmatics of controversies: case studies from 1600 to 1800. John Benjamins.
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  48. Reviews and responses: a controversy about the Biblical canon (1771-1775).Gerd Fritz & Juliane Glüer - 2018 - In Historical pragmatics of controversies: case studies from 1600 to 1800. John Benjamins.
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  49. Leibniz vs. Locke: a virtual controversy.Gerd Fritz - 2018 - In Historical pragmatics of controversies: case studies from 1600 to 1800. John Benjamins.
  50. Thhe pamphlet and its alternatives around 1700: a thread of the pietist controversy (Johann Friedrich Mayer vs. August Hermann Francke).Gerd Fritz & Juliane Glüer - 2018 - In Historical pragmatics of controversies: case studies from 1600 to 1800. John Benjamins.
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