The Meaning of Life

Edited by Nicolas Delon (College of Charleston, New College of Florida)
About this topic
Summary This broad-ranging category covers philosophical explorations of the old question of the meaning of life as well as the more recent rephrasing of the question as that of meaning in life or meaningfulness. Questions range from the idea of a purpose to life, existence or the universe, to the idea that lives can be more or less meaningful. Other questions explored include the relation between meaning and happiness, meaning and morality, meaning in a secular age, meaning in a naturalistic world, and the conditions of meaningfulness.
Key works — Classics: Camus 1957; Frankl 1959; Nagel 1971; Nagel 1986; Nozick 1981; Nozick 1990; Singer 1996; Taylor 1970 — Recent work: Metz 2013; Wielenberg 2005; Wolf 2010; Wolf 2014; Wolf 1997; Wolf 1997
Introductions — Collections/Readers: Benatar 2010; Klemke & Cahn 2008; Seachris 2012 — Philosophical introductions/histories: Baggini 2005; Cottingham 2002; Metz 2021; Young 2003
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Contents
802 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 802
  1. What Is the Meaning of Life?Jonathan Birch - manuscript
    This is an edited transcript of a lecture given at the LSE in March 2023. The lecture introduces the “meaning of life” question via Tolstoy’s Confession, then considers the strengths and limitations of religious and secular answers to the question.
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  2. Mental Evolution and the Universal Meaning of Life.Gregor Flock - manuscript
    Is a universal meaning of life (MoL) possible? In this paper I argue for an affirmative answer: Starting out from the MoL's initial definition as "the active and successful pursuit of the ultimate end in life (UEiL)" and another initial definition of the UEiL, I first introduce four UEiL and MoL categories. In the context of their discussion, I add the elements of non-physical relation and universal scope to the definitions of UEiL and MoL (sect. 2). After those more general (...)
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  3. Assessing the Kantian Perspective on Valuing.Lantz Fleming Miller - manuscript
    Is the Kantian basis of valuing in humanity sufficient or sound enough to account for all valuing? At least two other such bases have been proposed across the ages, that of the sentiments and the valuing of life itself. This article focuses on the Kantian view, the first of these three possible bases of valuing. The concern is: by which criteria can we assess whether a given theory of or approach to basing a value is in fact usable and optimal, (...)
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  4. Welfare, Meaning, and Worth.Aaron Smuts - manuscript
    The central thesis of this book is that there is more to what makes a life worth living than welfare. I argue that the notion of worth captures matters of importance that no plausible theory of welfare can account for. Worth is best thought of as a higher-level kind of value. I defend an objective list theory (OLT) of worth¬—lives worth living are net high in various objective goods. Not only do I defend an list of some of the goods, (...)
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  5. A Life Worth Living.Aaron Smuts - manuscript
    Theories of well-being tell us what makes a life good for the one who lives it. But there is more to what makes a life worth living than just well-being. We care about the worth of our lives, and we are right to do so. I defend an objective list theory of the worth of a life: The most worthwhile lives are those high in various objective goods. These principally include welfare and meaning. By distinguishing between worth and welfare, we (...)
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  6. On the Road to Meaning.Attila Tanyi - manuscript
    The paper offers a philosophically infused analysis of Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. The main idea is that McCarthy’s novel is primarily a statement on the meaning of life. Once this idea is argued for and endorsed, by using a parallel between The Road and a 19th century Hungarian dramatic poem, The Tragedy of Man, the paper goes on to argue that the most plausible – although admittedly not the only possible – interpretation of The Road is that it advocates a (...)
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  7. Constituents of meaningful life according to J. Cottingham.Amir Abbas Alizamani & Mehdi Ghaforiyan - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
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  8. Attraction, Aversion, and Meaning in Life.Alisabeth Ayars - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Desire comes in two kinds: attraction and aversion. But contemporary theories of desire have paid little attention to the distinction, and some philosophers doubt that it is psychologically real. I argue that one reason to think there is a difference between the attitudes, and to care about it, is that attractions and aversions contribute in radically different ways to our well-being. Attraction-motivated activity adds to the good life in a way that aversion-driven activity doesn’t. I argue further that the value (...)
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  9. In Defense of the Post-Work Future: Withdrawal and the Ludic Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Michael Cholbi & Michael Weber (eds.), The Future of Work, Technology, and Basic Income. New York: Routledge. pp. 99-116.
    A basic income might be able to correct for the income related losses of unemployment, but what about the meaning/purpose related losses? For better or worse, many people derive meaning and fulfillment from the jobs they do; if their jobs are taken away, they lose this source of meaning. If we are about the enter an era of rampant job loss as a result of advances in technology, is there a danger that it will also be an era of rampant (...)
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  10. Virtual Reality and the Meaning of Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook on Meaning in Life.
    It is commonly assumed that a virtual life would be less meaningful (perhaps even meaningless). As virtual reality technologies develop and become more integrated into our everyday lives, this poses a challenge for those that care about meaning in life. In this chapter, it is argued that the common assumption about meaninglessness and virtuality is mistaken. After clarifying the distinction between two different visions of virtual reality, four arguments are presented for thinking that meaning is possible in virtual reality. Following (...)
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  11. The Self and the Ontic Trust: Toward Technologies of Care and Meaning.Tim Gorichanaz - forthcoming - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 17 (3).
    Purpose – Contemporary technology has been implicated in the rise of perfectionism, a personality trait that is associated with depression, suicide and other ills. is paper explores how technology can be developed to promote an alternative to perfectionism, which is a self- constructionist ethic. Design/methodology/approach – is paper takes the form of a philosophical discussion. A conceptual framework is developed by connecting the literature on perfectionism and personal meaning with discussions in information ethics on the self, the ontic trust and (...)
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  12. Moral Identity Predicts the Development of Presence of Meaning during Emerging Adulthood.Hyemin Han, Indrawati Liauw & Ashley Floyd Kuntz - forthcoming - Emerging Adulthood.
    We examined change over time in the relationship between moral identity and presence of meaning during early adulthood. Moral identity refers to a sense of morality and moral values that are central to one’s identity. Presence of meaning refers to the belief that one’s existence has meaning, purpose, and value. Participants responded to questions on moral identity and presence of meaning in their senior year of high school and two years after. Mixed effects model analyses were used to examine how (...)
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  13. The Simulation Hypothesis, Social Knowledge, and a Meaningful Life.Grace Helton - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    (Draft of Feb 2023, see upcoming issue for Chalmers' reply) In Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy, David Chalmers argues, among other things, that: if we are living in a full-scale simulation, we would still enjoy broad swathes of knowledge about non-psychological entities, such as atoms and shrubs; and, our lives might still be deeply meaningful. Chalmers views these claims as at least weakly connected: The former claim helps forestall a concern that if objects in the simulation are (...)
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  14. Life and Meaning.Edward Hinchman - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
    What sense could it make to describe your life as ‘unlivable’? What is it not only to be alive but to have a life that you live or lead? I answer by developing a social understanding of the pursuit of meaning in life. True to other uses of ‘meaning,’ I propose, meaning in a life is communicative. If you experience your life as ‘unlivable,’ recovery can lie in this communicative dynamic: you regain the experience of leading your life by letting (...)
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  15. Meaningfulness and Importance.Guy Kahane - forthcoming - In Iddo Landau (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Meaning in Life.
    Some lives are more meaningful than others. Some lives are more important than others. What is the relationship between meaning in life and importance? Because both can be described as relating to significance, the two are often conflated. But these are rather different concepts and the meaningful and the important can easily come apart. They do, however, interact in important ways. When importance also meets the conditions for meaningfulness, it amplifies it, and importance on a large scale is a key, (...)
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  16. Suicide as Protest.Antti Kauppinen - forthcoming - In Michael Cholbi & Paolo Stellino (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Suicide. Oxford University Press.
    While suicide is typically associated with personal despair, people do sometimes kill themselves in the hope or expectation that their death will advance a political cause by way of its impact on the conscience of others, or in extreme cases simply as an expression of protest against a status quo felt to be unjust. Paradigm cases of such protest suicide may be public acts of self-immolation. This chapter distinguishes between instrumental and expressive protest suicide, examines the possible motivations behind them, (...)
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  17. Partiality and Meaning.Benjamin Lange - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-28.
    Why do relationships of friendship and love support partiality, but not relationships of hatred or commitments of racism? Where does partiality end and why? I take the intuitive starting point that important cases of partiality are meaningful. I develop a view whereby meaning is understood in terms of transcending self-limitations in order to connect with things of external value. I then show how this view can be used to distinguish central cases of legitimate partiality from cases of illegitimate partiality and (...)
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  18. Meaning in Life and the Nature of Time.Ned Markosian - forthcoming - In The Oxford Handbook of Meaning in Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Many of the leading accounts of what makes a life meaningful are goal-based theories, according to which it is the pursuit of some specific goal (such as love for things that are worthy of love) that gives meaning to our lives. In this chapter I consider how these goal-based theories of meaning in life interact with the two main theories of the nature of time that have been defended in the recent metaphysics literature, namely, The Dynamic Theory of Time and (...)
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  19. Philosophy as a Source of Meaning in Life.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Lydia Amir (ed.), Handbook of Transformative Philosophy. Springer.
    There are two ways that philosophy could transform a life to make it substantially more meaningful: on the one hand, philosophical enquiry might reveal other activities that would make life meaningful, enabling a philosopher (or others) to live meaningfully as a result of the enquiry, while, on the other hand, it might be that doing philosophy is in itself one way to make the philosopher's life notably meaningful. I explore the latter path. I argue against views of meaning in life (...)
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  20. The Meaning of Life (2nd edition).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Duncan Pritchard (ed.), What Is This Thing Called Philosophy? 2nd edn. Routledge. pp. pt. 9.
    Three chapters on the meaning of life composed for undergraduate philosophy majors, now revised and updated for a second edition.
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  21. Medicine and Meaning in Life.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Alex Broadbent (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    Insofar as value theory is relevant to the philosophy of medicine, two goods have dominated reflection: well-being and morality. This essay casts doubt on whether those values are sufficient to resolve an array of important debates about medical practice, maintaining that the value of what makes a life meaningful should play a much larger role. After first indicating how meaningfulness differs from happiness and rightness, the essay argues that meaningfulness cannot reasonably be ignored when thinking comprehensively about the proper aims (...)
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  22. Camus' Challenge: The Question of Suicide (Is life worth living).Kathleen O'Dwyer - forthcoming - Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
    In the opening essay of The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, Camus states that ‘There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy’ (Camus, 2005: 1). He argues that all the other questions of philosophy, dealing with truth, knowledge, ethics, science, language and so on, are necessarily secondary to this question: ‘I therefore conclude that the meaning of life is (...)
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  23. Meaningful Work and Achievement in Increasingly Automated Workplaces.W. Jared Parmer - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics:1-25.
    As automating technologies are increasingly integrated into workplaces, one concern is that many of the human workers who remain will be relegated to more dull and less positively impactful work. This paper considers two rival theories of meaningful work that might be used to evaluate particular implementations of automation. The first is achievementism, which says that work that culminates in achievements to workers’ credit is especially meaningful; the other is the practice view, which says that work that takes the form (...)
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  24. Must Pessimists Be Suicidal?Joshua Shaw - forthcoming - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-17.
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  25. Neoteny and the meaning of life.David N. Stamos - forthcoming - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology.
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  26. Meaning and morality in boxing.Michael-John Turp - forthcoming - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-15.
    While sport is often pursued more for reasons of meaning than morality, philosophers have had far less to say about the former. How are the ends of sport related to meaning and morality? I address the question through the case study of boxing. One reason for this approach is that the moral status of boxing is contested, which makes it an interesting candidate for immoral, meaningful activity. Drawing on Wolf’s hybrid account of meaning in life, I argue that boxing can (...)
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  27. How consciousness creates life-meaning A review of _Understanding Human Conduct: The Innate and Acquired Meaning of Life_ , by Sam S. Rakover, Lanham, Lexington Books, 2021, 198 pp., $95 (hardback), ISBN: 9781793632401. [REVIEW]Asha Lancaster-Thomas - 2024 - Philosophical Psychology 37 (4):988-991.
    This book is about the meaning of life, which is clearly one of the of the most important – if not the most important – topics one could write about. In Understanding Human Conduct, Sam S. Rakover...
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  28. Koheleth and the Meaning of Life (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In معنای زندگی و فیلسوفا نبزرگ. Tehran: Qoqnoos Publishing Group. Translated by Saba Sabeti.
    Persian translation of _The Meaning of Life and the Great Philosophers_, with this piece on Koheleth a chapter therein.
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  29. What Makes Life Meaningful? A Debate.Thaddeus Metz & Joshua Seachris - 2024 - Routledge.
    What does talk about life’s meaning even mean? Can human life be meaningful? What is God’s role, if any, in a meaningful life? These three questions frame this one-of-a-kind debate between two philosophers who have spent most of their professional lives thinking and writing about the topic of life’s meaning. In this wide-ranging scholarly conversation, Professors Thaddeus Metz and Joshua Seachris develop and defend their own unique answers to these questions, while responding to each other’s objections in a lively dialogue (...)
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  30. Transhumanism, Singularity and the Meaning of Life: An Afrofuturist Perspective.Ojochogwu S. Abdul - 2023 - In Aribiah David Attoe, Segun Samuel Temitope, Victor Nweke, John Umezurike & Jonathan Okeke Chimakonam (eds.), Conversations on African Philosophy of Mind, Consciousness and Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 97-119.
    Transhumanism, a movement promoting the possibility and desirability of using science and technology in overcoming fundamental human limitations, could be conceived as a type of philosophy of life that emphasizes a meaningful and ethical approach to living informed by reason, science, progress, the value of existence in our current life, and the eventual goal of human enhancement. Related to transhumanism is the concept of the Singularity described as a future period during which the pace and impact of technological change will (...)
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  31. On the Subjective Value of Life.Ognjen Arandjelović - 2023 - Philosophies 8 (2):23.
    Claims (or the implicit assumption of the inherent worth of life) are pervasive and remain virtually unchallenged. I have already argued that these outright moral dictates are thinly veiled vestiges of theological ethics which, following the removal of their theological foundations, remain little more than nebulous claims supported only by fear of the consequences of a challenge. In my previous work, I rejected an a priori claim of an objective life’s worth, which is the worth that we should assign to (...)
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  32. African Conceptions of the Meaning of Life.Aribiah David Attoe & Yolanda Mlungwana - 2023 - In Björn Freter, Elvis Imafidon & Mpho Tshivhase (eds.), Handbook of African Philosophy. Dordrecht, New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 491-507.
    The question of life’s meaning is a universal question that not only cuts across various cultures but also resides at the back of the mind of almost every individual that has ever existed. The very desire to continue striving in this world suggests that there is something about life that makes it worth living. Even in the throes of despair and suicide, there is something that drives the existential angst that awakens such despair. Both striving and despair in life stand (...)
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  33. What makes a life meaningful? Folk intuitions about the content and shape of meaningful lives.Joffrey Fuhrer & Florian Cova - 2023 - Philosophical Psychology 36 (3):477-509.
    It is often assumed that most people want their life to be “meaningful”. But what exactly does this mean? Though numerous research have documented which factors lead people to experience their life as meaningful and people’s theories about the best ways to secure a meaningful life, investigations in people’s concept of meaningful life are scarce. In this paper, we investigate the folk concept of a meaningful life by studying people’s third-person attribution of meaningfulness. We draw on hypotheses from the philosophical (...)
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  34. My son/daughter beyond the suicidal: search for meaning of life.Paula Guimarães Guerreiro, Andrea Seixas Magalhães & Mayla Cosmo Monteiro - 2023 - Aletheia 56 (2):42-59.
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  35. The Meaning of Life in Heidegger’s Philosophical Pedagogy.Ahmadali Heydari & Felora Askarizadeh - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Theological Research 25 (3):131-153.
    In this article, we inquire into the concept of meaning in pedagogy through Heidegger’s philosophy. Since metaphysical systems reduce the Being of humans, due to the dominance of subjectivist and worldlessness views, they tend to suffer from the crisis of nihilism, which has made its way into various ontological sciences, especially pedagogy. In this article, we tackle the elements that culminated in such meaninglessness in pedagogy in terms of dualism, worldlessness, absence of existentials, and finally the posteriority of Eros and (...)
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  36. Ludwig Wittgenstein: the meaning of life.Joaquín Jareño-Alarcón (ed.) - 2023 - Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley.
    important source for the work has been the testimony of those closest to Wittgenstein. Literary executors, friends and students have all become essential tools for discovering more about Wittgenstein's personality and thoughts. That is the reason why many of their writings have been used to give a more accurate description of how the philosopher understood matters concerning the meaning of life.
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  37. The Benefits of Living Without Meaning Sub Specie Aeternitatis.Peter Kügler - 2023 - Journal of Value Inquiry 57 (3):499-514.
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  38. A Kantian critique of Benatar's argument from the cosmic perspective.Byeong D. Lee - 2023 - Philosophical Forum 54 (3):185-198.
    Benatar argues that the absence of cosmic meaning is part of the reason why our lives are so bad that we had better not procreate. The goal of this paper is to argue against this claim from a Kantian point of view. For this goal, I argue first that the fact that human life is a product of blind evolution is not a reason for justifying that our lives are overall bad, mainly on the grounds that the concepts of good (...)
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  39. The Life Worth Living in Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophy.David Machek - 2023 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    The account of the best life for humans - i.e. a happy or flourishing life - and what it might consist of was the central theme of ancient ethics. But what does it take to have a life that, if not happy, is at least worth living, compared with being dead or never having come into life? This question was also much discussed in antiquity, and David Machek's book reconstructs, for the first time, philosophical engagements with the question from Socrates (...)
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  40. Are Lives Worth Creating? (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2023 - In Contemporary Anti-Natalism. Routledge. pp. 20-33.
    Reprint of a 2011 article about David Benatar's approach to anti-natalism in a collection of essays devoted to his and other forms of anti-natalism.
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  41. African Theories of Meaning in Life: A Critical Assessment (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2023 - In Aribiah D. Attoe (ed.), African Perspectives on the Question of Life’s Meaning. Routledge. pp. 21-34.
    Reprint of an article that first appeared in a special issue of the South African Journal of Philosophy devoted to life's meaning in the African tradition.
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  42. How African Conceptions of God Bear on Life's Meaning.Thaddeus Metz - 2023 - Religious Studies 59 (2):340-354.
    Up to now, a very large majority of work in the religious philosophy of life’s meaning has presumed a conception of God that is Abrahamic. In contrast, in this essay I critically discuss some of the desirable and undesirable facets of Traditional African Religion’s salient conceptions of God as they bear on meaning in life. Given an interest in a maximally meaningful life, and supposing meaning would come from fulfiling God’s purpose for us, would it be reasonable to prefer God (...)
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  43. Ikiru koto no imi o tou tetsugaku: taidanshū = Philosophy of the meaning of life.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - Tōkyō: Seidosha. Edited by Hiroshi Toya, Orika Komatsubara, Shō Yamaguchi & Rei Nagai.
    現代における重要テーマをめぐって重ねてきた言葉たちを結晶化した対談集。対談者:戸谷洋志、小松原織香、山口尚、永井玲衣.
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  44. Die Pest in Zeiten von Corona – Philosophie und Literatur bei Albert Camus.Nicola Mößner - 2023 - Philokles 25:4-32.
    Im März 2020 änderte sich das Leben für viele (nicht nur in Deutschland) radikal. Das Virus SARS-CoV-2, besser bekannt als „COVID-19-“ oder „Corona-Virus“, breitete sich als Verursacher einer zwischenzeitlich global virulenten Pandemie in unvermuteter Geschwindigkeit aus. Es verwundert nicht, dass viele in dieser unsicheren Zeit auf der Suche nach Orientierung nach scheinbar bekannten Mustern fahnden. Ein solches Muster glaubten offenbar einige, in Camus’ Roman "Die Pest" finden zu können, ein Roman, der – dem Titel nach – auch von einer Seuche (...)
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  45. A vida como jogo e a arte como ofício em Simônides e Nietzsche: a existência do risco na aparência.Gabriel Herkenhoff Coelho Moura - 2023 - O Que Nos Faz Pensar 30 (50):p. 38-66.
    Simônides de Ceos foi um poeta lírico grego cuja obra é marcada pela atenção à problemática da existência humana e cuja distinção é a visão do fazer poético como atividade propriamente humana. Nietzsche nutria grande admiração por Simônides desde o tempo de sua formação intelectual, como revela sua correspondência dos anos sessenta. Além disso, em seus cadernos e em dois aforismos de sua obra publicada, o filósofo apresenta interessantes reflexões sobre o poeta. Em uma delas, afirma que Simônides aconselhava os (...)
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  46. Ethics, Religion, and the Problem of Life: Tolstoy’s Influence on Wittgenstein’s Thinking about the Meaning of Life.Maksymilian Roszyk - 2023 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 71 (2):129-146.
    In this paper, I try to show to what extent Wittgenstein’s thinking about the problem of the meaning of life was influenced by Tolstoy. I begin with the problem of what Tolstoy’s writings, especially philosophical, Wittgenstein knew. Then I proceed to three areas of impact: (1) treating the question of the meaning of life as the central problem for philosophy, (2) defining Ethics in terms of the meaning of life, and (3) the idea that the solution of the problem of (...)
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  47. Is It a Wonderful Life? Frank Capra and Objective List Theories of Worth.Joshua Shaw - 2023 - Film-Philosophy 27 (2):240-261.
    Aaron Smuts argues that the holiday film It's a Wonderful Life should be understood as both an illustration and a cinematic vindication of objective list theories of worth. This article argues that he is right about the first point but wrong about the second. It's a Wonderful Life is an excellent illustration of objective list theories. However, it also exposes a problem for them – their susceptibility to sceptical anxieties about whether we can know if our lives are worth living. (...)
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  48. Schopenhauer's Pessimism.Byron Simmons - 2023 - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian mind. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 282-296.
    Optimism and pessimism are two diametrically opposed views about the value of existence. Optimists maintain that existence is better than non-existence, while pessimists hold that it is worse. Arthur Schopenhauer put forward a variety of arguments against optimism and for pessimism. I will offer a synoptic reading of these arguments, which aims to show that while Schopenhauer’s case against optimism primarily focuses on the value or disvalue of life’s contents, his case for pessimism focuses on the ways in which life (...)
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  49. Desire and Meaning in Life: Towards a Theory.Nomy Arpaly - 2022 - In Iddo Landau (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Meaning in Life. Oxford University Press.
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  50. Kötülük Problemi ve Tanrı: Felsefi Bir İnceleme.Hasan G. Bahçekapili - 2022 - Ankara, Turkey: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
    “Dünyadaki kötülüklerin varlığı, geleneksel teizmdeki Tanrı inancı için bir problem oluşturur mu?” 2000 yıldan fazla zamandır çok çeşitli geleneklerden gelen düşünürleri meşgul eden bu çetrefilli soruya bu kitap, en güncel tartışmalardan hareketle cevap vermeye çalışıyor. Kötülük probleminin tarihsel gelişimini, mantıksal ve delilci kötülük argümanlarını özetledikten sonra kitap, geleneksel ve modern teist çözüm önerilerini ele alıyor: Özgür iradenin varlığı veya manevi gelişim potansiyeli, kötülüklerin varlığını meşru hâle getirir mi? Etrafımızda gördüğümüz kötülüklerin gerekçesi konusunda şüpheci tavır takınıp Tanrı'nın hikmetinin, insanın kısıtlı zihni (...)
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