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Masahiro Morioka [103]Masahiro M. M. Morioka [1]
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Masahiro Morioka
Waseda University
  1. What Is Antinatalism?: Definition, History, and Categories.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - The Review of Life Studies 12:1-39.
    The concept of antinatalism is now becoming popular on the Internet. Many online newspaper articles deal with this topic, and numerous academic papers on antinatalism have been published over the past ten years in the fields of philosophy and ethics. The word “antinatalism” was first used in the current meaning in 2006, when the two books that justify the universal negation of procreation were published: one by David Benatar and the other by Théophile de Giraud. However, we can find various (...)
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  2. Animated Persona: The Ontological Status of a Deceased Person Who Continues to Appear in This World.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - European Journal of Japanese Philosophy 6:115-131.
    In this paper, I propose the concept of the “animated persona,” a soundless voice that says, “I am here” and appears on the surface of someone or something. This concept can bring clarity to the experience of perceiving a kind of personhood on a corpse, a wooden mask, or even a tree. In the first half of this paper, I will examine some Japanese literature and a work of Viktor Frankl’s that discuss these phenomena. In the second half, I will (...)
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  3. What Does Doing Philosophy Mean to Me?Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - The Review of Life Studies 13:35-46.
    To me, philosophy is the relentless pursuit of 1) how I am to live and die from this moment forward and 2) the meaning of my having been born. This pursuit does not stop until I reach an understanding that satisfies me. If I expand my field of view slightly, it is to understand where humanity came from and where it is going through an intellectual lens. When I entered the ethics program at the University of Tokyo, I thought I (...)
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  4. Reconsidering Brain Death: A Lesson from Japan's Fifteen Years of Experience.Masahiro Morioka - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (4):41-46.
    The Japanese Transplantation Law is unique among others in that it allows us to choose between "brain death" and "traditional death" as our death. In every country 20 to 40 % of the popularion doubts the idea of brain death. This paper reconsiders the concept, and reports the ongoing rivision process of the current law. Published in Hastings Center Report, 2001.
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  5. What Is Birth Affirmation?: The Meaning of Saying “Yes” to Having Been Born.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 11 (1):43-59.
    In this paper, the concept of birth affirmation is clarified in both the psychological dimension and the philosophical dimension. In the psychological dimension, we propose two interpretations: 1) Possible world interpretation: Even if I could imagine a possible world in which my ideal was realized or my grave sufferings were resolved, I would never think, at the bottom of my heart, that it would have been better to have been born to that possible world. 2) Anti-antinatalistic interpretation: I would never (...)
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  6. Is Meaning in Life Comparable?: From the Viewpoint of ‘The Heart of Meaning in Life’.Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (3):50-65.
    The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach to the question of meaning in life by criticizing Thaddeus Metz’s objectivist theory in his book Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study. I propose the concept of “the heart of meaning in life,” which alone can answer the question, “Alas, does my life like this have any meaning at all?” and I demonstrate that “the heart of meaning in life” cannot be compared, in principle, with other people’s meaning in (...)
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  7. Manga Introduction to Philosophy: An Exploration of Time, Existence, the Self, and the Meaning of Life.Masahiro Morioka & Nyancofu Terada - 2021 - Tokyo Philosophy Project.
    This book was first published in Japanese in 2013 and was warmly welcomed not only by general readers but also by specialists in philosophy. I believe that it succeeded in breaking new ground in the field of introductory approaches to philosophy. Many manga or comic books explaining the thought of major philosophers have already been published. There have also been manga whose story was conceived by philosophers. To the best of my knowledge, however, there has never been a book in (...)
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  8. The Concept of Painless Civilization and the Philosophy of Biological Evolution: With Reference to Jonas, Freud, and Bataille.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - The Review of Life Studies 13:16-34.
    In this paper I attempt to open a new horizon in the field of civilization studies by examining the concept of painless civilization from the perspective of the philosophy of biological evolution. Since the space is limited, the priority will be given to the clarification of an overall structure. Modern civilization has created systems that seek “comfort and pleasure” and eliminate “pain and suffering” and has spread them to every corner of our society. It is progressing like a great wave (...)
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  9. Reconsidering Meaning in Life: A Philosophical Dialogue with Thaddeus Metz.Masahiro Morioka (ed.) - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Life, Waseda University.
    An e-book devoted to 13 critical discussions of Thaddeus Metz's book "Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study", with a lengthy reply from the author. -/- Preface Masahiro Morioka i -/- Précis of Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study Thaddeus Metz ii-vi -/- Source and Bearer: Metz on the Pure Part-Life View of Meaning Hasko von Kriegstein 1-18 -/- Fundamentality and Extradimensional Final Value David Matheson 19-32 -/- Meaningful and More Meaningful: A Modest Measure Peter Baumann 33-49 -/- Is Meaning in (...)
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  10. Painless Civilization and the Fate of Humanity: A Philosophical Investigation.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - In Imagining a Common Horizon for Humanity and the Planet. Cappadocia University Press. pp. 59-73.
    Painless civilization is a term I coined in my Japanese book of the same title, which was published in 2003. Contemporary civilization aims to provide pleasure and comfort and eliminate pain and suffering as much as possible. This is especially evident in advanced countries. Contemporary civilization is moving toward a painless civilization. However, in a painless civilization, we are deprived of the joy of life, which is considered a fundamental source of meaning in life, and we are led toward the (...)
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  11. Can Artificial Intelligence Philosophize?Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - The Review of Life Studies 12:40-41.
    A short essay that discusses whether it is possible for AI to do philosophy in its true sense of the word.
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  12. Artificial Intelligence and Contemporary Philosophy: Heidegger, Jonas, and Slime Mold.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - Journal of Philosophy of Life Vol.13, No.1.
    In this paper, I provide an overview of today’s philosophical approaches to the problem of “intelligence” in the field of artificial intelligence by examining several important papers on phenomenology and the philosophy of biology such as those on Heideggerian AI, Jonas's metabolism model, and slime mold type intelligence.
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  13. The Sense of Someone Appearing There: A Philosophical Investigation into Other Minds, Deceased People, and Animated Persona.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - Human Studies 46 (3):565-582.
    We sometimes feel the presence of a person-like something on a non-biological object, such as a memento from a deceased family member or a well-engineered, human-shaped robot. This feeling—the sense of someone appearing there—has not been extensively investigated by philosophers. In this paper, I employ examples from previous studies, my own experiences, and thought experiments to conduct a philosophical analysis of the mechanism of the emergence of this person-like something by using the concept of an animated persona. This animation process (...)
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  14. Painless Civilization 1: A Philosophical Critique of Desire.Masahiro Morioka - 2021 - Tokyo: Tokyo Philosophy Project.
    This is the English translation of Chapter One of Mutsu Bunmei Ron, which was published in Japanese in 2003. Since this book’s publication I have received many requests for an English translation from people around the world. I decided to begin by publishing this first chapter under the title Painless Civilization 1 and make it available to readers who have a keen interest in this topic. * The original text of this chapter was written in 1998, more than twenty years (...)
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  15. The Concept of Inochi: A Philosophical Perspective on the Study of Life.Masahiro Morioka - 1993 - Global Bioethics 6 (1):35-59.
    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international discussions on life and scientific technology by examining the images and concepts of life in contemporary Japan. In English the word Inochi can be rendered as "life". However, the nuances of the Japanese term differ in certain cases, and therefore I have chosen to use the term much as is. I first discuss the linguistic meanings of the word, and then consider several important features of the images of inochi (...)
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  16. A Solipsistic and Affirmation-Based Approach to Meaning in Life.Masahiro Morioka - 2019 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 9 (1):82-97.
    In this paper, I make two arguments: 1) There is a solipsistic layer in meaning in life, which I call the “heart of meaning in life” (HML). The bearer of the heart of meaning in life is the solipsistic being. The heart of meaning in life cannot be compared with anything else whatsoever. 2) The heart of meaning in life can be dynamically incorporated into the affirmation of having been born into this world, which I call “birth affirmation.” There can (...)
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  17. Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society.Masahiro Morioka - 2017 - The Review of Life Studies 8:15-22.
    An outline of "philosophy of life" as a philosophical discipline is discussed. In today’s academic philosophy, we have “philosophy of biology,” which deals with creatures’ biological phenomena, “philosophy of death,” which concentrates on the concept of human death, and “philosophy of meaning of life,” which investigates difficult problems concerning the meaning of life and living. However, we do not have “philosophy of life,” which deals with philosophical problems concerning human life and the life of non-human creatures. Hence, I proposed to (...)
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  18. The Trolley Problem and the Dropping of Atomic Bombs.Masahiro Morioka - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 7 (2):316-337.
    In this paper, the ethical and spiritual aspects of the trolley problem are discussed in connection with the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. First, I show that the dropping of atomic bombs was a typical example of the events that contained the logic of the trolley problems in their decision-making processes and justifications. Second, I discuss five aspects of “the problem of the trolley problem;” that is to say, “Rarity,” “Inevitability,” “Safety Zone,” “Possibility of Becoming a Victim,” (...)
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  19. The Concept of Life in Contemporary Japan.Masahiro Morioka - 2012 - The Review of Life Studies 2:23-62.
    The objective of this paper is to contribute to the international discussions on life and scientific technology by examining the images and concepts of life in contemporary Japan. In English the word Inochi can be rendered as "life". However, the nuances of the Japanese term differ in certain cases, and therefore I have chosen to use the term much as is. I first discuss the linguistic meanings of the word, and then consider several important features of the images of inochi (...)
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  20. A Phenomenological Study of “Herbivore Men”.Masahiro Morioka - 2013 - The Review of Life Studies 4:1-20.
    From 2008 to 2009, “herbivore men (sôshoku danshi or sôshoku-kei danshi in Japanese)” became a trendy, widely used term in Japanese. It flourished in all sorts of media, including TV, the Internet, newspapers and magazines, and could even occasionally be heard in everyday conversation. As it became more popular its original meaning was diversified, and people began to use it with a variety of different nuances. In December of 2009 it made the top ten list of nominees for the “Buzzword (...)
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  21. Is It Possible to Say ‘Yes’ to Traumatic Experiences?: A Philosophical Approach to Human Suffering.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 12 (1):21-38.
    People who have encountered a tragic event and suffered from traumatic experiences can sometimes achieve, in their later lives, an affirmation of having been born to such devastating lives. But what does this “affirmation” exactly mean in such cases? In this paper, I investigate this problem from the viewpoint of philosophy of life’s meaning. Firstly, I distinguish among three types of affirmations: the affirmation of survival, the affirmation of having had traumatic experiences, and the affirmation of the occurrence of a (...)
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  22. Hermitism and Impermanence: A Response to Nagasawa’s Argument on Transcendentalism in Medieval Japan.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 14 (3):239-246.
    In this review, I argue that Chōmei’s hermitism can be another realistic strategy to respond to Nagasawa's argument that only transcendentalism can constitute a potentially successful response to the problem of impermanence. Chōmei lived in a small house in the remote mountains and interacted with the surrounding nature. His lifestyle is considered a good example of reconciling one’s finite life with the impermanence of the world and human sufferings. I conclude that Nagasawa’s interpretation of hermitism might be one-sided.
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  23.  33
    A Proposal For Revision Of The Organ Transplantation Law Based On A Child Donor’s Prior Declaration.Masahiro Morioka & Tateo Sugimoto - 2001 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 11 (4):108-109.
    This is the translation of the so-called Morioka&Sugimoto proposal on brain death and transplantation. We proposed that the prior declaration of a brain dead child should be respected, and that when the child does not have a donor card the organ removal should be prohibited. A material for understanding an unprecedented bioethics debate now occurring in Japan.
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  24. The Cruelty of Living in a Painless Civilization.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - The Review of Life Studies 13:10-11.
    Our society has moved in the direction of eliminating pain, suffering, and discomfort. At first glance, this may seem like a good thing, but I believe that the meaning of life is being increasingly lost in the process.
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  25. Pleasure, Suffering, and Painless Civilization.Masahiro Morioka - 2022 - The Review of Life Studies 13:1-9.
    Beyza Şen and Ali Tacar's interview with Masahiro Morioka on painless civilization and his recent works. "In our contemporary civilization we can experience pleasure, pleasantness, and comfort, and can avoid pain and suffering, albeit at the sacrifice of joy of life, which is indispensable for acquiring our life without regret. Of course we have a lot of pain and suffering in our society, so our lives are not painless at all, but I cannot help feeling that our contemporary scientific civilization (...)
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  26. Natural Right to Grow and Die in the Form of Wholeness: A Philosophical Interpretation of the Ontological Status of Brain-dead Children.Masahiro Morioka - 2010 - Diogenes 57 (3):103-116.
    In this paper, I would like to argue that brain-dead small children have a natural right not to be invaded by other people even if their organs can save the lives of other suffering patients. My basic idea is that growing human beings have the right to grow in the form of wholeness, and dying human beings also have the right to die in the form of wholeness; in other words, they have the right to be protected from outside invasion, (...)
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  27. The Ethics of Human Cloning and the Sprout of Human Life.Masahiro Morioka - 2006 - In Heiner Roetz (ed.), Cross-Cultural Issues in Bioethics: The Example of Human Cloning. Rodopi. pp. 1-16.
    Abstract -/- In 1998, the Council for Science and Technology established the Bioethics Committee and asked its members to examine the ethical and legal aspects of human cloning. The Committee concluded in 1999 that human cloning should be prohibited, and, based on the report, the government presented a bill for the regulation of human cloning in 2000. After a debate in the Diet, the original bill was slightly modified and issued on December 6, 2000. In this paper, I take a (...)
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  28. Human dignity and the manipulation of the sense of happiness: from the viewpoint of bioethics and philosophy of life.Masahiro Morioka - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 2 (1):1-14.
    If our sense of happiness is closely connected to brain functions, it might become possible to manipulate our brain in a much more refined and effective way than current methods allow. In this paper I will make some remarks on the manipulation of the sense of happiness and illuminate the relationship between human dignity and happiness. The President’s Council on Bioethics discusses this topic in the 2003 report Beyond Therapy, and concludes that the use of SSRIs might make us “feel (...)
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  29. Painless Civilization and Fundamental Sense of Security: A Philosophical Challenge in the Age of Human Biotechnology.Masahiro Morioka - 2005 - Polylog: Forum for Intercultural Philosophy 6:1-1.
    This paper discusses some philosophical problems lurking behind the issues of human biotechnology, particularly prenatal screening. Firstly, prenatal screening technology disempowers existing disabled people. The second problem is that it systematically deprives us of the “fundamental sense of security.” This is a sense of security that allows us to believe that we will never be looked upon by anyone with such unspoken words as, “I wish you were never born” or “I wish you would disappear from the world.” Thirdly, we (...)
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  30. Narrative responsibility and moral dilemma: A case study of a family’s decision about a brain-dead daughter.Takanobu Kinjo & Masahiro Morioka - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (2):91-99.
    A brain death case is presented and reinterpreted using the narrative approach. In the case, two Japanese parents face a dilemma about whether to respect their daughter’s desire to donate organs even though, for them, it would mean literally killing their daughter. We argue that the ethical dilemma occurred because the parents were confronted with two conflicting narratives to which they felt a “narrative responsibility,” namely, the responsibility that drives us to tell, retell, and coauthor the (often unfinished) narratives of (...)
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  31. Philosophy, Manga, and Ōmori Shōzō.Pierre Bonneels & Masahiro M. M. Morioka - 2018 - European Journal of Japanese Philosophy 3.
    Why would a philosopher choose to convey his ideas in the form of Manga? This discussion between Masahiro Morioka, author of Manga Introduction to Philosophy, and the translator of its French edition, Pierre Bonneels, shows how philosopher and artist Morioka became acquainted, through images, with fundamental abstract notions. After a short historical analysis of the aesthetic advantages of Manga, consideration is given to this unique way of provoking thought. On this basis, theoretical aspects of “time” and the “I” proposed by (...)
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  32. Feminism, Disability, and Brain Death :Alternative Voices from Japanese Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (1):19-41.
    Japanese bioethics has created a variety of important ideas that have not yet been reflected on mainstream bioethics discourses in the English-speaking world, which include “the swaying of the confused self” in the field of feminism, “inner eugenic thought” concerning disability, and “human relationship-oriented approaches to brain death.” In this paper, I will examine them more closely, and consider what bioethics in Japan can contribute to the development of an international discussion on philosophy of life.
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  33. How a Japanese Philosopher Encountered Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2013 - In Frank Rövekamp & Friederike Bosse (eds.), Ethics in Science and Society: German and Japanese Views. IUDICIUM Verlag. pp. 27-41.
    In this essay I will illustrate how a Japanese philosopher reacted to a newly imported discipline, “bioethics,” in the 1980s and then tried to create an alternative way of looking at “life” in the field of philosophy. This essay might serve as an interesting case study in which a contemporary “western” way of thinking succeeded in capturing, but finally failed to persuade, a then-young Japanese researcher’s mind.
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  34. Manga and Philosophy: Why Was the Book “Manga Introduction to Philosophy” Written?Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - The Review of Life Studies 6:1-28.
    Slightly modified PowerPoint slides in the PDF format presented at the first conference of the European Network of Japanese Philosophy, Barcelona, Spain. (December 4th, 2015).
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  35.  34
    Why Beyond Bioethics?: The Reaction of a Japanese Philosopher to American Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - In Alexandra Perry & C. D. Herrera (eds.), New Perspectives in Japanese Bioethics. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 73-86.
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  36. Why is It Hard for Us to Accept Moral Bioenhancement?Masahiro Morioka - 2013 - In T. Uehiro (ed.), Ethics for the Future of Life: Proceedings of the 2012 Uehiro-Carnegie-Oxford Ethics Conference. Oxford Uehiro Center for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford. pp. 97-108.
    In my paper I would like to criticize Julian Savulescu and his colleagues’ argument on moral bioenhancement. If we want to improve our society, it would be easier and more effective to improve social conditions. Our personality ought to be constructed upon our inner foundation, which should not be tampered with by outside intervention or control, and I dare say this belief is a healthy one that should not be overturned.
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  37. In Search of a Philosophy of Life in Contemporary Society: An Introduction.Masahiro Morioka - 2011 - The Review of Life Studies 1:1-7.
    In this paper I am going to talk about the “philosophy of life” project, which my colleagues and I have attempted over the last few years at our college. I believe research into the philosophy of life should contribute much to our discussion about many issues, such as democracy and war and peace in contemporary society. Before entering the main topic of this presentation, I would like to briefly introduce my academic background up until the present.
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  38.  21
    Some Remarks on Moral Bioenhancement.Masahiro Morioka - 2014 - In Akira Akabayashi (ed.), The Future of Bioethics: International Dialogues. Oxford University Press. pp. 120.
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  39. Le principe d'intégrité comme droit naturel.Masahiro Morioka - 2009 - Diogène 227 (3):140-.
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  40. Artificial Intelligence, Robots, and Philosophy.Masahiro Morioka, Shin-Ichiro Inaba, Makoto Kureha, István Zoltán Zárdai, Minao Kukita, Shimpei Okamoto, Yuko Murakami & Rossa Ó Muireartaigh - 2023 - Journal of Philosophy of Life.
    This book is a collection of all the papers published in the special issue “Artificial Intelligence, Robots, and Philosophy,” Journal of Philosophy of Life, Vol.13, No.1, 2023, pp.1-146. The authors discuss a variety of topics such as science fiction and space ethics, the philosophy of artificial intelligence, the ethics of autonomous agents, and virtuous robots. Through their discussions, readers are able to think deeply about the essence of modern technology and the future of humanity. All papers were invited and completed (...)
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  41.  36
    Bioethics and Japanese Culture: Brain Death, Patients' Rights, and Cultural Factors.Masahiro Morioka - 1995 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5 (4):87-90.
    The essence of human being resides not only in his/her brain, but also in every part of the body, therefore, the idea that brain-death equals human death can not be true in a certain context. Of course their arguments are not so strictly constructed, but if we take this theory seriously and develop it philosophically, it may have the possibility of criticize the very basis of contemporary civilization which is inclined to see humans only as a reasoning and calculating machine (...)
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  42.  59
    Brain death as a form of human relationships: Brain dead person chapter.Masahiro Morioka - 1989 - Hozokan.
    This book shifted the Japanese debate on brain death from "brain-centered analysis" to "human relationship oriented analysis." I defined that brain death means a form of human relationships between a comatose patient and the people surrounding him/her in the ICU. I paid special attention to the emotional aspect and the inner reality of the family members of a brain dead person, because sometimes the family members at the bedside, touching the warm body of the patient, express the feeling that the (...)
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  43. Commentary.Masahiro Morioka - 1995 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5 (2):33-33.
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  44. Current debate on the ethical issues of brain death.Masahiro Morioka - 2004 - Proceedings of International Congress on Ethical Issues in Brain Death and Organ Transplantation:57-59.
    The philosophy of our proposal are as follows: (1) Various ideas of life and death, including that of objecting to brain death as human death, should be guaranteed. We would like to maintain the idea of pluralism of human death; and (2) We should respect a child’s view of life and death. We should provide him/her with an opportunity to think and express their own ideas about life and death.
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  45. Confessions of a Frigid Man: A Philosopher’s Journey into the Hidden Layers of Men’s Sexuality.Masahiro Morioka - 2005 - Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    "Confessions of a Frigid Man: A Philosopher’s Journey into the Hidden Layers of Men’s Sexuality" is the translation of a Japanese 2005 bestseller, "Kanjinai Otoko." Soon after the publication, this book stirred controversy over the nature of male sexuality, male “frigidity,” and its connection to the “Lolita complex.” Today, this work is considered a classic in Japanese men’s studies. The most striking feature of this book is that it was written from the author’s first-person perspective. The author is a professor (...)
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  46. Commentary On Macer.Masahiro Morioka - 1999 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 9 (2):38-39.
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  47.  47
    Disability Movement and Inner Eugenic Thought: A Philosophical Aspect of Independent Living and Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2002 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 12 (3):94-96.
    The Japanese disability movement in the 1970s posed an important question about our inner eugenic thought. Their arguments should be one of the focuses of attention for bioethics and philosophy of life in the 21st century. Their philosophy is comparable with DPI’s declaration, “The Right to Live and be Different,” published in 2000. They thought that technology of selective abortion was dangerous because it systematically deprives us of a sense of security (=the fundamental sense of security) that our existence is (...)
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  48. Human Cloning: Commentary on Tharien, Weiler, & Leavitt.Masahiro Morioka - 1998 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (1):13-13.
     
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  49.  1
    Ikiru koto no imi o tou tetsugaku: taidanshū = Philosophy of the meaning of life.Masahiro Morioka - 2023 - Tōkyō: Seidosha. Edited by Hiroshi Toya, Orika Komatsubara, Shō Yamaguchi & Rei Nagai.
    現代における重要テーマをめぐって重ねてきた言葉たちを結晶化した対談集。対談者:戸谷洋志、小松原織香、山口尚、永井玲衣.
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  50. Manga Introduction to Philosophy Ch.1 "What Is Time?" Part 1.Masahiro Morioka & Nyancofu Terada - 2021 - Tokyo: Tokyo Philosophy Project.
    This book was first published in Japanese in 2013 and was warmly welcomed not only by general readers but also by specialists in philosophy. I believe that it succeeded in breaking new ground in the field of introductory approaches to philosophy. Many manga or comic books explaining the thought of major philosophers have already been published. There have also been manga whose story was conceived by philosophers. To the best of my knowledge, however, there has never been a book in (...)
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