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  1. Division and Animal Sacrifice in Plato’s Statesman.Freya Mobus & Justin Vlasits - forthcoming - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental.
    In the Statesman (287c3-5), Plato proposes that the philosophical divider should divide analogously to how the butcher divides a sacrificial animal. According to the common interpretation, the example of animal sacrifice illustrates that we should “cut off limbs” (kata mele), that is, divide non-dichotomously into functional parts of a living whole. We argue that this interpretation is historically inaccurate and philosophically problematic: it relies on an inaccurate understanding of sacrificial butchery and leads to textual puzzles. Against the common interpretation, we (...)
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  2. Division, Syllogistic, and Science in Prior Analytics I.31.Justin Vlasits - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    In the first book of the Prior Analytics, Aristotle sets out, for the first time in Greek philosophy, a logical system. It consists of a deductive system (I.4-22), meta-logical results (I.23-26), and a method for finding and giving deductions (I.27-29) that can apply in “any art or science whatsoever” (I.30). After this, Aristotle compares this method with Plato’s method of division, a procedure designed to find essences of natural kinds through systematic classification. This critical comparison in APr I.31 raises an (...)
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  3. Plato’s Scientific Feminism: Collection and Division in Republic V’s "First Wave".John Proios & Rachana Kamtekar - 2024 - In Sara Brill & Catherine McKeen (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Women and Ancient Greek Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 217-234.
    In Plato’s Republic, Socrates argues that in the ideal city women and men in the guardian class should receive the same education (451e–52a, 456d–57a) and do the same work (453b–56b); indeed, Socrates emphasizes that the highest office in the ideal city, of philosopher-rulers, will include philosopher-queens and not just philosopher-kings (540c). Socrates’ conclusions might be thought to recognize equality as a value, but in this chapter, we argue that the basis for assigning men and women the same work is a (...)
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  4. The Puzzle of the Sophist.Justin Vlasits - 2023 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 105 (3):359-387.
    The many definitions of sophistry at the beginning of Plato’s Sophist have puzzled scholars just as much as they puzzled the dialogue’s main speakers: the Visitor from Elea and Theaetetus. The aim of this paper is to give an account of that puzzlement. This puzzlement, it is argued, stems not from a logical or epistemological problem, but from the metaphysical problem that, given the multiplicity of accounts, the interlocutors do not know what the sophist essentially is. It transpires that, in (...)
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  5. Plato on Natural Kinds: The Promethean Method of the Philebus.John D. Proios - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (2):305-327.
    Plato’s invention of the metaphor of carving the world by the joints gives him a privileged place in the history of natural kind theory in philosophy and science; he is often understood to present a paradigmatic but antiquated view of natural kinds as possessing eternal, immutable, necessary essences. Yet, I highlight that, as a point of distinction from contemporary views about natural kinds, Plato subscribes to an intelligent-design, teleological framework, in which the natural world is the product of craft and, (...)
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  6. On Diairesis, Parallel Division, and Chiasmus: Plato’s and Aristotle’s Methods of Division.Xin Liu - 2021 - Plato Journal 22.
    In this paper, I articulate three kinds of division that Plato and Aristotle acknowledge to be proper, valid methods of division, namely, diairesis, parallel division, and chiasmus. I attempt to explain the relationship among the three kinds of division, namely, how they transform from one to another. Starting with Plato’s division of constitution in the Statesman, I illuminate that from ostensible diairesis emerges a parallel division, and the parallel division causes a cross-division to occur. Thus, the sixfold division of constitution (...)
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  7. What the forms are not: Plato on conceptualism in Parmenides 132b–c.Sosseh Assaturian - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (2):353-368.
    Conceptualism—the view that universals are mental entities without an external, independent, or substantial reality—has enjoyed popularity at various points throughout the history of philosophy. While Plato’s Theory of Forms is not a conceptualist theory of universals, we find at Parmenides 132b–c the startling conceptualist suggestion from a young Socrates that each Form might be a noēma, or a mental entity. This suggestion and Parmenides’ cryptic objections to it have been overshadowed by their placement directly after the notoriously difficult Third Man (...)
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  8. Platonic Epogōgē and the “Purification” of the Method of Collection.Holly G. Moore - 2019 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (2):353-364.
    Despite Aristotle’s claim in Topics I that all dialectical argument is either syllogism or epagōgē, modern scholars have largely neglected to assess the role of epagōgē in Platonic dialectic. Though epagōgē has no technical use in Plato, I argue that the method of collection (which, along with division (diairēsis), is central to many of the dialogues’ accounts of dialectic) functions as the Platonic predecessor to Aristotelian epagōgē. An analysis of passages from the Sophist and Statesman suggests that collection is a (...)
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  9. The Science of Philosophy: Discourse and Deception in Plato’s Sophist.Pettersson Olof - 2018 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (2):221-237.
    At 252e1 to 253c9 in Plato’s Sophist, the Eleatic Visitor explains why philosophy is a science. Like the art of grammar, philosophical knowledge corresponds to a generic structure of discrete kinds and is acquired by systematic analysis of how these kinds intermingle. In the literature, the Visitor’s science is either understood as an expression of a mature and authentic platonic metaphysics, or as a sophisticated illusion staged to illustrate the seductive lure of sophistic deception. By showing how the Visitor’s account (...)
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  10. Ramism.Andrea Strazzoni - 2017 - Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy.
    The main aim of the French logician and philosopher Petrus Ramus was to provide a method of teaching the liberal arts enabling the completion of the undergraduate program of studies in 7 years. This method was based on a new logic, in which the complex structure of Aristotle’s Organon and of the Summulae logicales of Peter of Spain is reduced to two main doctrines: the invention of arguments, by which it is possible to find the notions for reasoning and disputing (...)
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  11. Platonic Division and the Origins of Aristotelian Logic.Justin Vlasits - 2017 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    Aristotle's syllogistic theory, as developed in his Prior Analytics, is often regarded as the birth of logic in Western philosophy. Over the past century, scholars have tried to identify important precursors to this theory. I argue that Platonic division, a method which aims to give accounts of essences of natural kinds by progressively narrowing down from a genus, influenced Aristotle's logical theory in a number of crucial respects. To see exactly how, I analyze the method of division as it was (...)
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  12. Animal Sacrifice in Plato's Later Methodology.Holly Moore - 2015 - In Jeremy Bell, Michael Naas & Thomas Patrick Oates (eds.), Plato's Animals: Gadflies, Horses, Swans, and Other Philosophical Beasts. Indianapolis, IN, USA: pp. 179-192.
    In both the Phaedrus and Statesman dialogues, the dialectician's method of division is likened to the butchery of sacrificial animals. Interpreting the significance of this metaphor by analyzing ancient Greek sacrificial practice, this essay argues that, despite the ubiquity of the method of division in these later dialogues, Plato is there stressing the logical priority of the method of collection, division's dialectical twin. Although Plato prioritizes the method of collection, the author further argues that, through a kind of 'domestication' of (...)
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  13. Division as a Method in Plato.Hallvard Fossheim - 2012 - In Jakob Leth Fink (ed.), The development of dialectic from Plato to Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  14. Dialectic as inter-personal activity: Self-refutation and dialectic in Plato and Aristotle / Luca Castagnoli ; The role of the respondent in Plato and Aristotle / Marja-Liisa Kakkuri-Knuuttila ; Division as a method in Plato.Hallvard Fossheim - 2012 - In Jakob Leth Fink (ed.), The development of dialectic from Plato to Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  15. The Eleatic Visitor's Method of Division.Laura Grams - 2012 - Apeiron 45 (2):130-156.
  16. «Topos» en question dans l'introduction du Sophiste.Nathalie Nercam - 2012 - Plato Journal 12.
    Au début du Sophiste, Socrate demande au visiteur éléate ce qu’ont pensé des genres philosophe, sophiste et politique, « ceux » qui sont de ce lieu-là ». L’article a pour but d’éclairer cette dernière expression et en particulier son mot clef « topos ». Il est montré que les significations de ce terme, dans son contexte, sont multiples et que cette diversité, loin d’apporter la confusion, permet au contraire et précisément d’ouvrir les diverses perspectives du dialogue. At the beginning of (...)
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  17. A Sharp Eye for Kinds: Collection and Division in Plato's Late Dialogues.Devin Henry - 2011 - In Michael Frede, James V. Allen, Eyjólfur Kjalar Emilsson, Wolfgang-Rainer Mann & Benjamin Morison (eds.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 229-55.
    This paper focuses on two methodological questions that arise from Plato’s account of collection and division. First, what place does the method of collection and division occupy in Plato’s account of philosophical inquiry? Second, do collection and division in fact constitute a formal “method” (as most scholars assume) or are they simply informal techniques that the philosopher has in her toolkit for accomplishing different philosophical tasks? I argue that Plato sees collection and division as useful tools for achieving two distinct (...)
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  18. Platons Sophistes: ein kritischer Kommentar.Gustav Adolf Seeck - 2011 - Munchen: C.H. Beck.
    In Platons Dialog Sophistes wird nach der Definition des Sophisten gefragt; das führt zum Begriff des Nichtseienden und schließlich unter dem Stichwort 'Dialektik' auf die Frage nach dem Seienden. Daß Platon dabei von der sophistischen Methode ausgeht, das Seiende als bloße Spitze einer Begriffspyramide zu deuten, haben seine Interpreten seit jeher als irgendwie widersprüchlich empfunden. Dieser Kommentar ist für Leser gedacht, die bereit sind, den Sophistes genau zu studieren, aber dabei einen Begleiter haben möchten, der ihnen in möglichst direkter und (...)
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  19. Plato’s Definition(s) of Sophistry.Samuel C. Rickless - 2010 - Ancient Philosophy 30 (2):289-298.
  20. Method and metaphysics in Plato's sophist and statesman.Mary Louise Gill - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Sophist and Statesman are late Platonic dialogues, whose relative dates are established by their stylistic similarity to the Laws, a work that was apparently still “on the wax” at the time of Plato's death (Diogenes Laertius III.37). These dialogues are important in exhibiting Plato'sviews on method and metaphysics after he criticized his own most famous contribution to the history of philosophy, the theory of separate, immaterial forms, in the Parmenides. The Statesman also offers a transitional statement of Plato's political (...)
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  21. Plato and Aristotle on Universals and Definition by Division.Laura Castelli - 2007 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 18:21-35.
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  22. The Method of Division and the Division of the Phaedrus.Kenneth Dorter - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):259-273.
  23. Paradigm and diairesis: a response to M. L. Gill's 'Models in PLato's Sophist and Statesman'.Dimitri El Murr - 2006 - Plato Journal 6.
  24. Metaphysics and Method in Plato's Statesman.Kenneth M. Sayre - 2006 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    At the beginning of his Metaphysics, Aristotle attributed several strange-sounding theses to Plato. Generations of Plato scholars have assumed that these could not be found in the dialogues. In heated arguments, they have debated the significance of these claims, some arguing that they constituted an 'unwritten teaching' and others maintaining that Aristotle was mistaken in attributing them to Plato. In a prior book-length study on Plato's late ontology, Kenneth M. Sayre demonstrated that, despite differences in terminology, these claims correspond to (...)
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  25. Collecting the Letters.Stephen Menn - 1998 - Phronesis 43 (4):291 - 305.
    In this paper I reexamine Plato's method of collection and division, and specifically of collection. If collection and division are simply methods for mapping out genus-species trees, then it is hard to understand why Plato is so excited about them. But a close study of Plato's examples shows that these methods are something broader, and shows why Plato would regard collection as an important tool for coming to know "elements" in any domain of inquiry. In the first section I focus (...)
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  26. Plato and Aristotle on Division and Definition.Marguerite Deslauriers - 1990 - Ancient Philosophy 10 (2):203-219.
  27. Colloquium 9.Mitchell Miller - 1990 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 6 (1):323-359.
    A close exegesis of the principles of the so-called "god-given method" of dialectic in the Philebus (16bff., 23cff.) and an account of the division of the fifteen kinds of art that "care" for the well-formed city in the Statesman (287bff., 303cff.). I show how this division conforms to and, so, illustrates the "god-given method.".
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  28. Plato's Stranger Harvey Ronald Scodel: Diaeresis and Myth in Plato's Statesman. (Hypomnemata, 85.) Pp. 172. Göttingen and Zörich: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1987. Paper, DM 44. [REVIEW]Christopher Gill - 1988 - The Classical Review 38 (02):225-226.
  29. Plato on kinds of animals.David B. Kitts - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):315-328.
    Some biologists and philosophers of biology have seen in Plato an especially objectionable version of essentialism or topology. Although kinds of animals are mentioned in almost all of Plato's dialogues, in none of them is there an explicity stated doctrine of animal kinds. An examination of the dialogues has, moreover, failed to reveal some implicit but consistent and unambiguous view of kinds that Plato might have held.
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  30. Diaeresis and Myth in Plato's Statesman.Harvey Ronald Scodel - 1987 - Vandehoeck & Rupprecht.
  31. The Method of Collection and Division in Plato's Later Dialogues: "Phaedrus", "Sophist", "Statesman".Catherine Marie Culver - 1986 - Dissertation, The Florida State University
    This is part one of an examination of Plato's Method of Collection and Division, a method which Plato describes in the later dialogues as the method of dialectic. Included are chapters on the Phaedrus, Sophist and Statesman as well as a separate survey of the passages in those dialogues in which the method is mentioned. Questions concerning the requirements for making a collection or a division and the connection between collections and division are addressed. Also included is discussion of the (...)
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  32. The Philosopher in Plato’s Statesman. [REVIEW]Kenneth Seeskin - 1984 - Ancient Philosophy 4 (2):234-237.
  33. Forms and first principles.Julia Annas - 1974 - Phronesis 19 (3):257-283.
  34. Plato's Method of Division.S. Marc Cohen - 1973 - In J. M. E. Moravcsik (ed.), Patterns in Plato's Thought. Reidel. pp. 181--191.
    Critical discussion of J.M.E. Moravcsik's paper on Plato's method of division.
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  35. The anatomy of Plato's divisions.J. M. E. Moravcsik - 1973 - In Richard Rorty, Alexander P. D. Mourelatos & Edward N. Lee (eds.), Exegesis and argument. Studies in Greek philosophy presented to Gregory Vlastos. Phronesis. Assen, van Gorcum. pp. 324-348.
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  36. Plato’s Analytic Method . By Kenneth M. Sayre . (Chicago and London : University of Chicago Press. 1969. Pp. xi + 250. Price £4.40). [REVIEW]R. C. Cross - 1971 - Philosophical Quarterly 21 (84):261-262.
  37. Plato's Analytic Method.Kenneth M. Sayre - 1969 - Chicago,: University of Chicago Press.
    Applying the analytical methods of modern logic to problems of interpretation in Plato, the author traces the development of Plato's analytic method from the crude form expressed in the Phaedo to the considerably more sophisticated and powerful techniques practiced in the later methodological dialogues.
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  38. Division and its Relation to Dialectic and Ontology in Plato.J. R. Trevaskis - 1967 - Phronesis 12 (1):118-129.
  39. Plato and Diaeresis.Joseph T. Clark - 1952 - Philosophical Studies of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 3:4-6.
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  40. Plato's Description of Division.A. C. Lloyd - 1952 - Classical Quarterly 2 (1-2):105-.
    There are many passages in Plato which look as if they alluded to well-worn practices, discussions, or lessons in the Academy. As is natural with allusions, they are often marked by a puzzling brevity or oddity of expression. One need not assume that they are always conscious allusions; for every writer has moments of obscurity which are due not so much to his conclusions as to his reaching them along lines that have long been familiar to Mm. To appreciate his (...)
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