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  1. The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (OP-ICESCR).Deepa Kansra & Mallika Ramachandran - manuscript
    Human rights treaties are often attached and complemented with Optional Protocols. The Optional protocol instruments are adopted after careful deliberation between different stakeholders including member states to human rights treaties. -/- The present document on Introduction to the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights- Optional Protocol [OP-ICESCR] is an addition to the on-going work on the Human Rights Framework on ESC Rights. It covers basic information on the objectives of the OP and the key provisions dealing with the (...)
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  2. The Place of Religion in Human Rights Law: Distinguishing Freedom of Religion From the Right Against Religious Discrimination.Tarunabh Khaitan & Jane Norton - manuscript
    This paper argues that, while they are often conflated, the right to freedom of religion and the right against religious discrimination are in fact distinct human rights. Religious freedom is best understood as protecting our interest in religious adherence (and non-adherence), understood from the committed perspective of the (non)adherent. The right against religious discrimination is best understood as protecting our non-committal interest in the unsaddled membership of our religious group. Thus understood, the two rights have distinct normative rationales. Key doctrinal (...)
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  3. Is the Law Spiritual?Deepa Kansra - forthcoming - In Edited Book.
    Today, major disciplines (including psychology, philosophy, science, etc.) are seeking to forge a deeper connection with spirituality/spiritual values. Emanating from these efforts are clues about the role of spirituality as an inspiration, a fertile source, and a benchmark for research, policymaking, and reforms. In the case of law/the law, scholars explore its relationship with spirituality in light of diverse topics including human rights, crime prevention, family relations, humanitarianism, development, education, security, conflict resolution, and freedom, etc. A few of these works (...)
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  4. Human Rights Under Emergency: A Normative Assessment of Derogation.Cristian Rettig & Giulio Fornaroli - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    International human rights law allows states to derogate some of their human rights obligations in times of public emergency. This essay attempts a normative assessment of the practice of derogation. We discuss,specifically, whether derogation is compatible with the logics and morality of rights. We notice that a major inconsistency between rights and derogation derives from the unilateral character of derogation: derogating parties are assigned a power-right to annul their own rights-based obligations. This contrasts with the idea,central to rights, that rights-based (...)
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  5. The Right to Bodily Integrity.A. M. Viens (ed.) - forthcoming - Ashgate.
    The right to bodily integrity has become a notable controversial issue within moral, political and legal discourse and this right is regarded as one of the most precious rights that persons have, alongside the right to life. Recent scholarly debate has focused attention on the content, scope and force of this right and has lead to the recognition that a better understanding of the nature of this right will contribute to determining whether and why a multitude of clinical and research (...)
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  6. The Promises of Standing Rock: Three Approaches to Human Rights.Benjamin Davis - 2021 - Humanity 12 (2):205-225.
    Any appeal to a right raises the question of a corresponding duty. If one bears a right, then who bears the duty to respect, protect, and enforce that right? In this essay, I contend that human rights claims need not be oriented to or reliant on the state. I start from and conclude with lessons from the 2016 protests at Standing Rock. Standing Rock, I argue, exemplifies critical theory that organizes communities through the language of human rights.
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  7. When Human Rights and Psychology Meet.Deepa Kansra - 2021 - The Human Rights Blog.
    A psychology-informed view of human rights has been taken into account by many scholars while examining the short-term and long-term effects of human rights violations on individuals and communities. In Trauma and Human Rights: Integrating Approaches to Address Human Suffering, for instance, the authors discuss the trauma-informed approach in the context of human rights violations, namely domestic violence, racial and other forms of discrimination, etc. In the paper on Trauma among children and legal implications, the authors advance a trauma-informed approach (...)
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  8. Neuro Rights, the New Human Rights.Deepa Kansra - 2021 - Rights Compass.
    The human mind has been a subject matter of study in psychology, law, science, philosophy and other disciplines. By definition, its potential is power, abilities and capacities including perception, knowledge, sensation, memory, belief, imagination, emotion, mood, appetite, intention, and action (Pardo, Patterson). In terms of role, it creates and shapes societal morality, culture, peace and democracy. Today, a rapidly advancing science–technology–artificial intelligence (AI) landscape is able to reach into the inner realms of the human mind. Technology, particularly neurotechnology enables access (...)
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  9. The Harmonization of Domestic and International Human Rights Standards on Criminalization of Rape.Deepa Kansra - 2021 - Rights Compass.
    In the field of human rights, expressions like justice and legal reform are closely linked to the process of harmonization of domestic and international human rights standards. Harmonization of human rights standards can be described as a process wherein international human rights are incorporated or given full effect to at the domestic level. [i] To harmonize the two set of standards i.e. domestic and international is viewed as both a commitment and obligation of states under international law. [ii] In terms (...)
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  10. The Impact of Vertical Public Health Initiatives on Gendered Familial Care Work: Public Health and Ethical Issues.Zahra Meghani - 2021 - Critical Public Health 2.
    Rigorous evaluations of the effects of vertical public health enterprises on the health systems of low-income countries usefully identify the public health and ethical costs of those initiatives. They reveal that such narrowly focused public health ventures undermine the efforts of those countries to establish and maintain adequately resourced and well-developed national health systems, including comprehensive primary care programs. This paper argues that the scope of assessments of vertical public health ventures should be broadened to include gender as an additional (...)
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  11. Is There a Human Right to Subsistence Goods?Cristián Rettig - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Research 46:243-260.
    The much-discussed “claimability objection” holds that it is unjustified to believe that all individuals have a human right to subsistence because the bearers of the correlative duties are not sufficiently determined. This argument is based on the so-called “claimability-condition”: S has a right to P if and only if the duty-bearer is sufficiently determined. Practice-based theorists defend the human right to subsistence by arguing that if we take the existing human rights practice seriously, there is no indeterminacy about the allocation (...)
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  12. What Could Human Rights Do? A Decolonial Inquiry.Benjamin Davis - 2020 - Transmodernity 5 (9):1-22.
    It is one thing to consider what human rights have been and another to inquire into what they could be. In this essay, I present a history of human rights vis-à-vis decolonization. I follow the scholarship of Samuel Moyn to suggest that human rights presented a “moral alternative” to political utopias. The question remains how to politicize the moral energy around human rights today. I argue that defending what Édouard Glissant calls a “right to opacity” could politicize the ethical energy (...)
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  13. Advancing the Human Right to Science Under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.Deepa Kansra - 2020 - RMLNLU Law Review.
    At this juncture, the relevance of the human right to science is undeniable. The right, for a long time, has been a subject matter of deliberation under Article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 (ICESCR). Most of these deliberations emphasised the need for a concise meaning and scope of the right to science. In the year 2020, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) under the ICESCR made two interventions with the objective (...)
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  14. Umkämpfte Kunstfreiheit - ein Differenzierungsvorschlag.Karsten Schubert - 2020 - Zeitschrift Für Menschenrechte 14 (2):195–204.
    „Political Correctness“, „Identitätspolitik“ und „Cancel Culture“ werden heutzutage überwiegend als Waffen von Konservativen eingesetzt, um ihre Privilegien gegen emanzipative Neuregelungen zu verteidigen. Solche Neuregelungen als Einschränkung der Kunst- und Meinungsfreiheit zu kritisieren ist deshalb meist falsch. Tatsächlich tragen „Political Correctness“, „Identitätspolitik“ und „Cancel Culture“ zur inklusiveren Verwirklichung der Demokratie bei. Im Artikel zeige ich, dass es darauf ankommt, auf welcher Ebene politische Regulierungen der Kunst stattfinden: nicht-staatlich im allgemeinen Kunstbetrieb, para-staatlich im öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunk, oder staatlich. Nur wenn der Staat mit (...)
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  15. Metaphysics of Human Rights. 1948-2018. On the Occasion of the 70th Anniversary of the UDHR.Elisa Grimi & Luca Di Donato (eds.) - 2019 - Vernon Press.
    The 1948 Declaration of Human Rights demanded a collaboration among exponents from around the world. Embodying many different cultural perspectives, it was driven by a like-minded belief in the importance of finding common principles that would be essential for the very survival of civilization. Although an arduous and extensive process, the result was a much sought-after and collective endeavor that would be referenced for decades to come. Motivated by the seventieth anniversary of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and (...)
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  16. Have Reforms Reconciled Health Rights Litigation and Priority Setting in Costa Rica?Alessandro Luciano & Alex Voorhoeve - 2019 - Health and Human Rights 21 (2):283-293.
    The experience of Costa Rica highlights the potential for conflicts between the right to health and fair priority setting. For example, one study found that most favorable rulings by the Costa Rican constitutional court concerning claims for medications under the right to health were either for experimental treatments or for medicines that should have low priority based on health gain per unit of expenditure and severity of disease. In order to better align rulings with priority setting criteria, in 2014, the (...)
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  17. Economic Liberties and Human Rights.Jahel Queralt & Bas Van Der Vossen (eds.) - 2019 - New York, USA: Routledge Press.
    The status of economic liberties remains a serious lacuna in the theory and practice of human rights. Should a minimally just society protect the freedoms to sell, save, profit and invest? Is being prohibited to run a business a human rights violation? While these liberties enjoy virtually no support from the existing philosophical theories of human rights and little protection by the international human rights law, they are of tremendous importance in the lives of individuals, and particularly the poor. Like (...)
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  18. Political Conceptions of Human Rights and Corporate Responsibility.Daniel P. Corrigan - 2017 - In Reidar Maliks & Johan Karlsson Schaffer (eds.), Moral and Political Conceptions of Human Rights: Implications for Theory and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 229-257.
    Does a political conception of human rights dictate a particular view of corporate human rights obligations? The U.N. “Protect, Respect, and Remedy” Framework and Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights hold that corporations have only a responsibility to respect human rights. Some critics have argued that corporations should be responsible for a wider range of human rights obligations, beyond merely an obligation to respect such rights. Furthermore, it has been argued that the Framework relied on a political conception of (...)
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  19. Dignity: A History.Remy Debes (ed.) - 2017 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In everything from philosophical ethics to legal argument to public activism, it has become commonplace to appeal to the idea of human dignity. In such contexts, the concept of dignity typically signifies something like the fundamental moral status belonging to all humans. Remarkably, however, it is only in the last century that this meaning of the term has become standardized. Before this, dignity was instead a concept associated with social status. Unfortunately, this transformation remains something of a mystery in existing (...)
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  20. The Right to Healthcare Under European Law.André den Exter - 2017 - Diametros 51:173-195.
    Too often, the right to healthcare has been considered an illusory right that is not even a legal right, but merely an aspirational norm that cannot be adjudicated before the court. In modern human rights law, considering individual and social rights as interdependent and indivisible, such an approach is untenable. Both legal doctrine and recent case law from domestic and international courts have elaborated and confirmed the specific obligations under the right to healthcare, countering the general complaint of “shrouded vagueness”. (...)
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  21. Guest Editor’s Introduction to Symposium on Allen Buchanan, The Heart of Human Rights.Lister Matthew - 2017 - Law and Philosophy 36 (2):115-120.
    For many years now Allen Buchanan has been one of the most important theorists working on the philosophy of human rights, producing a large number of papers and two books significantly devoted to the topic. In the work under consideration in this symposium, Buchanan breaks new ground by examining what he claims to be the “heart” of international human rights practice – the international legal human rights (“ILHR”) system, subjecting it to moral and philosophical analysis and criticism. Buchanan's book was (...)
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  22. Questioning Human Dignity: The Dimensions of Dignity Model as a Bridge Between Cosmopolitanism and the Particular.David G. Kirchhoffer - 2016 - In Religion and Culture in Dialogue. Springer Verlag. pp. 167--179.
    The claim that human dignity is universal is challenged by the particular experience of the horrible things people do to others. If dignity is just a ‘vacuous concept’ then the notion of universal human rights and the claim of cosmopolitism that all human beings for a single moral community are also called into question. A close reading of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and an analysis the historical development of the text reveals a complex conception of human dignity expressed (...)
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  23. Weighing Words: On the Governmentality of Free Speech.Muhammad Ali Nasir - 2016 - Social and Legal Studies 25 (1).
    The article explores the regulatory aspect of the right to freedom of expression. It focuses on human rights case law to see how the guarantee of this right considers subjects, who are required to be free in specific ways in order to exercise their freedoms aptly.
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  24. Justifying International Legal Human Rights.Jesse Tomalty - 2016 - Ethics and International Affairs 30 (4):483-490.
    In The Heart of Human Rights, Allen Buchanan emphasizes the distinction between moral human rights (MHRs) on the one hand and international legal human rights (ILHRs) on the other. MHRs are the moral rights held universally by all humans simply in virtue of being human. ILHRs are the legal rights of international practice, which are articulated in the United Nations’ International Bill of Rights and related legal documents. One of the most controversial aspects of Buchanan’s account of human rights is (...)
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  25. Philosophical Foundations of Human Rights.Rowan Cruft, S. Matthew Liao & Massimo Renzo (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focuses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives (...)
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  26. Human Rights: India and the West.Ashwani Kumar Peetush & Jay Drydyk (eds.) - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    The question of how to arrive at a consensus on human rights norm in a diverse, pluralistic, and interconnected global environment is critical. This volume is a contribution to an intercultural understanding of human rights in the context of India and its relationship to the West. The legitimacy of the global legal, economic, and political order is increasingly premised on the discourse of international human rights. Yet the United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights developed with little or no consultation from (...)
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  27. Problem Aksjologicznej Legitymizacji Uniwersalnego Systemu Ochrony Praw Człowieka.Marek Piechowiak - 2015 - In Elżbieta Karska (ed.), Globalne problemy ochrony praw człowieka. Katedra Ochrony Praw Człowieka i Prawa Międzynarodowego UKSW. pp. 86-100.
    Problem of Axiological Legitimization of the Universal System of the Protection of Human Rights Summary In this paper it is argued that legitimization of the universal system (UN-system) of the protection of human rights depends primary not from the content of values recognised as fundamental but rather from metaaxiological solutions related to the way of existence and to the possibility of cognition of these values. Legitimisation is based on the recognition of an objective nature and of cognoscibility of basic values. (...)
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  28. Problem Aksjologicznej Legitymizacji Uniwersalnego Systemu Ochrony Praw Człowieka [Problem of Axiological Legitimization of the Universal System of the Protection of Human Rights].Marek Piechowiak - 2015 - In Elżbieta Karska (ed.), Globalne Problemy Ochrony Praw Człowieka. Katedra Ochrony Praw Człowieka I Prawa Międzynarodowego Uksw. pp. 86-100.
    Problem of Axiological Legitimization of the Universal System of the Protection of Human Rights Summary In this paper it is argued that legitimization of the universal system of the protection of human rights depends primary not from the content of values recognised as fundamental but rather from metaaxiological solutions related to the way of existence and to the possibility of cognition of these values. Legitimisation is based on the recognition of an objective nature and of cognoscibility of basic values. Realisation (...)
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  29. The Thin Justice of International Law: A Moral Reckoning of the Law of Nations.Steven R. Ratner - 2015 - Oxford University Press.
    Offering a new interdisciplinary approach to global justice and integrating the insights of international relations and contemporary ethics, this book asks whether the core norms of international law are just by appraising them according to a standard of global justice grounded in the advancement of peace and protection of human rights.
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  30. A Postscript to Gross V Switzerland.Isra Black - 2014 - Medical Law Review 22 (4):656.
    By a majority of 9–8, the Grand Chamber of the ECtHR has declared the application of Ms Gross inadmissible for abuse of the right of individual application. The Second Section judgment of 2013, in which the Court found Switzerland to have violated Ms Gross' right to decide when and how to die included in the right to private life protected by Article 8 ECHR, will now not become final...
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  31. Existential Suffering and The Extent of the Right to Physician Assisted Suicide in Switzerland.Isra Black - 2014 - Medical Law Review 22 (1):109-118.
    In Gross v Switzerland, the European Court of Human Rights held by 4-3 majority that Switzerland had violated the right to decide when and how to die included in the right to respect for private and family life under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. To comply with the ruling, Switzerland must issue guidance detailing the circumstances (if any) under which physicians may lawfully prescribe lethal medication to competent individuals who have a voluntary and settled wish to (...)
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  32. Pre-Modern Ethics, Authoritative Narratives, and the Tribunal.Jenifer Booth - 2014 - The Oxford Handbook of Psychiatric Ethics.
    This chapter applies the modified philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre to mental health law, and in particular to the mental health tribunal. The natural law approach of Thomas Aquinas is used to assist in this. It is argued that, for law to be just in pre-modern terms, it requires that it be assessed as rational together with the care it supports as a single entity. As such, according to a modified version of the Thomistic Aristotelian ethics of MacIntyre, justice would require (...)
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  33. Climate Rights : Feasible or Not?Eric Brandstedt & Anna-Karin Bergman - 2013 - Environmental Politics 22 (3):394-409.
    Scholars have argued that we have compelling reasons to combat climate change because it threatens human rights, referred to here as ‘climate rights’. The prospects of climate rights are analysed assuming two basic desiderata: its accuracy in capturing the normative dimension of climate change ; and its ability to generate political measures. In order for climate rights to meet these desiderata certain conditions must be satisfied: important human interests are put at risk by global climate change; there is an identified (...)
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  34. From the Human Right to Food to Food Sovereignty: Policy Initiatives in India and Beyond.Deepa Kansra - 2013 - In Deepa Kansra, Rabindra Pathak & Bhrigu Vishwakarma (eds.), Re-thinking the Law: Emerging Issues and Challenges. New Delhi, Delhi, India: pp. 64-87.
    The right to food is recognized as a basic right under international human rights law. The lack of implementation of the right is a challenge for societies around the world. The failures in implementation are leading stakeholder's to strongly advance more appropriate standards vis-a-vis the right to food. The concept of food sovereignty for instance has gained importance in this regard. The concept of food sovereignty is interpreted to be larger in scope than the right to food. Food sovereignty is (...)
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  35. Between Revelation and Reason: Human Dignity in Karl Barth and Gaudium Et Spes.David Kirchhoffer - 2013 - In David Kirchhoffer, Robyn Horner & Patrick McArdle (eds.), Being HumanGroundwork for a Theological Anthropology for the 21st Century. Preston:
  36. El derecho al arte en Ecuador.Ricardo Restrepo (ed.) - 2013 - IAEN.
    Es difícil imaginar una sociedad del buen vivir sin arte. Por ello, la creatividad artística es reconocida como derecho en la Constitución del Ecuador, y como derecho humano en los intrumentos internacionales relevantes. Partiendo de esta reflexión, los artículos de este libro argumentan que siendo el arte un derecho, le corresponde al Estado la provisión de condiciones para su garantía por medio de políticas públicas, que deben tomar en cuenta tanto las especificidades de las personas, y los pueblos y nacionalidades, (...)
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  37. Suicide Assistance for Mentally Disordered Individuals in Switzerland and the State's Positive Obligation to Facilitate Dignified Suicide.Isra Black - 2012 - Medical Law Review 20 (1):157-166.
    Commentary on the European Court of Human Rights judgment in Haas v Switzerland.
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  38. The Necessity and Possibility of the Use of the Principle of Generic Consistency by the UK Courts to Answer the Fundamental Questions of Convention Rights Interpretation.Benedict Douglas - 2012 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This thesis seeks to engage with and give answers to the fundamental question of rights interpretation confronting the British judiciary under the Human Rights Act 1998. As a premise, it recognises that the textual openness and consequential semantic uncertainty of the requirements of the Convention rights necessitates their interpretation. In determining the approach the courts should apply, this thesis takes as its structural foundation an analysis of the current approach of the domestic courts and the European Court of Human Rights (...)
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  39. A Liberal Theory of Asylum.Andy Lamey - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (3):235-257.
    Hannah Arendt argued that refugees pose a major problem for liberalism. Most liberal theorists endorse the idea of human rights. At the same time, liberalism takes the existence of sovereign states for granted. When large numbers of people petition a liberal state for asylum, Arendt argued, these two commitments will come into conflict. An unwavering respect for human rights would mean that no refugee is ever turned away. Being sovereign, however, allows states to control their borders. States supposedly committed to (...)
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  40. Political and Naturalistic Conceptions of Human Rights: A False Polemic?S. Matthew Liao & Adam Etinson - 2012 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (3):327-352.
    What are human rights? According to one longstanding account, the Naturalistic Conception of human rights, human rights are those that we have simply in virtue of being human. In recent years, however, a new and purportedly alternative conception of human rights has become increasingly popular. This is the so-called Political Conception of human rights, the proponents of which include John Rawls, Charles Beitz, and Joseph Raz. In this paper we argue for three claims. First, we demonstrate that Naturalistic Conceptions of (...)
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  41. There is No Human Right to Democracy. But May We Promote It Anyway?Matthew Lister - 2012 - Stanford Journal of International Law 48 (2):257.
    The idea of “promoting democracy” is one that goes in and out of favor. With the advent of the so-called “Arab Spring”, the idea of promoting democracy abroad has come up for discussion once again. Yet an important recent line of thinking about human rights, starting with John Rawls’s book The Law of Peoples, has held that there is no human right to democracy, and that nondemocratic states that respect human rights should be “beyond reproach” in the realm of international (...)
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  42. Wolność religijna i dyskryminacja religijna – uwagi w kontekście rezolucji Parlamentu Europejskiego z 20 stycznia 2011 r. [Freedom of Religion and Religious Discrimination – Remarks on the European Parliament Resolution of 20 January 2011].Marek Piechowiak - 2012 - In Stanisław Leszek Stadniczeńko (ed.), Urzeczywistnianie wolności przekonań religijnych i praw z niej wynikających. Redakcja Wydawnictw Wydziału Teologicznego Uniwersytetu Opolskiego. pp. 103-139.
    The aim of this paper is to present and analyse legal acts cited in the European Parliament resolution of 20 January 2011 on the situation of Christians in the context of freedom of religion. The author presents the substance of the right to religious freedom and the position of religious freedom among other human rights. The paper also shows the formation of European law on religious freedom and grasps the development trends in this area. Because of the discrepancies that arise (...)
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  43. La urbe global y el gobierno de la vida humana.Castor Bartolomé Ruiz & Rubén Alberto Duarte Cuadros (eds.) - 2012 - Bogota: Universidad Libre.
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  44. Are Institutions and Empiricism Enough? [REVIEW]Matthew J. Lister - 2011 - Transnational Legal Theory 2 (1).
    Legal philosophers have given relatively little attention to international law in comparison to other topics, and philosophers working on international or global justice have not taken international law as a primary focus, either. Allen Buchanan's recent work is arguably the most important exception to these trends. For over a decade he has devoted significant time and philosophical skill to questions central to international law, and has tied these concerns to related issues of global justice more generally. In what follows I (...)
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  45. Negatywna wolność religijna i przekonania sekularystyczne w świetle sprawy Lautsi przeciwko Włochom [Negative Religious Freedom and Secular Thought in the Light of the Case of Lautsi v. Italy].Marek Piechowiak - 2011 - Przegląd Sejmowy 19 (5 (106)):37-68.
    The article provides an analysis of the European Court of Human Rights judgments in the case of Lautsi v. Italy (application no. 30814/06), also known as the Italian crucifix case. The applicant claimed that displaying crucifixes in the Italian State-school classrooms attended by her children was contrary to the principle of secularism, by which she wished to bring up her children, and therefore infringed her right to ensure their education and teaching in conformity with her religious and philosophical convictions, and (...)
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  46. SOCIAL EVILS RELATED TO CASTE DISCRIMINATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2011 - In S. M. Atik-Ur-Rahaman & Parveenkumar Kumbargudar (eds.), Developments in Social Sciences. Jaipur, Rajasthan, India: pp. 148-155.
    In this paper an attempt is made to draw out an outline of present social evils generated from Caste-Discrimination and this system is the misinterpreted conception of Varynavyavastha where the four varnas are divided on the basis of division of labour and since history it converted to caste system. With these Human Rights issues are directly related and human rights are an important concept in civilized and democratic society. But from the part of Government and judiciary the above said both (...)
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  47. Wokół konstytucyjnej ochrony życia. Próba oceny propozycji nowelizacji Konstytucji RP [Constitutional Protection of Life: An Attempt to Assess the Proposal for Amendment of Poland’s Constitution].Marek Piechowiak - 2010 - Przegląd Sejmowy 18 (1 (96)):25-47.
    This article first of all attempts to assess the proposals of 2006–2007 to amend Poland’s Constitution, aimed mostly at strengthening constitutional protection of unborn human life. Parliamentary work on this proposal begins with the submission of the Deputy’s bill on amendment of the Constitution, published in the Sejm Paper No. 993 of September 5, 2006, and ends with a series of votes at the 39th sitting of the Sejm of the fifth term of office, held on April 13, 2007, on (...)
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  48. Powszechność – między uniformizacją a relatywizmem. Wokół metaaksjologicznych założeń Powszechnej Deklaracji Praw Człowieka.Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - In Tadeusz Jasudowicz, Michał Balcerzak & Julia Kapelańska-Pręgowska (eds.), Współczesne problemy praw człowieka i międzynarodowego prawa humanitarnego. Dom Organizatora. pp. 177-193.
    W niniejszym opracowaniu zamierzam zwrócić uwagę na powiązanie roszczenia uniwersalności z potrzebą dostosowywania formułowanych standardów do odmiennych i zmiennych warunków życia, a następnie zidentyfikować rozstrzygnięcia filozoficzne skorelowane z uznaniem takiego powiązania. Akcent zamierzam przy tym położyć na problematykę metaaksjologiczną, dotyczącą nie tyle tego, jakie wartości zostały uznane, ale tego, jak uznane wartości są ugruntowane, co nie jest bez znaczenia dla określenia sposobów ich poznawania i ustalania. Rozstrzygnięcia te, jako zawarte m. in. w artykule 1, okazują się jednocześnie należeć do przyjętych (...)
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  49. Konstytucja wobec wykluczenia społecznego [The Constitution and Social Exclusion].Marek Piechowiak - 2009 - In Zdzisław Kędzia & Antoni Rost (eds.), Współczesne wyzwania wobec praw człowieka w świetle polskiego prawa konstytucyjnego. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM. pp. 125-145.
    Choć samo zjawisko wykluczenia społecznego nie jest nowe, to jego waga, zwłaszcza w perspektywie praw człowieka, została doceniona stosunkowo niedawno. „Wykluczenie społeczne” nie jest kategorią konstytucyjną. Celem opracowania jest ogólne usytuowanie problematyki wykluczenia w kontekście zagadnień konstytucyjnych. Zmierza się do dookreślenia, czym jest wykluczenie społeczne oraz do wskazania zasadniczych konstytucyjnych punktów odniesienia, pozwalających na podjęcie tego problemu. Właściwe wykluczeniu społecznemu jest złożoność przyczyn - sam brak środków finansowych nie musi prowadzić do wykluczenia, choć proces wykluczania może być zainicjowany jednym wydarzeniem. (...)
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  50. Do International Organizations Play Favorites?: An Imparttialist Account.Steven Ratner - 2009 - In Lukas Meyer (ed.), Legitimacy, Justice, and Public International Law. Cambridge University Press.
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