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  1. Everybody Lies: Deception Levels in Various Domains of Life.Kristina Šekrst - forthcoming - Biosemiotics.
    The goal of this paper is to establish a hierarchical level of deception which does not apply only to humans and non-human animals, but also to the rest of the living world, including plants. We will follow the hierarchical categorization of deception, set forth by Mitchell (1986), in which the first level of deception starts with mimicry, while the last level of deception includes learning and intentionality, usually attributed to primates. We will show how such a hierarchy can be attributed (...)
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  2. Wrongful Influence in Educational Contexts.John Tillson - forthcoming - In Kathryn Hytten (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Education. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    When and why are coercion, indoctrination, manipulation, deception, and bullshit morally wrongful modes of influence in the context of educating children? Answering this question requires identifying what valid claims different parties have against one another regarding how children are influenced. Most prominently among these, it requires discerning what claims children have regarding whether and how they and their peers are influenced, and against whom they have these claims. The claims they have are grounded in the weighty interests they each equally (...)
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  3. Bullshit, Trust, and Evidence.Adrian Briciu - 2021 - Intercultural Pragmatics 18 (5):633-656.
    It has become almost a cliché to say that we live in a post-truth world; that people of all trades speak with an indifference to truth. Speaking with an indifference to how things really are is famously regarded by Harry Frankfurt as the essence of bullshit. This paper aims to contribute to the philosophical and theoretical pragmatics discussion of bullshit. The aim of the paper is to offer a new theoretical analysis of what bullshit is, one that is more encompassing (...)
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  4. Powerful Deceivers and Public Reason Liberalism: An Argument for Externalization.Sean Donahue - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):1-18.
    Public reason liberals claim that legitimate rules must be justifiable to diverse perspectives. This Public Justification Principle threatens that failing to justify rules to reprehensible agents makes them illegitimate. Although public reason liberals have replies to this objection, they cannot avoid the challenge of powerful deceivers. Powerful deceivers trick people who are purportedly owed public justification into considering otherwise good rules unjustified. Avoiding this challenge requires discounting some failures of justification according to what caused people’s beliefs. I offer a conception (...)
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  5. Animal Deception and the Content of Signals.Don Fallis & Peter J. Lewis - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 87:114-124.
    In cases of animal mimicry, the receiver of the signal learns the truth that he is either dealing with the real thing or with a mimic. Thus, despite being a prototypical example of animal deception, mimicry does not seem to qualify as deception on the traditional definition, since the receiver is not actually misled. We offer a new account of propositional content in sender-receiver games that explains how the receiver is misled by mimicry. We show that previous accounts of deception, (...)
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  6. Culture, Collectivism-Individualism and College Student Plagiarism.Jonathan Kasler, Leehu Zysberg & Raya Gal - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (7):488-497.
    ABSTRACT We tested a model in which individualist and collectivist orientations mediate the association between cultural background and students’ self-reported plagiarism. A sample of 430 Jewish and non-Jewish undergraduates at a college in northern Israel completed a questionnaire to assess individualist and collectivist orientation and demographics, and answered a question regarding whether they had committed plagiarism during their studies. The results partly supported the model; individualism, but not collectivism, mediated the association between cultural background and admitting plagiarism. The model and (...)
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  7. Deception and the Clinical Ethicist.Christopher Meyers - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (5):4-12.
    In this article, I defend a discomfiting thesis: The clinical ethicist should sometimes be an active participant in the deception of patients and families. The case for this conclusion builds off Sissela Bok’s seminal analysis of lying, from which I emphasize that, despite some common intuitions to the contrary, there is prima facie no morally relevant difference between lies of omission and commission. I then discuss deception’s prevalence in medical encounters, noting that the ethicist is often embedded in corresponding decisions, (...)
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  8. Unintended Consequences of Performance Incentives: Impacts of Framing and Structure on Performance and Cheating.Joshua A. Nagel, Kajal R. Patel, Ethan G. Rothstein & Logan L. Watts - 2021 - Ethics and Behavior 31 (7):498-515.
    ABSTRACT Setting specific, challenging goals motivates employees to exert greater effort in their jobs. However, goal-setting may have unintended consequences of also motivating unethical behavior. The present study explores these consequences in the context of other features of goal-setting in organizations, how goals are framed and rewarded, to determine the tradeoff between performance and ethical behavior. Undergraduate students were incentivized to complete math problems using different outcome frames and incentive structures and were also provided an opportunity to cheat. Findings demonstrate (...)
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  9. Ghosting Inside the Machine: Student Cheating, Online Education and the Omertà of Institutional Liars.Shane J. Ralston - 2021 - In Alison MacKenzie, Jennifer Rose & Ibrar Bhatt (eds.), The Epistemology of Deceit in the Postdigital Era: Dupery by Design. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 251-264.
    'Ghosting' or the unethical practice of having someone other than the student registered in the course take the student's exams, complete their assignments and write their essays has become a common method of cheating in today's online higher education learning environment. Internet-based teaching technology and deceit go hand-in-hand because the technology establishes a set of perverse incentives for students to cheat and institutions to either tolerate or encourage this highly unethical form of behavior. For students, cheating becomes an increasingly attractive (...)
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  10. Ethics of Psychotherapist Deception.Drew A. Curtis & Leslie J. Kelley - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (8):601-616.
    ABSTRACT Since Tolman’s efforts to establish a code for psychologists, the American Psychological Association’s ethics code has been maintained and revised for over six decades. One of APA’s five core principles is honesty and integrity. Recent research has found that therapists lie to patients. The current project explored therapists’ and non-therapists’ beliefs about the ethics of therapist deception. We recruited 245 students and 38 therapists who read and rated vignettes of therapists lying or being honest. Overall, participants judged therapist deception (...)
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  11. Toward a Formal Analysis of Deceptive Signaling.Don Fallis & Peter J. Lewis - 2019 - Synthese (6):2279-2303.
    Deception has long been an important topic in philosophy. However, the traditional analysis of the concept, which requires that a deceiver intentionally cause her victim to have a false belief, rules out the possibility of much deception in the animal kingdom. Cognitively unsophisticated species, such as fireflies and butterflies, have simply evolved to mislead potential predators and/or prey. To capture such cases of “functional deception,” several researchers Machiavellian intelligence II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 112–143, 1997; Searcy and Nowicki, The (...)
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  12. Deception (Under Uncertainty) as a Kind of Manipulation.Vladimir Krstić & Chantelle Saville - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):830-835.
    In his 2018 AJP paper, Shlomo Cohen hints that deception could be a distinct subset of manipulation. We pursue this thought further, but by arguing that Cohen’s accounts of deception and manipulation are incorrect. Deception under uncertainty need not involve adding false premises to the victim’s reasoning but it must involve manipulating her response, and cases of manipulation that do not interfere with the victim’s reasoning, but rather utilize it, also exist. Therefore, deception under uncertainty must be constituted by covert (...)
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  13. Cannibals, Gun-Deckers, and Good Idea Fairies: Structural Incentives to Deceive in the Military.Michael Skerker - 2019 - In Michael Skerker, David Whetham & Donald Carrick (eds.), Military Virtues. London, UK:
    Case studies about institutional pressures encouraging dishonesty in the US Navy.
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  14. Deception: A Functional Account.Marc Artiga & Cédric Paternotte - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):579-600.
    Deception has recently received a significant amount of attention. One of main reasons is that it lies at the intersection of various areas of research, such as the evolution of cooperation, animal communication, ethics or epistemology. This essay focuses on the biological approach to deception and argues that standard definitions put forward by most biologists and philosophers are inadequate. We provide a functional account of deception which solves the problems of extant accounts in virtue of two characteristics: deceptive states have (...)
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  15. Enhancement and Cheating: Implications for Policy in Sport.Justin Caouette & Allen Habib - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 523-533.
    There is a widely held view that the rules forbidding the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are justified on grounds that utilizing these drugs constitutes cheating . In this chapter we engage with this assumption. Relying on an interpretative approach borrowed from Ronald Dworkin, we offer a novel analysis of cheating, one that makes it out to be a matter of inhibiting the attainment of certain sorts of achievements. These achievements are the important goods at the centre of sport, (...)
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  16. The Moral Gradation of Media of Deception.Shlomo Cohen - 2018 - Theoria 84 (1):60-82.
    A central debate in the ethics of deception concerns the moral comparison among the three media through which deception is executed: lying, falsely implicating, or nonlinguistic deception. The two prominent views are that lying is morally worse or that the choice of medium is morally insignificant. This article refutes both and argues for a new position. The article first presents a theory on the moral significance of the medium of deception as such: it argues that the medium of communication affects (...)
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  17. Manipulation and Deception.Shlomo Cohen - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 96 (3):483-497.
    ABSTRACTThis paper introduces the category of ‘non-deceptive manipulation that causes false beliefs’, analyzes how it narrows the traditional scope of ‘deception’, and draws moral implications.
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  18. Shedding Light on Keeping People in the Dark.Don Fallis - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (2):535-554.
    We want to keep hackers in the dark about our passwords and our credit card numbers. We want to keep potential eavesdroppers in the dark about our private communications with friends and business associates. This need for secrecy raises important questions in epistemology (how do we do it?) and in ethics (should we do it?). In order to answer these questions, it would be useful to have a good understanding of the concept of keeping someone in the dark. Several philosophers (...)
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  19. Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty in a South African University: A Q-Methodology Approach.Gillian Finchilescu & Adam Cooper - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (4):284-301.
    The prevalence of academic dishonesty is a matter of considerable concern for institutions of higher education everywhere. We explored students’ perceptions of academic dishonesty using Q methodology, which provides insights that are different from those obtained through surveys or interviews. South African students ranked 48 statements, giving reasons why students cheat, on an 11-column grid, anchored by strongly agree and strongly disagree. Q factor analysis was used to identify groups of individuals who share the same perspective. The three perspectives that (...)
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  20. Plagiarism of Chinese Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.Chester Chun Seng Kam, Ming Tak Hue & Hoi Yan Cheung - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (4):316-335.
    The predictors of attitudes regarding academic plagiarism were investigated in Hong Kong secondary school students. The participants were 257 Grade 10 and 11 students who were taking liberal studies. Quantitative analysis showed that the students were unfamiliar with what actions constituted plagiarism. The best predictor of attitudes was the perceived descriptive norm regarding plagiarism. We explain this finding by applying the cultural-self perspective and present our recommendations for teachers.
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  21. Is the Use of Modafinil, a Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancer, Cheating?Sebastian Porsdam Mann, Pablo de Lora Deltoro, Thomas Cochrane & Christine Mitchell - 2018 - Ethics and Education 13 (2):251-267.
    Drugs used to provide improvement of cognitive functioning have been shown to be effective in healthy individuals. It is sometimes assumed that the use of these drugs constitutes cheating in an academic context. We examine whether this assumption is ethically sound. Beyond providing the most up-to-date discussion of modafinil use in an academic context, this contribution includes an overview of the safety of modafinil use in greater depth than previous studies addressing the issue of cheating. Secondly, we emphasize two crucial, (...)
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  22. College Students’ Perceptions of and Responses to Academic Dishonesty: An Investigation of Type of Honor Code, Institution Size, and Student–Faculty Ratio.Holly E. Tatum, Beth M. Schwartz, Megan C. Hageman & Shelby L. Koretke - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (4):302-315.
    College students from small, medium, and large institutions with either a modified or no honor code were presented with cheating scenarios and asked to rate how dishonest they perceived the behavior to be and the likelihood that they would report it. No main effects were found for institution size or type of honor code. Student–faculty ratio was not correlated with responses to the cheating scenarios. Students from modified honor code schools perceived more severe punishments for cheating and understood the reporting (...)
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  23. Associations Between Psychopathic Traits and Brain Activity During Instructed False Responding.Andrea L. Glenn, Hyemin Han, Yaling Yang, Adrian Raine & Robert A. Schug - 2017 - Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 266:123-137.
    Lying is one of the characteristic features of psychopathy, and has been recognized in clinical and diagnostic descriptions of the disorder, yet individuals with psychopathic traits have been found to have reduced neural activity in many of the brain regions that are important for lying. In this study, we examine brain activity in sixteen individuals with varying degrees of psychopathic traits during a task in which they are instructed to falsify information or tell the truth about autobiographical and non-autobiographical facts, (...)
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  24. Simulation, Seduction, and Bullshit: Cooperative and Destructive Misleading.Leslie A. Howe - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (3):300-314.
    This paper refines a number of theoretical distinctions relevant to deceptive play, in particular the difference between merely misleading actions and types of simulation commonly considered beyond the pale, such as diving. To do so, I rely on work in the philosophy of language about conversational convention and implicature, the distinction between lying and misleading, and their relation to concepts of seduction and bullshit. The paper works through a number of possible solutions to the question of what is wrong with (...)
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  25. Academic Cheating in Mathematics Classes: A Motivational Perspective.Nina Pavlin-Bernardić, Daria Rovan & Jurana Pavlović - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (6):486-501.
    We investigated the frequency of secondary school students’ self-reported cheating in mathematics and relationships between cheating and motivational beliefs, as well as neutralizing attitudes. Two types of cheating were examined: active cheating, which is aimed to increase a person’s own success, and second-party cheating, aimed to help other students achieve success. Students use second-party cheating very often and more than active cheating. Motivational beliefs are significantly related to active cheating but uncorrelated with second-party cheating. Thus, although active and second-party cheating (...)
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  26. Fighting Back Against Achievement Culture: Cheating as an Act of Rebellion in a High-Pressure Secondary School.Alexis Brooke Redding - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (2):155-172.
    This article argues that document analysis can add a more nuanced understanding of student ethical reasoning and enhance current approaches to cheating research. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, I examine the cheating epidemic at Stuyvesant High School through editorials in their school newspaper. Stuyvesant is known for academically talented students focused on elite college admission. My findings suggest that the influence of achievement culture on cheating is more complex than what was captured by the school’s internal cheating survey (...)
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  27. Factors That Explain Academic Dishonesty Among University Students in Thailand.Darrin Thomas - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (2):140-154.
    Academic dishonesty is a problem that continues to plague universities. Few studies have examined how mind-set and individualism contribute to academic dishonesty. Using structural equation modeling, a model was developed to explain academic dishonesty, which included mind-set, individualistic learning environment, individualism, and motivation to study. A total of 207 university students in Thailand participated. The final model explained 30% of the variance in academic dishonesty. All variables in this study had a negative relationship with academic dishonesty, indicating that improvements in (...)
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  28. What Contributes to College Students’ Cheating? A Study of Individual Factors.Hongwei Yu, Perry L. Glanzer, Rishi Sriram, Byron R. Johnson & Brandon Moore - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (5):401-422.
    To better understand the multiple individual factors that contribute to college cheating, we undertook a multivariate analysis of a national sample of 2,503 college students. Our findings indicated that demographic characteristics, character qualities, college experience, and student perceptions and attitudes are all significantly associated with academic cheating.
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  29. Skyrms on the Possibility of Universal Deception.Don Fallis - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (2):375-397.
    In the Groundwork, Immanuel Kant famously argued that it would be self-defeating for everyone to follow a maxim of lying whenever it is to his or her advantage. In his recent book Signals, Brian Skyrms claims that Kant was wrong about the impossibility of universal deception. Skyrms argues that there are Lewisian signaling games in which the sender always sends a signal that deceives the receiver. I show here that these purportedly deceptive signals simply fail to make the receiver as (...)
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  30. Ravines and Sugar Pills: Defending Deceptive Placebo Use.Jonathan Pugh - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):83-101.
    In this paper, I argue that deceptive placebo use can be morally permissible, on the grounds that the deception involved in the prescription of deceptive placebos can differ in kind to the sorts of deception that undermine personal autonomy. In order to argue this, I shall first delineate two accounts of why deception is inimical to autonomy. On these accounts, deception is understood to be inimical to the deceived agent’s autonomy because it either involves subjugating the deceived agent’s will to (...)
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  31. Signaling Without Cooperation.Marc Artiga - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):357-378.
    Ethological theories usually attribute semantic content to animal signals. To account for this fact, many biologists and philosophers appeal to some version of teleosemantics. However, this picture has recently came under attack: while mainstream teleosemantics assumes that representational systems must cooperate, some biologists and philosophers argue that in certain cases signaling can evolve within systems lacking common interest. In this paper I defend the standard view from this objection.
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  32. Students Reported for Cheating Explain What They Think Would Have Stopped Them.Eric M. Beasley - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (3):229-252.
    I analyzed 298 open-ended responses of undergraduate students who have been reported for cheating to the question, “What, if anything, would have stopped you from committing your act of academic dishonesty?” These responses included a few major themes: students pled ignorance of what constitutes academic dishonesty and the consequences/seriousness associated with violations; students tended to deflect blame, usually by saying that their professor could have done something differently ; students did not feel they had enough time, resources, and/or skills to (...)
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  33. Deception, Politics and Aesthetics: The Importance of Hobbes’s Concept of Metaphor.Johan Tralau - 2014 - Contemporary Political Theory 13 (2):112-129.
    In recent years, we have witnessed renewed interest in metaphors in political theory. In this context, Hobbes’s theory of metaphor is of great importance as it helps us understand aesthetic qualities in theory and politics. This article argues that in the work of Hobbes – often portrayed as hostile to the use of metaphor, especially so by himself – there is a remarkable discrepancy between his professed enmity to metaphor and his own use of the very word ‘metaphor’. In a (...)
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  34. To Cheat or Not to Cheat?: The Role of Personality in Academic and Business Ethics.Virginia K. Bratton & Connie Strittmatter - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):427-444.
    Past research (Lawson, 2004; Nonis & Swift, 2001) has revealed a correlation between academic and business ethics. Using a sample survey, this study extends this inquiry by examining the role of dispositional variables (neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) and academic honesty on business ethics perceptions. Results indicate that (1) neuroticism and conscientiousness were positively related to more ethical perceptions in a work context, and (2) academic honesty partially mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and business ethics. Implications to business practitioners and educators (...)
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  35. An Analysis of Student Privacy Rights in the Use of Plagiarism Detection Systems.Bo Brinkman - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1255-1266.
    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students’ rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when (...)
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  36. Communication and Common Interest.Peter Godfrey-Smith & Manolo Martínez - 2013 - PLOS Computational Biology 9 (11):1–6.
    Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify (...)
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  37. Book Review: The Science of Deception: Psychology and Commerce in America. [REVIEW]David Keller - 2013 - History of the Human Sciences 26 (5):162-165.
    Michael Pettit, The Science of Deception: Psychology and Commerce in America. Chicago, IL and London, University of Chicago Press, 2013, ix + 311 pp., bibl., index. $50.00/£32.50ISBN 978-0-226-92374-1.
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  38. Recensione di "Mindfucking: a critique of mental manipulation", di Colin McGinn. [REVIEW]Neri Marsili - 2013 - Aphex 8.
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  39. Exploring the Judgment–Action Gap: College Students and Academic Dishonesty.Lori Olafson, Gregory Schraw, Louis Nadelson, Sandra Nadelson & Nicolas Kehrwald - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):148-162.
    This study examined differences between university students who were caught and sanctioned for cheating, students admitting to cheating but who were not caught, and students reporting that they had never cheated. Our findings showed that noncheaters are older, have better grade point averages, and have more sophisticated moral and epistemological reasoning skills. Qualitative analyses revealed that denial of responsibility and injury were the most common neutralization techniques and differed between the sanctioned and self-reported cheaters. We discuss the need to examine (...)
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  40. Review of Robert Trivers' The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life[REVIEW]Neil Van Leeuwen - 2013 - Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 18 (1-2):146-151.
    Here I review Robert Trivers' 2011 book _The Folly of Fools_, in which he advocates the evolutionary theory of deceit and self-deception that he pioneered in his famous preface to Richard Dawkins' _Selfish Gene_. Although the book contains a wealth of interesting discussion on topics ranging from warfare to immunology, I find it lacking on two major fronts. First, it fails to give a proper argument for its central thesis--namely, that self-deception evolved to facilitate deception of others. Second, the book (...)
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  41. An Investigation of College Students' Perceptions of Academic Dishonesty, Reasons for Dishonesty, Achievement Goals, and Willingness to Report Dishonest Behavior.Shu Ching Yang, Chiao-Ling Huang & An-Sing Chen - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):501-522.
    This study investigated students? perceptions of their own and their peers? academic dishonesty (AD), their reasons for this dishonesty, their achievement goals, and their willingness to report AD (WRAD) within a Chinese cultural context. The results identified students? belief that their peers had a greater likelihood of engaging in AD and had more motivation to do so than did the students themselves. Gender and academic major did not affect students? WRAD. However, students were significantly more willing to report classmates than (...)
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  42. Cheating in Advantaged High Schools: Prevalence, Justifications, and Possibilities for Change.Mollie K. Galloway - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (5):378 - 399.
    The current study explored high school student cheating in communities of advantage, gathering survey data from 4,316 high school students in upper middle class communities and qualitative data from a smaller group of students, school leaders, teachers, and parents. Results indicated pervasive cheating among students (93% reported cheating at least once and 26% of upperclassmen indicated cheating in 7 or more of 13 ways listed on the survey). Students described schools as lacking clarity or consequences regarding cheating and expressed feeling (...)
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  43. The Morality of Faking Orgasms: Deception in a Dishonest World.Stephen Kershnar - 2012 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):85-104.
    In this essay, I argue that orgasm-faking is permissible. My essay consists of three parts. First, I provide a background sketch of the psychology of orgasm-faking. Second, I argue that it is permissible. Third, I consider other arguments that might be made for the permissibility of faking it.
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  44. A Case of Insincerity: What Does It Mean to Deceive Someone?Kevin Kinghorn - 2012 - In Philip Tallon & David Baggett (eds.), The Philosophy of Sherlock Holmes. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 37-48.
    In unpacking the nature of deception, we'll want to ask what conditions would need to be met in order rightly to conclude that an act of deception has taken place. The literary stories about Sherlock Holmes provide a large pool of examples of misdirection, whereby Holmes is able to stay one step ahead of his adversaries. These examples are used to show the inadequacy of a number of purported definitions of deception. I then settle on one definition that does seem (...)
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  45. Deception: From Ancient Empires to Internet Dating. [REVIEW]James Edwin Mahon - 2012 - Philosophy in Review 32 (4):275-278.
    In this review of Brooke Harrington's edited collection of essays on deception, written by people from different disciplines and giving us a good "status report" on what various disciplines have to say about deception and lying, I reject social psychologist Mark Frank's taxonomy of passive deception, active consensual deception, and active non-consensual deception (active consensual deception is not deception), as well as his definition of deception as "anything that misleads another for some gain" ("for gain" is a reason for engaging (...)
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  46. Making Sense of Spin.Neil C. Manson - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):200-213.
    “Spin” is a pejorative term for a ubiquitous form of communication. Spin is viewed by many as deceptive, and by others as bending or twisting the truth. But spin need not be deceptive and the metaphors are less than clear. The aim here is to clarify what spin is: spin is identified as a form of selective claim-making, where the process of selection is governed by an intention to bring about promotional perlocutionary effects. The process of selection may pertain to (...)
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  47. Toute Vérité Est-Elle Bonne à Dire?Aïda N'Diaye - 2012 - Les Éditions de L'Opportun.
    Prendre le temps de se poser des questions simples et inévitables, sans a priori, mais avec le luxe d'un raisonnement limpide, accessible, utile. Voici en quelques mots l'état d'esprit de la collection des Philosopheurs. Sous la direction d'Olivier Dhilly, professeur agrégé de philosophie et auteurs de nombreux ouvrages, les Philosopheurs vous poussent sur les chemins de la réflexion. Les questions posées dans chaque livre ont occupé, occupent ou occuperont un jour ou l'autre notre esprit : religion, mort, liberté, bonheur, vérité. (...)
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  48. Closer to the Truth: Electronic Records of Academic Dishonesty in an Actual Classroom Setting.Emily Simpson & Karen Yu - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (5):400 - 408.
    Studies of academic dishonesty typically rely on potentially inaccurate self-reports or on actual behavior during less realistic tasks. Eliminating the drawbacks of such approaches, we assessed cheating during completion of actual coursework via electronic records of online behavior. Thirty-six college students completed unproctored, online quizzes. The majority of students responding to a follow-up questionnaire reported that they never considered consulting online sources during the quizzes. Computer logs reveal that although some students accessed relevant online information during the quizzes, many did (...)
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  49. More Than Cheating: Deception, IRB Shopping, and the Normative Legitimacy of IRBs.Ryan Spellecy & Thomas May - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):990-996.
    Deception, cheating, and loopholes within the IRB approval process have received significant attention in the past several years. Surveys of clinical researchers indicate common deception ranging from omitting information to outright lying, and controversy surrounding the FDA's decision not to ban “IRB shopping” (the practice of submitting protocols to multiple IRBs until one is found that will approve the protocol) has raised legitimate concerns about the integrity of the IRB process. While at first blush these practices seem to cast aspersions (...)
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  50. Why Physicians Ought to Lie for Their Patients.Nicolas Tavaglione & Samia Hurst - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (3):4-12.
    Sometimes physicians lie to third-party payers in order to grant their patients treatment they would otherwise not receive. This strategy, commonly known as gaming the system, is generally condemned for three reasons. First, it may hurt the patient for the sake of whom gaming was intended. Second, it may hurt other patients. Third, it offends contractual and distributive justice. Hence, gaming is considered to be immoral behavior. This article is an attempt to show that, on the contrary, gaming may sometimes (...)
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