About this topic
Summary Do children have rights? If so, do children's rights protect only children's interests, or do they also protect (some of the) children's choices? What rights do children have? Against which agents do children hold rights? Who ought to protect children's rights? How can children's rights be protected? Can all children's rights be legitimately implemented? What are the feasibility constraints on implementing children's rights?
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  1. Mandated child abuse reporting.Richard Bourne, Eli H. Newberger & C. Sue White - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior.
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  2. Children’s Rights, Well-Being, and Sexual Agency.Samantha Brennan & Jennifer Epp - forthcoming - In Alexander Bagattini and Colin MacLeod (ed.), The Wellbeing of Children in Theory and Practice.
  3. Inclusion as participation: mapping the participation model with four different levels of inclusive education.Kattis Edström, Viktor Gardelli & Ylva Backman - forthcoming - International Journal of Inclusive Education:1–18.
    In Swedish schools, the so-called ‘Participation Model’ is used to observe and analyse participation, with the intention of supporting an inclusive learning environment. While this model is widely promoted by government agencies, its theoretical alignment to the concept(s) of inclusion is not established. This article therefore compares and maps the six aspects of participation within the Participation Model (i.e. belonging, accessibility, interaction, autonomy, involvement and acceptance) with a hierarchically ordered set of commonly occuring definitions of inclusive education (ranging from the (...)
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  4. Creating Carnists.Rachel Fredericks & Jeremy Fischer - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    We argue that individual and institutional caregivers have a defeasible moral duty to provide dependent children with plant-based diets and related education. Notably, our three arguments for this claim do not presuppose any general duty of veganism. Instead, they are grounded in widely shared intuitions about children’s interests and caregivers’ responsibilities, as well as recent empirical research relevant to children’s moral development, autonomy development, and physical health. Together, these arguments constitute a strong cumulative case against inculcating in children the dietary (...)
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  5. Children's Human Rights.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - In Jesse Tomalty (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Human Rights. Routledge. Translated by Kerri Woods.
    There is wide agreement that children have human rights, and that their human rights differ from those of adults. What explains this difference which is, at least at first glance, puzzling, given that human rights are meant to be universal? The puzzle can be dispelled by identifying what unites children’s and adults’ rights as human rights. Here I seek to answer the question of children’s human rights – that is, rights they have merely in virtue of being human and of (...)
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  6. “Let them be children”? Age limits in voting and conceptions of childhood.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - In Greg Bognar & Axel Gosseries (eds.), Aging without Ageism? Conceptual Puzzles and Policy Proposals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This paper explains alternative views about the nature and value of childhood, and how particular conceptions of childhood matter to a practical issue relevant to the topic of the book: children's voting rights. I don't defend any particular view on this matter; rather, I explain how recent accounts of what is uniquely good or bad about being a child bear on arguments for and against enfranchising children. I also explain why children who live in a society in which many adults (...)
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  7. Against private surrogacy: a child-centred view.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Surrogacy involves a private agreement whereby a woman who gestates a child attempts to surrender her (putative) moral right to become the parent of that child such that another person (or persons), of the woman’s choice, can acquire it. Since people lack the normative power to privately transfer custody, attempts to do so are illegitimate, and the law should reflect this fact.
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  8. Republican Families?Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook of Republicanism. Oxford University Press.
  9. Enabling children to learn from religions while respecting their rights: against monopolies of influence.Anca Gheaus - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy of Education.
    John Tillson argues, on grounds of children's wellbeing, that it is impermissible to teach them religious views. I defend a practice of pluralistically advocating religious views to children. As long as there are no monopolies of influence over children, and as long as advocates do not use coercion, deceit, or manipulation, children can greatly benefit without having their rational abilities subverted, or incurring undue risk to form false beliefs. This solution should counter, to some extent, both perfectionist and anti-perfectionist reasons (...)
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  10. Wrongful Influence in Educational Contexts.John Tillson - forthcoming - In Kathryn Hytten (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    When and why are coercion, indoctrination, manipulation, deception, and bullshit morally wrongful modes of influence in the context of educating children? Answering this question requires identifying what valid claims different parties have against one another regarding how children are influenced. Most prominently among these, it requires discerning what claims children have regarding whether and how they and their peers are influenced, and against whom they have these claims. The claims they have are grounded in the weighty interests they each equally (...)
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  11. A Project View of the Right to Parent.Benjamin Lange - 2023 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 1:1-23.
    The institution of the family and its importance have recently received considerable attention from political theorists. Leading views maintain that the institution’s justification is grounded, at least in part, in the non-instrumental value of the parent-child relationship itself. Such views face the challenge of identifying a specific good in the parent-child relationship that can account for how adults acquire parental rights over a particular child—as opposed to general parental rights, which need not warrant a claim to parent one’s biological progeny. (...)
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  12. Libertarianism, the Family, and Children.Andrew Jason Cohen & Lauren Hall - 2022 - In Benjamin Ferguson & Matthew Zwolinski (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Libertarianism. 2022: Routledge. pp. 336-350.
    We explain libertarian thought about family and children, including controversial issues in need of serious attention. To begin our discussion of marriage, we distinguish between procedural and substantive contractarian approaches to marriage, each endorsed by various libertarians. Advocates of both approaches agree that it is a contract that makes a marriage, not a license, but disagree about whether there are moral limits to the substance of the contract with only advocates of the substantive approach accepting such. Either approach, though, offers (...)
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  13. Childhood after COVID: Children’s Interests in a Flourishing Childhood and a More Communal Childrearing.Anca Gheaus - 2022 - Philosophical Inquiry in Education 29 (1):65–71.
    This article brings into relief two desiderata in childrearing, the importance of which the pandemic has made clearer than ever. The first is to ensure that, in schools as well as outside them, children have ample opportunities to enjoy goods that are particular to childhood: unstructured time, to be spent playing with other children, discovering the world in company or alone, or indeed pursuing any of the creative activities that make children happy and help them learn. I refer to these (...)
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  14. Adultos inacabados y niños defectuosos: sobre la naturaleza y el valor de la infancia.Anca Gheaus & Lourdes Gaitán Muñoz - 2022 - Sociedad e Infancias 6 (1):77-89.
    Defiendo la opinión de que la infancia es intrínsecamente valiosa en lugar de tener valor solo en la medida en que conduce a una buena edad adulta. Ni la visión de los “niños como adultos inacabados” ni la más extravagante de “los adultos como niños defectuosos” son convincentes por sí mismas porque ambas son formas incompletas de contar la historia de la infancia y la edad adulta. Un breve artículo no puede resolver la cuestión del valor relativo de la niñez (...)
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  15. EXPOSIÇÃO VIRTUAL PARA FINS PECUNIÁRIOS: NOVA DIMENSÃO DE TRABALHO INFANTIL COM A EXPLORAÇÃO DA INTIMIDADE DA CRIANÇA.Wilson Franck Junior & Francisca Cecília de Carvalho Moura Fé - 2022 - Revista Do Tribunal Superior Do Trabalho (TST) 88 (3):85-95.
    RESUMO: As novas tecnologias revolucionaram tanto as relações humanas quanto as formas de exploração. Com o uso massivo e a dependência das redes sociais, muitas pessoas descobriram fontes de ganhos fnanceiros a partir da exposição da imagem, seja da sua ou de outrem. Nesse cenário, a intimidade de centenas de crianças é exposta por seus pais ou responsáveis em troca de audiência, fama e recursos fnanceiros. Partindo dessa problemática, o presente artigo investiga os impactos do trabalho infantil mediante a exploração (...)
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  16. The Best Available Parent and Duties of Justice.Jordan Walters - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 23 (2):304-311.
    I argue that the best available parent view, in its present formulation, struggles to accommodate for our very weighty duty not to perpetuate historical injustices. I offer an alternative view that reconciles this tension.
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  17. Should we delay covid-19 vaccination in children?Lisa Forsberg & Anthony Skelton - 2021 - British Medical Journal 374 (8300):96-97.
    The net benefit of vaccinating children is unclear, and vulnerable people worldwide should be prioritised instead, say Dominic Wilkinson, Ilora Finlay, and Andrew J Pollard. But Lisa Forsberg and Anthony Skelton argue that covid-19 vaccines have been approved for some children and that children should not be disadvantaged because of policy choices that impede global vaccination.
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  18. Teaching Children How to Think: Rational Autonomy as an Aim of Liberal Education.Andrew Franklin-Hall - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 39 (4):581-596.
  19. The Best Available Parent.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Ethics 131 (3):431-459.
    There is a broad philosophical consensus that both children’s and prospective parents’ interests are relevant to the justification of a right to parent. Against this view, I argue that it is impermissible to sacrifice children’s interests for the sake of advancing adults’ interest in childrearing. Therefore, the allocation of the moral right to parent should track the child’s, and not the potential parent’s, interest. This revisionary thesis is moderated by two additional qualifications. First, parents lack the moral right to exclude (...)
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  20. Childhood: Value and duties.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (12):e12793.
    In philosophy, there are two competitor views about the nature and value of childhood: The first is the traditional, deficiency, view, according to which children are mere unfinished adults. The second is a view that has recently become increasingly popular amongst philosophers, and according to which children, perhaps in virtue of their biological features, have special and valuable capacities, and, more generally, privileged access to some sources of value. This article provides a conceptual map of these views and their possible (...)
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  21. Child-rearing With Minimal Domination: A Republican Account.Anca Gheaus - 2021 - Political Studies 69 (3).
    Parenting involves an extraordinary degree of power over children. Republicans are concerned about domination, which, on one view, is the holding of power that fails to track the interests of those over whom it is exercised. On this account, parenting as we know it is dominating due to the low standards necessary for acquiring and retaining parental rights and the extent of parental power. Domination cannot be fully eliminated from child-rearing without unacceptable loss of value. Most likely, republicanism requires that (...)
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  22. Creating ‘family’ in adoption from care.Jenny Krutzinna - 2021 - In Tarja Pösö, Marit Skivenes & June Thoburn (eds.), Adoption from Care. International Perspectives on Children’s Rights, Family Preservation and State Intervention. Bristol, Storbritannia: pp. 195-213.
    Adoption may be defined as ‘the legal process through which the state establishes a parental relationship, with all its attendant rights and duties, between a child and a (set of) parent(s) where there exists no previous procreative relationship’ . In adoptions from care, state intervention effectively converts an established, or nascent, adult– child relationship into ‘family’ in the legal sense. From the state’s perspective, adoption thus entails the transfer of parental responsibilities for a child in public care to a private (...)
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  23. Allocating scarce life-saving resources: the proper role of age.Govind Persad & Steven Joffe - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):836-838.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has forced clinicians, policy-makers and the public to wrestle with stark choices about who should receive potentially life-saving interventions such as ventilators, ICU beds and dialysis machines if demand overwhelms capacity. Many allocation schemes face the question of whether to consider age. We offer two underdiscussed arguments for prioritising younger patients in allocation policies, which are grounded in prudence and fairness rather than purely in maximising benefits: prioritising one’s younger self for lifesaving treatments is prudent from an (...)
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  24. Off-Label Prescription of COVID-19 Vaccines in Children: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Issues.Govind Persad, Holly Fernandez Lynch & Patricia J. Zettler - 2021 - Pediatrics 2021:e2021054578.
    We argue that the universal recommendations against “off-label” pediatric use of approved COVID-19 issued by the FDA, CDC, and AAP are overbroad. Especially for higher-risk children, vaccination can be ethically justified even before FDA authorization or approval – and similar reasoning is relevant for even younger patients. Legal risks can also be managed, although the FDA, CDC, and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should move quickly to provide clarity.
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  25. Should Pediatric Patients Be Prioritized When Rationing Life-Saving Treatments During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ryan M. Antiel, Farr A. Curlin, Govind Persad, Douglas B. White, Cathy Zhang, Aaron Glickman, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & John Lantos - 2020 - Pediatrics 146 (3):e2020012542.
    Coronavirus disease 2019 can lead to respiratory failure. Some patients require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. During the current pandemic, health care resources in some cities have been overwhelmed, and doctors have faced complex decisions about resource allocation. We present a case in which a pediatric hospital caring for both children and adults seeks to establish guidelines for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation if there are not enough resources to treat every patient. Experts in critical care, end-of-life care, bioethics, and (...)
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  26. Equality, Self-Government, and Disenfranchising Kids: A Reply to Yaffe.Michael Cholbi - 2020 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2020 (2):281-297.
    Gideon Yaffe has recently argued that children should be subject to lower standards of criminal liability because, unlike adults, they ought to be disenfranchised. Because of their disenfranchisement, they lack the legal reasons enfranchised adults have to comply with the law. Here I critically consider Yaffe’s argument for such disenfranchisement, which holds that disenfranchisement balances children’s interest in self-government with adults’ interest in having an equal say over lawmaking. I argue that Yaffe does not succeed in showing that these two (...)
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  27. The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Childhood and Children, Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder and Jurgen de Wispelaere (eds.). Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2019. 424 pp. ISBN 9781138915978. £190.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW]Jake Earl - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (7):736-737.
    The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Childhood and Children is an impressive collection of original essays on conceptual and normative issues related to the first (post-natal) phases of human life. As co-editor Anca Gheaus notes in her introduction to the collection, philosophers’ historical inattention to these issues is “puzzling”, given the importance of childhood and children for both individual and societal flourishing (p. 1). Attentive readers will be even more puzzled by this fact, given the variety of interesting, challenging (...)
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  28. Respecting Children's Choices.Kalle Grill - 2020 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 7 (2):199-218.
    The traditional liberal view on conflicts between care for wellbeing and respect for choice and desire is that we should look to degrees of competence and voluntariness to determine which moral imperative should take priority. This view has likely influenced the common view that children’s choices should be considered only to the extent that this promotes their future autonomy and helps us determine their best interests. I reject both the general traditional liberal view and its application to children. Competence and (...)
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  29. Harming Children to Benefit Others: A Reply.Heidi Malm & Mark Christopher Navin - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):W1-W6.
    We are pleased to have received such a varied set of commentaries on our target article, “Pox Parties for Grannies? Chickenpox, Exogenous Boosting, and Harmful Injustices,” and we are thankful for the opportunity to respond to some of them here. We regret that space limitations preclude us from responding to each. In what follows we will begin by addressing commentaries that expand the application of our arguments. We will then correct some seeming misunderstandings about our distinctions, arguments and thesis. We (...)
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  30. Pox Parties for Grannies? Chickenpox, Exogenous Boosting, and Harmful Injustices.Heidi Malm & Mark Christopher Navin - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9):45-57.
    Some societies tolerate or encourage high levels of chickenpox infection among children to reduce rates of shingles among older adults. This tradeoff is unethical. The varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both chickenpox and shingles. After people recover from chickenpox, VZV remains in their nerve cells. If their immune systems become unable to suppress the virus, they develop shingles. According to the Exogenous Boosting Hypothesis (EBH), a person’s ability to keep VZV suppressed can be ‘boosted’ through exposure to active chickenpox infections. (...)
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  31. Mandating Vaccination.Anthony Skelton & Lisa Forsberg - 2020 - In Meredith Celene Schwartz (ed.), The Ethics of Pandemics. pp. 131-134.
    A short piece exploring some arguments for mandating vaccination for Covid-19.
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  32. Dignity, Development, and the Gravity of Child Soldiering.Renée Nicole Souris - 2020 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosophie 106 (3):465-475.
    This paper critically examines different formulations of the view that the crime of using child soldiers is less serious than other international crimes. The first formulation presents a sociological argument toward this conclusion and the second a deontological argument. After arguing that the second formulation is stronger, because it is grounded in a coherent ethical framework, I then construct a deontological argument to counter it, which construes the wrong of child soldiering as an attack on the developing child's right to (...)
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  33. Children’s moral rights and UK school exclusions.John Tillson & Laura Oxley - 2020 - Theory and Research in Education 18 (4).
    This article argues that uses of exclusion by schools in the United Kingdom (UK) often violate children’s moral rights. It contends that while exclusion is not inherently incompatible with children’s moral rights, current practice must be reformed to align with them. It concludes that as a non-punitive preventive measure, there may be certain circumstances in schools where it is necessary to exclude a child in order to safeguard the weighty interests of others in the school community. However, reform is needed (...)
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  34. Guidance and Intervention Principles in Pediatrics: The Need for Pluralism.Mark Christopher Navin & Jason Wasserman - 2019 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 30 (3):201-6.
    Two core questions in pediatric ethics concern when and how physicians are ethically permitted to intervene in parental treatment decisions (intervention principles), and the goals or values that should direct physicians’ and parents’ decisions about the care of children (guidance principles). Lainie Friedman Ross argues in this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics that constrained parental autonomy (CPA) simultaneously answers both questions: physicians should intervene when parental treatment preferences fail to protect a child’s basic needs or primary goods, and (...)
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  35. Mary Shelley and the Rights of the Child: Political Philosophy in Frankenstein. By Eileen HuntBotting. Pp. xi, 220, Philadelphia, PA, The University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018, £32.00. [REVIEW]Agneta Sutton - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (6):938-939.
  36. Children and Added Sugar: The Case for Restriction.Theodore Bach - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (S1):105-120.
    It is increasingly clear that children's excessive consumption of products high in added sugar causes obesity and obesity-related health problems like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Less clear is how best to address this problem through public health policy. In contrast to policies that might conflict with adult's right to self-determination — for example sugar taxes and soda bans — this article proposes that children's access to products high in added sugars should be restricted in the same (...)
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  37. Biological Parenthood: Gestational, Not Genetic.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (2):225-240.
    Common sense morality and legislations around the world ascribe normative relevance to biological connections between parents and children. Procreators who meet a modest standard of parental competence are believed to have a right to rear the children they brought into the world. I explore various attempts to justify this belief and find most of these attempts lacking. I distinguish between two kinds of biological connections between parents and children: the genetic link and the gestational link. I argue that the second (...)
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  38. What abolishing the family would not do.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 21 (3):284-300.
    Because families disrupt fair patterns of distribution and, in particular, equality of opportunity, egalitarians believe that the institution of the family needs to be defended at the bar of justice. In their recent book, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift have argued that the moral gains of preserving the family outweigh its moral costs. Yet, I claim that the egalitarian case for abolishing the family has been over-stated due to a failure to consider how alternatives to the family would also disturb (...)
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  39. Children's Vulnerability and Legitimate Authority Over Children.Anca Gheaus - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:60-75.
    Children's vulnerability gives rise to duties of justice towards children and determines when authority over them is legitimately exercised. I argue for two claims. First, children's general vulnerability to objectionable dependency on their caregivers entails that they have a right not to be subject to monopolies of care, and therefore determines the structure of legitimate authority over them. Second, children's vulnerability to the loss of some special goods of childhood determines the content of legitimate authority over them. My interest is (...)
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  40. The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Childhood and Children.Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder & Jurgen de Wispelaere (eds.) - 2018 - New York: Routledge.
    Childhood looms large in our understanding of human life as it is a phase through which all adults have passed. Childhood is foundational to the development of selfhood, the formation of interests, values and skills and to the lifespan as a whole. Understanding what it is like to be a child, and what differences childhood makes, are essential for any broader understanding of the human condition. The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Childhood and Children is an outstanding reference source (...)
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  41. Paternalism towards children.Kalle Grill - 2018 - In Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder & Jurgen de Wispelaere (eds.), Routledge handbook of the philosophy of childhood and children. pp. 123-133.
    Debates on the nature and justifiability of paternalism typically focus only on adults, sometimes presuming without argument that paternalism towards children is a non-issue or obviously justified. Debates on the moral and political status of children, in turn, rarely connect with the rich literature on paternalism. This chapter attempts to bridge this gap by exploring how issues that arise in the general debate on paternalism are relevant also for the benevolent interference with children. I survey and discuss various views and (...)
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  42. Raising a Child with Respect.Norvin Richards - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (S1):90-104.
    Parents whose children will become adults are expected to help them do so, as opposed to only keeping them alive while they manage it on their own. The parental help must respect the child's standing as a separate individual: our children aren't ours to shape to our design, even if our aim is to help them flourish. But then how are we to raise our children with respect for their individuality? According to Matthew Clayton, doing so requires refraining from attempting (...)
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  43. Parents, Privacy, and Facebook: Legal and Social Responses to the Problem of Over-Sharing.Renée Nicole Souris - 2018 - In Ann Cudd & Mark Christopher Navin (eds.), Core Concepts and Contemporary Issues in Privacy. Springer. pp. 175-188.
    This paper examines whether American parents legally violate their children’s privacy rights when they share embarrassing images of their children on social media without their children’s consent. My inquiry is motivated by recent reports that French authorities have warned French parents that they could face fines and imprisonment for such conduct, if their children sue them once their children turn 18. Where French privacy law is grounded in respect for dignity, thereby explaining the French concerns for parental “over-sharing,” I show (...)
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  44. Do Parental Licensing Schemes Violate the Rights of Biological Parents?Christian Barry & R. J. Leland - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 94 (3):755-761.
  45. Children and the Limits of Paternalism.Brian Carey - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):581-595.
    Philosophers disagree about what precisely makes an act paternalistic, and about whether, when, and why paternalistic acts are morally objectionable. Despite these disagreements, it might seem uncontroversial to think that it is permissible to paternalize children. When paternalism seems morally objectionable, that is usually because an adult has been treated in a way that seems appropriate only for children. But, we might think, there can be nothing morally objectionable about treating children as children. In this paper, however, I argue that (...)
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  46. Sufficientarian Parenting Must be Child-Centered.Anca Gheaus - 2017 - Law, Ethics and Philosophy 5:189-197.
    Liam Shields’ sufficientarian commitments mean that he should subscribe to a child-centered account of the right to parent. This point most likely generalizes: sufficientarians who acknowledge children’s full moral status must embrace a child-centered account of the right to parent.
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  47. Love and Justice: a Paradox?Anca Gheaus - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (6):739-759.
    Three claims about love and justice cannot be simultaneously true and therefore entail a paradox: (1) Love is a matter of justice. (2) There cannot be a duty to love. (3) All matters of justice are matters of duty. The first claim is more controversial. To defend it, I show why the extent to which we enjoy the good of love is relevant to distributive justice. To defend (2) I explain the empirical, conceptual and axiological arguments in its favour. Although (...)
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  48. The chain of love and duty.Anca Gheaus - 2017 - Forum for European Philosophy Blog.
    Anca Gheaus considers the reasons we owe our children a sustainable world.
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  49. Parental genetic shaping and parental environmental shaping.Anca Gheaus - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):20-31.
    Analytic philosophers tend to agree that intentional parental genetic shaping and intentional parental environmental shaping for the same feature are, normatively, on a par. I challenge this view by advancing a novel argument, grounded in the value of fair relationships between parents and children: Parental genetic shaping is morally objectionable because it unjustifiably exacerbates the asymmetry between parent and child with respect to the voluntariness of their entrance into the parent–child relationship. Parental genetic shaping is, for this reason, different from (...)
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  50. The Moral Foundations of Parenthood.Joseph Millum - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Joseph Millum explains how parental rights and responsibilities are acquired, what they consist in, and how parents should go about making decisions on behalf of their children. In doing so, he provides a set of frameworks to help solve pressing ethical dilemmas relating to parents and children.
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