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  1. Virtual Reality and the Meaning of Life.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Oxford Handbook on Meaning in Life.
    It is commonly assumed that a virtual life would be less meaningful (perhaps even meaningless). As virtual reality technologies develop and become more integrated into our everyday lives, this poses a challenge for those that care about meaning in life. In this chapter, it is argued that the common assumption about meaninglessness and virtuality is mistaken. After clarifying the distinction between two different visions of virtual reality, four arguments are presented for thinking that meaning is possible in virtual reality. Following (...)
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  2. The Video Gamer’s Dilemmas.Rami Ali - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (2).
    The gamer’s dilemma offers three plausible but jointly inconsistent premises: Virtual murder in video games is morally permissible. Virtual paedophelia in video games is not morally permissible. There is no morally relevant difference between virtual murder and virtual paedophelia in video games. In this paper I argue that the gamer’s dilemma can be understood as one of three distinct dilemmas, depending on how we understand two key ideas in Morgan Luck’s original formulation. The two ideas are those of occurring in (...)
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  3. Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy.David J. Chalmers - 2022 - New York: W. W. Norton.
    A leading philosopher takes a mind-bending journey through virtual worlds, illuminating the nature of reality and our place within it. Virtual reality is genuine reality; that's the central thesis of Reality+. In a highly original work of "technophilosophy," David J. Chalmers gives a compelling analysis of our technological future. He argues that virtual worlds are not second-class worlds, and that we can live a meaningful life in virtual reality. We may even be in a virtual world already. Along the way, (...)
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  4. Hit by the Virtual Trolley: When is Experimental Ethics Unethical?Jon Rueda - 2022 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 41 (1):7-27.
    The trolley problem is one of the liveliest research frameworks in experimental ethics. In the last decade, social neuroscience and experimental moral psychology have gone beyond the studies with mere text-based hypothetical moral dilemmas. In this article, I present the rationale behind testing the actual behaviour in more realistic scenarios through Virtual Reality and summarize the body of evidence raised by the experiments with virtual trolley scenarios. Then, I approach the argument of Ramirez and LaBarge (2020), who claim that the (...)
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  5. Virtual Reality, Empathy and Ethics.Matthew Cotton - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This book examines the ethics of virtual reality technologies. New forms of virtual reality are emerging in society, not just from low-cost gaming headsets, or augmented reality apps on phones, but from simulated “deep fake” images and videos on social media. This book subjects the new VR technological landscape to ethical scrutiny: assessing the benefits, risks and regulatory practices that shape it. Though often associated with gaming, education and therapy, VR can also be used for moral enhancement. Journalists, artists, philanthropic (...)
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  6. May Kantians Commit Virtual Killings That Affect No Other Persons?Tobias Flattery - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):751-762.
    Are acts of violence performed in virtual environments ever morally wrong, even when no other persons are affected? While some such acts surely reflect deficient moral character, I focus on the moral rightness or wrongness of acts. Typically it’s thought that, on Kant’s moral theory, an act of virtual violence is morally wrong (i.e., violate the Categorical Imperative) only if the act mistreats another person. But I argue that, on Kant’s moral theory, some acts of virtual violence can be morally (...)
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  7. Sing C. Chew, Ecology, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality: Life in the Digital Dark Ages.Joshua C. Gellers - 2021 - Environmental Values 30 (6):789-791.
  8. Synthetic Vision in Virtual Reality Documentaries.Jihoon Kim - 2021 - Film-Philosophy 25 (3):321-345.
    Based on a nuanced understanding of immersion and sense of presence as two key aesthetic effects that the application of virtual reality to cinema is believed to innovate, this paper develops the concept of synthetic vision as fundamental to understanding the visual experience of VR media, particularly VR documentaries. The concept contends that viewers’ experience in VR is based on two visions that seemingly contradict each other: first, a disembodied vision that transports them to a simulated world, and second, an (...)
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  9. Virtual Reality Not for “Being Someone” but for “Being in Someone Else’s Shoes”: Avoiding Misconceptions in Empathy Enhancement.Francisco Lara & Jon Rueda - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12:3674.
    Erick J. Ramirez, Miles Elliott and Per‑Erik Milam (2021) have recently claimed that using Virtual Reality (VR) as an educational nudge to promote empathy is unethical. These authors argue that the influence exerted on the participant through virtual simulation is based on the deception of making them believe that they are someone else when this is impossible. This makes the use of VR for empathy enhancement a manipulative strategy in itself. In this article, we show that Ramirez et al.’s ethical (...)
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  10. An Ethical Code for Commercial VR/AR Applications.Erick Jose Ramirez, Jocelyn Tan, Miles Elliott, Mohit Gandhi & Lia Petronio - 2021 - In N. Shaghaghi, F. Lamberti, B. Beams, R. Shariatmadari & A. Amer (eds.), Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment. Springer.
    The commercial VR/AR marketplace is gaining ground and is becoming an ever larger and more significant component of the global economy. While much attention has been paid to the commercial promise of VR/AR, comparatively little attention has been given to the ethical issues that VR/AR technologies introduce. We here examine existing codes of ethics proposed by the ACM and IEEE and apply them to the unique ethical facets that VR/AR introduces. We propose a VR/AR code of ethics for developers and (...)
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  11. Harm, Consent, and Virtual Selves in Full-Body Ownership Illusions: Real Concerns for Immersive Virtual Reality Therapies.Maria Botero & Elise Whatley - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4):585-591.
    This paper analyzes in the use of virtual reality when used to induce full-body ownership in violent offenders in order to elicit empathetic feelings by allowing them to embody the virtual body of a victim of domestic abuse. The authors explore potentially harmful effects to individuals participating in this kind of therapy and question whether consent is fully informed. The paper concludes with guidelines for ethical research and rehabilitation using this innovative technology.
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  12. Virtual Competitions and the Gamer’s Dilemma.Karim Nader - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):239-245.
    This paper expands Rami Ali’s dissolution of the gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 17:267-274, 2015). Morgan Luck’s gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 11(1):31-36, 2009) rests on our having diverging intuition when considering virtual murder and virtual child molestation in video games. Virtual murder is seemingly permissible, when virtual child molestation is not and there is no obvious morally relevant difference between the two. Ali argues that virtual murder and virtual child molestation are equally permissible/impermissible when considered under different modes of (...)
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  13. How to (Dis)Solve the Gamer’s Dilemma.Erick Jose Ramirez - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice (1):1-21.
    The Gamer's Dilemma challenges us to find a distinction between virtual murder and virtual pedophilia. Without such a distinction, we are forced to conclude that either both are morally acceptable or that both should be morally illicit. This paper argues that the best way to solve the dilemma is, in one sense, to dissolve it. The Gamer's Dilemma rests on a misunderstanding in the sense that it does not distinguish between the form of a simulation and its surface content. A (...)
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  14. Virtual Reality and Empathy Enhancement: Ethical Aspects.Jon Rueda & Francisco Lara - 2020 - Frontiers in Robotics and AI 7.
    The history of humankind is full of examples that indicate a constant desire to make human beings more moral. Nowadays, technological breakthroughs might have a significant impact on our moral character and abilities. This is the case of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. The aim of this paper is to consider the ethical aspects of the use of VR in enhancing empathy. First, we will offer an introduction to VR, explaining its fundamental features, devices and concepts. Then, we will approach the (...)
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  15. Old Lies, New Media A Review of "A Defense of Simulated Experience: New Noble Lies" by Mark Silcox. [REVIEW]Nele Van de Mosselaer & Stefano Gualeni - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Games 2 (1).
  16. Ecological and Ethical Issues in Virtual Reality Research: A Call for Increased Scrutiny.Erick Jose Ramirez - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (2):211-233.
    We argue that moral judgment studies currently conducted utilizing virtual reality (VR) devices must confront a dilemma due to how virtual environments are designed and how those environments are experienced. We begin by first describing the contexts present in paradigmatic cases of naturalistic moral judgments. We then compare these contexts to current traditional (vignette-based) and VR-based moral judgment research. We show that, contra to paradigmatic cases, vignette-based and VR-based moral judgment research often fails to accurately model the situational features of (...)
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  17. Is Virtual Marriage Acceptable? A Psychological Study Investigating The Role of Ambiguity Tolerance and Intimacy Illusion in Online Dating Among Adolescents and Early Adults.Juneman Abraham & Annisa Falah - 2017 - Journal of Psychological and Educational Research 24 (2):117-143.
    Marriage is one of the most important topics in the education field since life in this world is structured by interaction among families and between families and other social institutions. Dissatisfaction and unsustainability of marriage have led the urgency of premarital education in various countries. The problem is that the spread of virtual reality has made marriage itself to become more complex and experience reinterpretation and reconfiguration, moreover with the emergence of new kind of marriage in the digital era, i.e. (...)
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  18. Virtual Killing.Carl Mildenberger - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (1):185-203.
    Debates that revolve around the topic of morality and fiction rarely explicitly treat virtual worlds like, for example, Second Life. The reason for this disregard cannot be that all users of virtual worlds only do the right thing while online—for they sometimes even virtually kill each other. Is it wrong to kill other people in a virtual world? It depends. This essay analyzes on what it depends, why it is that killing people in a virtual world sometimes is wrong, and (...)
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  19. Empathy and the Limits of Thought Experiments.Erick Ramirez - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):504-526.
    This article criticizes what it calls perspectival thought experiments, which require subjects to mentally simulate a perspective before making judgments from within it. Examples include Judith Thomson's violinist analogy, Philippa Foot's trolley problem, and Bernard Williams's Jim case. The article argues that advances in the philosophical and psychological study of empathy suggest that the simulative capacities required by perspectival thought experiments are all but impossible. These thought experiments require agents to consciously simulate necessarily unconscious features of subjectivity. To complete these (...)
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  20. “The Nature of Avatars: A Response to Roxanne Kurtz’s ‘My Avatar, My Choice’.”.Scott Forschler - 2016 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 16 (1):48-51.
    Roxanne Kurtz has argued that the "virtual rape" of a character in a computer-generated world (an avatar) shares many (though obviously not all) of the wrong-making features of physical rape in the real world. I agree in part, but argue that, due to the typical features of virtual worlds, its wrongfulness is dominated by the harm it does to the avatar user's capacity for social interaction and self-representation. In the course of the argument I hope to shed more light upon (...)
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  21. Virtual Reality: The Last Human Narrative?Thorsten Botz-Bornstein - 2015 - Brill | Rodopi.
    Is virtual reality the latest grand narrative that humanity has produced? This book attempts to disentangle the common characteristics of human reality and posthuman virtual reality by examining discourses on psychoanalysis, gene-technology, globalization, and contemporary art.
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  22. Fantasies of Identity, Love, and Self-Knowledge in the Age of the Web and Virtual Reality.Gila Safran Naveh - 2015 - Semiotics:185-194.
  23. Value Immersion and Value Regression: On Moral Aggregation of Virtual Communities.Narcisa Loredana Posteuca - 2015 - Postmodern Openings 6 (2):79-88.
    The scope of this research paper is to analyze the value integrative-models that can be applied to the virtual interactive constructs, but also to delineate the correspondences established between identity, self and value representation. Concerning the social acquirements that can be distinguished at the level of virtual communities, it is necessary to follow the immersion/ regression processes through which a value layout is settled. Concerning the User’s ability to mediate this value progression in various networking sequences, an analysis of the (...)
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  24. On Friendship Between Online Equals.William Bülow & Cathrine Felix - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (1):21-34.
    There is an ongoing debate about the value of virtual friendship. In contrast to previous authorships, this paper argues that virtual friendship can have independent value. It is argued that within an Aristotelian framework, some friendships that are perhaps impossible offline can exist online, i.e., some offline unequals can be online equals and thus form online friendships of independent value.
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  25. Against Brain-in-a-Vatism: On the Value of Virtual Reality.Jon Cogburn & Mark Silcox - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (4):561-579.
    The term “virtual reality” was first coined by Antonin Artaud to describe a value-adding characteristic of certain types of theatrical performances. The expression has more recently come to refer to a broad range of incipient digital technologies that many current philosophers regard as a serious threat to human autonomy and well-being. Their concerns, which are formulated most succinctly in “brain in a vat”-type thought experiments and in Robert Nozick's famous “experience machine” argument, reflect a fundamental misunderstanding of the way that (...)
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  26. The Virtual Other: Empathy in the Age of Virtuality.Thomas Fuchs - 2014 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (5-6):152-173.
    In an age of growing virtual communication the question arises what role the human capacity of empathy plays in virtual relations. May empathy be detached from the immediate, embodied contact with others and be transferred to such relations? In order to answer this question, the paper distinguishes between primary, intercorporeal empathy and extended empathy which is based on the imaginative representation of the other, and fictional empathy which is directed to imagined or completely fictitious persons. The latter is characterized by (...)
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  27. Discovering Ethics Through Virtual Reality: SciEthics Interactive Project.Mellissa Henry - 2013 - Questions 13:18-20.
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  28. Discovering Ethics Through Virtual Reality.Mellissa Henry - 2013 - Questions: Philosophy for Young People 13:18-20.
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  29. Getting 'Virtual' Wrongs Right.Robert Francis John Seddon - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):1-11.
    Whilst some philosophical progress has been made on the ethical evaluation of playing video games, the exact subject matter of this enquiry remains surprisingly opaque. ‘Virtual murder’, simulation, representation and more are found in a literature yet to settle into a tested and cohesive terminology. Querying the language of the virtual in particular, I suggest that it is at once inexplicit and laden with presuppositions potentially liable to hinder anyone aiming to construct general philosophical claims about an ethics of gameplay, (...)
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  30. Ethics in the Virtual World: The Morality and Psychology of Gaming.Garry Young - 2013 - Routledge.
    Ethics in the Virtual World examines the gamer's enactment of taboo activities in the context of both traditional and contemporary philosophical approaches to morality. The book argues that it is more productive to consider what individuals are able to cope with psychologically than to determine whether a virtual act or representation is necessarily good or bad. The book raises pertinent questions about one of the most rapidly expanding leisure pursuits in western culture: should virtual enactments warrant moral interest? Should there (...)
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  31. The Reality of Friendship Within Immersive Virtual Worlds.Nicholas John Munn - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):1-10.
    In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on (...)
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  32. Affectivity, Biopolitics and the Virtual Reality of War.Pasi Väliaho - 2012 - Theory, Culture and Society 29 (2):63-83.
    At the focal point of contemporary biopolitical knowledge and power is human life in its contingent, evolutionary and emergent properties: the living as adaptive and affective beings, characterized in particular by their capacity to experience stress and fear that works together with vital survival mechanisms. This article addresses new techniques of psychiatric power and therapeutic epistemologies that have emerged in present-day military-scientific as well as media technological assemblages to define and capture the human in its psychobiological states of emergency. Specifically, (...)
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  33. Trust in the Virtual/Physical Interworld.Annamaria Carusi - 2011 - In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust and Virtual Worlds. Peter Lang.
    The borders between the physical and the virtual are ever-more porous in the daily lives of those of us who live in Internet enabled societies. An increasing number of our daily interactions and transactions take place on the Internet. Social, economic, educational, medical, scientific and other activities are all permeated by the digital in one or other kind of virtual environment. Hand in hand with the ever-increasing reach of the Internet, the digital and the virtual, go concerns about trust. In (...)
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  34. Trust and Virtual Worlds: Contemporary Perspectives.Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.) - 2011 - Peter Lang.
    Trust is essential to human society and the good life. At the same time, citizens of developed countries spend more and more time in virtual environments. This collection asks how far virtual environments, especially those affiliated with -Web 2.0-, challenge and foster trust? <BR> The book's early chapters establish historical, linguistic, and philosophical foundations for key concepts of trust, embodiment, virtuality, and virtual worlds. Four philosophers then analyze how trust - historically interwoven with embodied co-presence - may be enhanced through (...)
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  35. Beyond Good and Evil? Morality in Video Games.Geert Gooskens - 2011 - Philosophical Writings (1):37-44.
  36. Virtual Reality'and 'Virtual Actuality.Marianne Richter - 2011 - In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust and Virtual Worlds. Peter Lang.
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  37. My Avatar, My Self: Virtual Harm and Attachment.Jessica Wolfendale - 2007 - Ethics and Information Technology 9 (2):111-119.
    Multi-user online environments involve millions of participants world-wide. In these online communities participants can use their online personas – avatars – to chat, fight, make friends, have sex, kill monsters and even get married. Unfortunately participants can also use their avatars to stalk, kill, sexually assault, steal from and torture each other. Despite attempts to minimise the likelihood of interpersonal virtual harm, programmers cannot remove all possibility of online deviant behaviour. Participants are often greatly distressed when their avatars are harmed (...)
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  38. Virtual Reality, Ontology, and Value.Norman Mooradian - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (5):673-690.
  39. Trusting Virtual Trust.Paul B. de Laat - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):167-180.
    Can trust evolve on the Internet between virtual strangers? Recently, Pettit answered this question in the negative. Focusing on trust in the sense of ‘dynamic, interactive, and trusting’ reliance on other people, he distinguishes between two forms of trust: primary trust rests on the belief that the other is trustworthy, while the more subtle secondary kind of trust is premised on the belief that the other cherishes one’s esteem, and will, therefore, reply to an act of trust in kind (‘trust-responsiveness’). (...)
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  40. At the Interface: Theology and Virtual Reality, by Sr. Mary Timothy Prokes.Louise A. Mitchell - 2005 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5 (4):851-854.
  41. Virtual Alterity and the Reformatting of Ethics.David Gunkel & Debra Hawhee - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3-4):173-193.
    This article seeks to reconsider how traditional notions of ethics-ethics that privilege reason, truth, meaning, and a fixed conception of "the human"-are upended by digital technology, cybernetics, and virtual reality. We argue that prevailing ethical systems are incompatible with the way technology refigures the concepts and practices of identity, meaning, truth, and finally, communication. The article examines how both ethics and technology repurpose the liberal humanist subject even as they render such a subject untenable. Such an impasse reformats the question (...)
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  42. Continuities and Discontinuities in Ethical Reflections on Digital Virtual Reality.Peter Horsfield - 2003 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3-4):155-172.
    This article considers the ethical implications of digital virtual reality (DVR) within the context of the place of virtual reality in general in human life and development. This is elaborated through a comparative analysis of the continuity and discontinuity between virtual reality in other mediated forms and DVR. The important role played by virtual reality in human creativity and adaptation sets the context for considering the ethics of DVR in 4 main areas: epistemological questions, questions of distraction and displacement, the (...)
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  43. Process and (Virtual) Reality: Thoughts on Technology and Value.Peter Limper - 2002 - Process Studies 31 (1):130-145.
  44. A Further Analysis of the Ethics of Representation in Virtual Reality: Multi-User Environments. [REVIEW]Paul J. Ford - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):113-121.
    This is a follow-up article toPhilip Brey's ``The ethics of representation andaction in Virtual Reality'' (published in thisjournal in January 1999). Brey's call for moreanalysis of ethical issues of virtual reality(VR) is continued by further analyzing issuesin a specialized domain of VR – namelymulti-user environments. Several elements ofBrey's article are critiqued in order to givemore context and a framework for discussion.Issues surrounding representations ofcharacters in multi-user virtual realities aresurveyed in order to focus attention on theimportance of additional discussion andanalysis of (...)
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  45. Tutto Doppio: Mondi Virtuali E Clonazione Umana.Marcello Monaldi - 2001 - Guida.
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  46. Virtual Shifts in Disabling Realities: Disability, Computer-Mediated Environments, and Selves.Paul Jason Ford - 2000 - Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
    The development of multi-user, three-dimensional, graphical, persistent, synchronous, computer environments---such as multi-user virtual realities---has raised a variety of difficult ethical problems. These issues include tensions between virtual and real communities, good ways of representing oneself and one's environment, and balancing design values, appropriate behavior and social impacts. In order to have good policies, appropriate use, and quality development for these environments, we must explore both their technological and moral aspects. We must not take for granted the nature of either electronic (...)
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  47. Surviving the Age of Virtual Reality.Thomas Langan - 2000 - University of Missouri.
    As the technological phenomenon known as the worldwide web permeates civilization, it creates some cultures and destroys others. In this pioneering book, philosopher Thomas Langan explores "virtual reality"Can inherently contradictory phrase"and the effects of technology on our very being. In our present-day high- technology environment, making simple, everyday decisions is difficult because the virtual world we've created doesn't necessarily operate according to the old "common sense." To retain our intellectual fitness, we must, Langan argues, consider these essential questions: If virtual (...)
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  48. Reality, Sex, and Cyberspace.P. D. Magnus - 2000 - In MacHack conference proceedings.
    Typical discussions of virtual reality (VR) fixate on technology for providing sensory stimulation of a certain kind. They thus fail to understand reality as the place wherein we live and work, misunderstanding it instead as merely a sort of presentation. The first half of the paper examines popular conceptions of VR. The most common conception is a shallow one according to which VR is a matter of simulating appearances. Yet there is, even in popular depictions, a second, more subtle conception (...)
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  49. Innovative Simulations for Assessing Professional Competence: From Paper and Pencil to Virtual Reality.S. Pearson - 2000 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 12 (4):102-103.
  50. The Ethics of Representation and Action in Virtual Reality.Philip Brey - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):5-14.
    This essay addresses ethical aspects of the design and use of virtual reality (VR) systems, focusing on the behavioral options made available in such systems and the manner in which reality is represented or simulated in them. An assessment is made of the morality of immoral behavior in virtual reality, and of the virtual modeling of such behavior. Thereafter, the ethical aspects of misrepresentation and biased representation in VR applications are discussed.
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